a. Kant believed that our desires and emotional are “categorically imperative” (which means they are conscience driven and from duty). These actions must be universal for them to be categorized as moral or immoral. He believes that we are driven by our morality and are not guided by our need for reward but the action we take will fulfill a duty (the sense or right or wrong). It shouldn’t matter if there is gratification, if there is/is not pleasure or if our desires or emotions are pacified or not. He believes that morals are greater than emotions and desires. Kant believes knowledge does not come from experience but from our ability to reason and see the bigger picture and decide what is morally agreeable to others
b. Mill believed that the utilitarian theory helped explain morality. He pointed out that usefulness/ moral value of a deed is determined by the pleasure or satisfaction that has resulted from the consequence of that action. He felt that the search for happiness and pleasure is a direct result of the action taken and should always be a factor for doing something i.e. in the quest of happiness the result of the action should generally leave the biggest number of people happy and harmonious. He believes desires and morals are greater than morals alone and that people should not be held accountable for their behaviors but that their emotions should.