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Genghis Khan and Mongolian Empire Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan and Mongolian Empire
Genghis Khan, who was acknowledged and accepted by all Mongolian people to rule the Mongolian Empire during AD 13-14. Mongolian Empire is well-known as the largest continuous empire that emerged in the central of Asian continent. Because of the good governance by Genghis Khan, Mongolian Empire was able to stretch its territory and dominance to Eastern Europe reaching Japan before extending its empire to Siberia in the eastern follow by stretching into India and Iran. Mongolian Empire was known as the nomadic tribe which was totally governed and led by Genghis Khan before transcending his power to the next successors. The main reason why Genghis Khan made his Mongolian Empire much more famous because he was able to dominate over many continents as well as to make the huge progress in trade, technology, and ideology making it prevalent through Eurasia (Europe-Asia). In order to get insight into the formation and continuity and also benefit of Mongolian Empire under the lead of Genghis Khan, this literature intends to go over the history of pre-empire context of Mongolian Empire, the beginning of the famous leader, Genghis Khan, the early organization of Mongolian Empire, the passing away of Genghis Khan before Mongolian Empire stretching into many continents, including Asia and Europe, and also its military organization and society of Mongolian Empire ever existing.
Going over the pre-empire context of Mongolia, Since the 10th century, Loa dynasty had been able to totally manipulate the connecting territories of Mongolia, Manchuria, and some areas of northern China. However, later on in 1125, Lao dynasty was challenged by Jin dynasty, which was determined to take over Lao dynasty in Mongolia with his best struggle. Subsequently, in the 1330s, the Golden King ruled by Jin dynasty was finally able to defy Khamag Mongol confederation which was governed by the grandfather of Genghis Khan, named Khabul Khan. There were five tribal confederations, which are Keraites, Khamag Mongol, Naiman, Megris, and Tatar, being successful in taking control over Mongolian plateau. This was under the contribution of Jin emperors who was able to pose the great disputes between Mongols and Tatar with an aim to make the nomadic tribes deviated and distracted from one another. Later on, Tatar was crooked by Ambaghai Khan, the successor of Jin empire, which resulted in the retribution of Mongols through invading the frontiers, ending up with the failure of Jurchen assault and invasion which happened in 1143. Later on, the policy of Jin dynasty was changed by reaching the agreement with Mongols by signing the peace treaty. This resulted in the re-attack of Mongols over Tatar, which finally ended up with the hostilities throughout the period.
When it comes to the genesis of Genghis Khan, Mongol chieftain gave birth to this greatest leader of Mongolian Empire. During his childhood, Genghis Khan was raised and grown up in the deserted family. When Genghis Khan became grown up, he was recruited to work with Toghrul Khan, who was the most dominant and potential leader during that time. Wang Khan was picked by Temujin to battle in the war together. Afterwards, Wang Khan was finally defeated by Temujin, which led to make him change his name as Genghis Khan. With his talent in governance, Genghis Khan was able to expand Mongolian Empire by himself collaborating with relatives. Genghis Khan was renowned by designing and taking effect of the law called the Great Yasa, which then accepted by the generation of Mogols. This new law known as the Great Yasa manipulated by Genghis Khan was responsible for taxations over the goods that were traded among Mongolian merchants during that time. With an aim for referring to the Mongolic speaking tribes totally controlled by Genghis Khan, Mongol was prevalently used and well-known since then. Temujin or Genghis Khan was renowned for launching the policy distributing all spoils to all of the families and his worriers instead of giving to the aristocrats as traditional (Micro History, 2015). He was also obstructive to cheating and exploiting his enemies by avoiding looting without his permission. Genghis Khan was also responsible for setting Khan title as the new policy which was the cause of conflict with Genghis Khan’s uncle. This legitimate heir however saw Genghis Khan as the disrespectful usurper. This legitimate heir was also responsible for exploding the war with Genghis Khan due to the serious controversy and conflict spreading to other associates before Genghis Khan’s allegiance was broken by the Mongols who once use to be his allies.
