This paper defines “token identity” theory and compares it to the theory of “dualism”.
This paper states that “identity theory” claims that each and every type of mental state corresponds directly to a physical state or occurrence within the brain; but “token identity” theory does not say that the tokens share any physical properties. The author declares that the theory of dualism claims that each mental token is entirely non-physical despite the fact that it appears to be connected to the body. The paper concludes that “identity theory” and materialism are more probable than “dualism”.
“Now that the two opposing theories of identity theory and dualism have been defined, the various arguments for the theories can be examined. To begin with I will argue for identity theory, using an argument concerning our physical origins and evolutionary history. When a human being is conceived as a fertilized ovum, it begins life as a genetically programmed single-celled collection of molecules. The further it develops, the more molecules are added and the larger it becomes; as the cells divide over and over, the structure and amalgamation of each molecule that is added is controlled by information present in the DNA in the cell nucleus.”