Turning to look over the early organization of Mongolian Empire under the lead of Genghis Khan, lots of innovative approaches for governing the military forces and the army were introduced by Genghis Khan. His initial organization was aimed at dividing decimal subsections of abans, zuuns, and Mingghants (Andrews, E, 2014). During his early organization, Genghis Khan was reluctant to give the rewards to whoever gives loyalty and sacrifice to him by endowing those with higher status and position in addition to giving them to become the head of his military units as well as of household so that they could become the allies of Genghis Khan despite of their coming from very low-ranked family status. More interestingly, Genghis Khan initiated to take the new laws and policies into effect, which was known as Ikh Zasag or Yassa, which was responsible for taking effects on daily lives of Mongolian people as well as on the political affairs of the nomadic Mongolians during that period of time. Moreover, Genghis Khan was renowned for initiating to conquer selling Mongolian females as well as fighting against the criminals in Mongolian Empire along with banning hinting animals when their breeding seasons come during his reign. With the assignment of Genghis Khan, Mongolian Empire was kept historical records by Shigi- Khuthugh whom Khan assigned to perform keeping the records of Mongolian Empire. Genghis Khan had the laws put into effects on foods, family, and the military; besides, he intended to have religion announced and decreed to be freedom while giving full contribution to trades both domestically and internationally. Because of his policy during his early organization, the beneficiaries are poor people and the clergy who were exempted from taxation. Additionally, Genghis Khan was responsible for supporting literacy for all Mongolian people by opting for Uyghur script (Kuddus, I, 2016).
Taking into consideration his expansion of Mongolian Empire into other continents, this began with Genghis Khan having the great conflicts with Jin Empire of Jurchens. Besides, Genghis Khan had to cope with the bipolar power of Tibet and Khara Khitai (New World Encyclopedia, n.d). It was the renown of Genghis Khan to push Mongolian Empire invading into central Asia, which was responsible for destroying Transoxiana and Persin in the eastern parts. Shortly afterGenghis Khan passed away, he had Mongolian Empire given to his successors, as his sons and his family. This allowed the entire imperial family of Genghis Khan to possess the joint property of Mongolian Empire, which ten led to the emergence of Mongol aristocracy. When Gerghis Khan passed away in 1227, his sons and his family who possessed Mongolian Empire as the sections, dispatched military force to occupy and battle many other nations. In 1246, Mongolian army invaded to battle Italia by stationing outside the war of the country before the spread of epidemics within this country. This led to many thousand deaths of Mongolian soldiers who then was fired as the bullet to attack the city of caffa Italy. After being successful in attacking and occupying Italy, the Mongolian troop under the lead of Genghis Khan moved his Mongolian army to Mediterranean Sea in the Eastern Europe with the same strategic war as plague. With his cruel strategy, more than 25 million people came down with the plague caused by the military assault of Mongolian troop.
Another achievement of Mongolia Empire was the invasion into Russian and China by the successors of Genghis Khan. This happened after the death of Genghis Khan’s son, which led the Mongol to withdraw their military troop from Southern China despite some of Mongolian trop still battering Tibet. In 1237, Mongolan troop began to battle Ryazan with three consecutive days of attacks. Finally, the city of Ryazan and their people were seized and captures by Mongolian troops and army, of which all Kievan fell victims to Mogolian army as the Asian invaders. After that, Mongolian troop continued to battle at Batu and Subutai. During the attack on Russia, Mongolian troops destroyed the capital city of Russia together with killing lots of their people. With its repercussion, the Mongolian army was ongoing to attack Poland and Hungary subsequently. After succeeding in defeating Poland and Hungary, Mongolian troop continued to attack Bohemia, Serbia, and Babenberg Australia before approaching into Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Mongolian army under the lead of Genghis Khan’s successors continued to battle northern Albania and Vienna in 1241. Furthermore, Mongolian army still moved to battle and invade into the Middle East and South China in order to expand its territories following stabilizing in finance of the country.


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A personal experience that I can relate to is a situation where I noticed a drunken doctor gave up on taking care of a patient and requested for another doctor to help out the scenario on his presence

Category : Articles

A personal experience that I can relate to is a situation where I noticed a drunken doctor gave up on taking care of a patient and requested for another doctor to help out the scenario on his presence. Due to his knowledge about the codes of conduct that should be employed in the nursing care, he could not breach the act of registered nursing (A Cashin – ?2017) that put much weight on the value of quality. From this scenario, I will grow up knowing that the code of ethics and conduct is a great measure of maturity into the nursing fraternity.
Conclusion
Therefore, I will avoid all aspects that will lead me into jeopardizing the required ethics and legal systems of the nursing professionalism (Cusack et al, 2013) therefore, complying with any reporting obligations that apply to practice and seeking advice from the boards or professional indemnity insurer if practitioners are unsure about their obligations. I have given appropriate intelligent recommendation to encourage the understudy and furthermore said in the event that one works under the impact of medications or liquor, it goes under required detailing obligation of the individual to report it to the enlisted expert under the National Law.


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UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURE

Category : Articles

UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURE?TI
FACULTATEA DE ADMINISTRA?IE ?I AFACERI

INSTRUMENTE DE POLITICI PUBLICE
Student: Petria Elena-Denisa
Master: A.P.P.U.E.

Bucure?ti
2017-2018

Cuprins:
ConcluziiBibliografieInstrumentele de politici publice se refer? la modalit??ile utilizate pentru a aplica în practic? alternativele alese. În aceast? etapa, no?iunea de intrumente de politici publice este prezent? sub form? de concept. Weimer ?i Vining definesc intrumentele drept politici generice, adic? “tipuri variate de ac?iuni prin care factorii de decizie din structurile guvernamentale se adreseaz? problemelor de politici publice” ?i care reprezint? numeroase stategii de abordare a problemei identificate.
Pentru anali?tii politicilor publice, cuno?terea unui num?r mare dintre aceste strategii este util? deorece problemele cu care se confrunt? sectorul public sunt complexe. Cu cât intrumentele cunoscute sunt mai numeroase, cu atât ?an?a actorilor guvernamentali de a rezolva o problem? este mai mare. Astfel, analistul poate sa compare diversele strategii disponibile pentru a rezolva problema cu care se confrunt?.
Michael Howlett define?te intrumentele de politic? public? ca fiind “o serie de tehnici specific utilizate de guvern?mânt ca o modalitate de a transfera anumite resurse cu scopul încuraj?rii unor actori în realizarea anumitor activit??i dorite de c?tre guvern?mânt.”
„Diferite intrumente de politic? public? pot avea un grad diferit de eficien??, echitate, legitimitate ?i suport politic, ceea ce influen?eaz? gradul în care ele pot fi aplicate în diferitele situa?ii.” În plus normele culturale ?i angajamentele diferitelor institu?ii pot s? ofere mai mult? legitimitate unor intrumente de politic? public? decât altora.

Exist? o literature bogat? referitoare la intrumentele politicilior publice ?i au fost presupuse difewrite clasific?ri ale acestora. Criteriile depind de preferin?ele ?i formarea profesional? a autorilor. Important? este cuno?terea avantajelor ?i a dezavantajelor intrumentelor din procesele de politici publice pentru alegerea setului de intrumente potrivite rezolv?rii unei probleme.

O prim? clasificare a fost propus? de Weimer ?i Vining, care au propus împ?r?irea intrumentelor de policiti publice în cinci categorii generale David Weimer , Aidan Vining, 1989:
Instrumente care duc la eliberarea, facilitate ?i simularea pie?ei. Aceste intrumente sunt aplicate pentru a utiliza din plin avantajele oferite de mecanismele pie?ei. Aceast? categorie se refer? la eliberarea pie?ei prin îndep?rtarea sac?iunilor asociate unor anumite tipuri de comportament, facilitate pie?ei care se refer? la alocarea prin intermediul dreptului de proprietate ?i crearea de noi bunuri care s? poat? fi schimbate prin intermediul mecanismelor de pia??, ?i simularea pie?ei prin licita?ii.

Utilizarea taxelor ?i subven?iilor în special ca mecanisme de influen?are a comportamentului.

Acte normative. Aceste sunt intrumentele cu cel mai ridicat nivel de intruziune din partea statului, ?i se impart în dou? categorii:
Legisla?ia cadru;
Reglement?rile.

Furnizarea de bunuri prin alte mecanisme decât ale pie?ei. Se refer? la furnizarea de bunuri ?i servicii direct de c?tre structurile guvernamentale, prin furnizarea direct de c?tre institu?iile publice, prin intermediul agen?iilor independente ?i, în final, prin subcontractare.

Furnizarea de protec?ie prin intermediul asigur?rii obligatorii sau subven?ionate ?i prin constituirea de rezerve de stat, asisten?? de tranzi?ie sau ajutoare financiare directe.

O alt? clasificare a fost propus? de c?tre Howlett ?i Ramesh utilizând drept criteriu nivelul implic?rii statului Howlett ?i Ramesh, 1995. Pe o scar? de la minim la maxim au fost propuse urm?toarele instrumente:
Intrumente cu nivel minim de implicare a statului:
Familia ?i comunitatea;
Organiza?iile non-guvernamentale;
Pia?a.

Intrumente cu nivel maxim de implicare a statului:
Legisla?ia;
Furnizarea direct?;
Companiile publice.

Instrumente cu nivel mediu de implicare a statului:
Companiile de informare ?i convingere;
Taxele ?i subven?iile;
Licita?iile ale dreptului de proprietate.

Intrumente cu nivel minim de implicare a statului
Aceste intrumente presupune un nivel minim de implicare din partea structurilor guvernamentale sau o lips? de implicare. Guvernul poate s? decid? c? o problem? poate fi cel mai bine solu?ionat? de c?tre pia?a privat? sau de c?tre familie ?i în consecin?? s? nu intervin? în rezolvarea acesteia. Chiar dac? aceste intrumente sunt folosite pe o scar? mica, importan?a lor este în cre?tere în contextul extinderii procesului de privatizare ?i a importan?ei pe care pia?a privat? în furnizarea anumitor bunuri.

Intrumentele cu un nivel minim de implicare a statului sunt:
Familia ?i comunitateaFamilia ?i comunitatea pot rezolva multe probleme care ?in de domeniul protec?iei sociale sau al educa?iei. Intitu?iile publice pot decide s? m?reasc? rolul acestui instrument prin stoparea furniz?rii unui serviciu în speran?a c? familia sau comunitatea va prelua prestarea acestuia. Chiar dac? acest instrument nu implic? costuri, el nu poate fi folosit pentru solu?ionarea unor probleme complexe.
Organiza?iile non-guvernamentaleOrganiza?iile non-guvernamentale se pot implica în rezolvarea problemelor din cadrul unei socient??i prin preluarea furniz?rii unor bunuri sau servicii care în mod normal sunt prestate de c?tre sectorul public sau de cel privat. Domeniile în care aceste organiza?ii î?i desf??oar? activitatea sunt domeniul s?n?t??ii, al educa?iei sau cel social. Organiza?iile non-guvernamentale sunt instrumente de politic? care ofer? rapiditate ?i flexibilitate ridicat? de r?spuns în situa?ii de criz?. Ele reprezint? un instrument care rezolv? problemele în mod echilibrat pentru c? se adreseaz? persoanelor în nevoi. Cu toate acestea, organiza?iile non-guvernamentale nu pot interveni în rezolvarea unor propleme sociale complexe.Pia?a private
Pia?a privat? reprezint? o modalitate eficient? de furnizare a celor mai multe bunuri private pentru c? asigur? c? eforturile sunt directionate numai supra acelor bunuri sau servicii care au valoare pentru socientate. Cu toate acestea, este un instrument inechitabil pentru c? ofer? bunuri ?i servicii numai celor care posed? resursele financiare pentru a pl?ti pentru bunul respectiv. Cu ajutorul acestor instrumente nu este posibil s? rezolv?m probleme complexe ?i nu de fiecare dat? sunt echitabile.

Intrumente cu nivel maxim de implicare a statului
Implic? un grad ridicat de coerci?ie din partea statului pentru a asigurarea comportamentului dorit. Acest lucru înseamn? c? guvernul, în exercitarea autorit??ii sale, poate impune cet??enilor s? aib? un anumit comportament, s? desf??oare anumite activit??i, poate s? înfiin?eze companii publice pentru realizarea unor activit??i economice dorite sau poate furnizare servicii prin intermediul aparatului administrativ.
Conform lui Howlett ?i Ramesh, intrumente cu nivel maxim de implicare a statului sunt:
Legisla?ia
Prin intermediul legisla?iei, guvernul prescrie un anumit comportament dorit institu?iilor (institu?ii publice sau private) ?i cet??enilor ?i instituie un sistem de justi?ie ?i de poli?ie în aplicarea legilor. Rolul legisla?iei este de a reglementa posibilele deficien?e care ar putea ap?rea ca urmare a modului de operare a for?elor pie?ei. Prin intermediul legisla?iei se stabilesc standardele de producere a unor bunuri si servicii, precum apa, colectarea de?eurilor, construirea locuin?elor. Legisla?ia economic? poate reglementa pre?urile, volumul produc?iei sau condi?iile de înfiin?are a unei firme. Legisla?ia în domeniul s?n?t??ii urm?re?te asigurarea siguran?ei în consumarea unor alimente, prevenirea r?spândirii unor boli.

Legisla?ia este considerat? un instrument eficient de politic? pentru c? permite o bun? coordonare a procesului de planificare, iar guvernul de?ine informa?ii pe baza c?rora poate s? prezic? comportamentul dorit în societate.

Folosirea legisla?iei ca intrument de politic? public? are ?i o serie de dezavantaje. Aceasta poate s? împiedice procesul de inovare a procesului tehnologic datorit? m?surilor de siguran?? impuse ?i a condi?iilor limitate de experimentare. Legisla?ia este un instrument inflexibil pentru c? nu poate fi adaptat? unor situa?ii particulare. De asemenea, poate promova ineficien?a economic? prin impunerea unor restric?ii privind desfa?urarea unor activit??i economice.

Companiile publice
O campanie este public? când exist? un nivel de proprietate de c?tre stat mai mare decât 51% ?i un anumit nivel de control din partea guvernului. În desf??urarea activit??ilor economice aceasta nu urm?re?te profitul, producerea bunurilor ?i folosirea în folosul popula?iei fiind mai important? decât ob?inerea unui profit.

Bunurile produse de companiile publice sunt bunuri publice, adic? bunuri importante pentru societate, dar care nu pot fi produse de pia?a privat? datorit? costurilor ridicate de produc?ie.
Campaniile publice pot deveni ineficiente datorit? pierderilor pe care le pot înregistra. Aceste pierderi sunt trecute pe facturile consumatorilor.

Furnizarea direct? a unir bunuri ?i servicii
Sectorul public poate îndeplini anumite sarcini, furnizând bunuri ?i servicii. De exemplu, guvernul asigur? ap?rarea na?ional? ?i rela?iile interna?ionale, serviciul de poli?ie ?i pompieri, asigur?rile sociale, educa?ia, îngrijirea parcurilor, a drumurilor publice, asigurarea s?n?t??ii popula?iei, realizarea recens?mântului popula?ie.

Pia?a pe care aceste bunuri ?i servicii sunt furnizate nu este supus? competi?iei ?i costurile de furnizare nu sunt supradimensionate, lucru pentru care contribuabilii trebuie s? pl?teasc?.

Instrumente cu nivel mediu de implicare a statului
Prin intermediul acestor intrumente se urm?re?te influen?area deciziilor diferi?ilor actori, dar în final decizia le apar?ine.Conform ?ui Howelett ?i Ramesh, instrumentele cu un nivel mediu de implicare a statului sunt: caampaniile de informare ?i convingere, taxele ?i subven?iile, licita?iile.Bibliografiehttp://www.insse.ro/cms/http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/mainGheorghe Cre?oiu, Viorel Cornescu, Ion Bucur (2011). Economie. Editura C.H. Beck, Bucuresti.


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Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among Singaporeans

Category : Articles

Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among Singaporeans, overtaking lung cancer with 30.6% of the total population being affected by the condition between the years 2011 to 2015. (REF1) The largest number of citizens who suffer from the disease belonged to those between the ages of 35 to 64, with 18.8% out of 100,000 from 2008 to 2012. (REF3) According to (REF4), within the year 2008 to 2012, colorectal cancer was the most rampant type of cancer occurring in men at 17.5% and 13.6% for women. The term ‘Colorectal’ is composed of the colon and rectum. Colorectal cancer begins from cells on the large intestines and can lead to blood in stools, abdominal cramps and erratic weight loss. (REF2) By being proactive and aware about the state of one’s health, the frequency of colorectal cancer occurring in Singaporeans can be reduced.

Having an unbalanced diet greatly increases the chance of contracting colorectal cancer. Research has shown that people who ingest food products with high-inflammatory values such as red meat, sweet liquids and processed food products had a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer as opposed to those with low-inflammatory diets. (REF5) An individual suffering from obesity may have other health conditions, such as diabetes, which might put them at greater risk of colorectal cancer. Other conditions such as hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which produces more insulin and sugar in the blood, create a conductive environment for the growth of cancer cells in the colon and rectum. (ref6) A person’s participation in physical activity too is directly linked to the risk level of colorectal cancer. In reference to (ref7), incorporating physical activity into free periods of time during the day lowers the risk of colorectal cancer by 27%, with percentages climbing to 40% to 50% if done over a course of 20 years. Smoking is another colorectal cancer accelerant among the population. In smoking, numerous toxic chemicals including benzene and nitrosamines cause damage to our DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) mixed with DNA repairing inhibitors such as arsenic and nickel. (ref8) In doing so, smoking makes it harder for the body to remove or neutralize toxic agents as well as overall lowering the immune systems. The risk of colorectal cancer escalates with the more a person drinks. (ref9) explains that consuming three or more drinks per day as compared to a light or non-drinker increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer cells by 50%, due to the carcinogen acetaldehyde when alcohol is metabolized.

The use of a colonoscopy to scan and detect colorectal cancer has been the leading method. A colonoscopy grants the doctor access to examine the colon and remove growths known as polyps, which can turn cancerous. However healthcare professionals are beginning to vocally support other non-invasive and cheaper alternatives of colorectal cancer detection in addition to rising costs. Other non-invasive procedures like the FIT (Fecal Immunochemical Test) are more cost-effective and thoroughly more preferred by patients, although the detection rates pale in comparison to a colonoscopy. (ref10) According to (ref11), due to the rapid change in lifestyles and food consumption, the rate of colorectal cancer among young adults and middle-aged adults has increased exponentially and brings about questions on whether screening should begin before 50 years of age. There has been much controversy on the length of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.


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study into how the solubility of potassium nitrate

Category : Articles

study into how the solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO3) in water is effected by the temperature exposed to the mixture
Aim
In this experiment, the temperature exposed to a mixture of H2O and KNO3 is changed as the rate of solubility of the mixture is observed.
Introduction
Personal Engagement: Why is this INTERESTING to me?
Throughout my schooling, when doing practical experiments on potassium chloride and potassium nitrate, I had always had one provocative question. Why is more water needed to dissolve potassium nitrate and potassium chloride even when they are in equal amounts?
They are both largely shown as white fine powders and have similar properties so why are their solubility so different?

Figure 1: Potassium nitrate (left) (gestis-en, 2007) and potassium chloride (right) (sciencesource, 2018)
Background
The time taken for a substance to dissolve in a liquid is called solubility. The solubility of compounds can depend on the atmosphere and situation of the substance, the temperature, the mass of the elements and the polarity of the liquid (Reference). Potassium Nitrate is a soluble substance. It is made up of a series of strong ionic bonds that cause it to be of a crystalline structure as seen in the images above. To test the effect of temperature on the solubility of potassium nitrate, it is important to keep in mind that the existence of this type of ionic bond causes potassium nitrate to have high boiling and melting points. The strong ionic bond also means that it is difficult to break KNO3 with room temperature settings, however, in a more warm environment, the particles of KNO3 have more kinetic energy and thus move faster, causing collision and higher reaction energy between water molecules (reference). With an increase in temperature, the ions in the compound KNO3 would increase in speed and move in the solution of water more easily.
This would result in a greater amount of potassium nitrate to dissolve in water.
The relationship between the solubility of potassium nitrate and temperature is proportional. This causes a chemical reaction as the particles of the compound are reacting with the water to produce potassium nitrate and hydrogen hydroxide.
H(NO3) + KOH -> K(NO3) + HOH
The activation energy—the energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur—of this chemical reaction is produced by the collision of the molecules of water and KNO3 .

Figure 2: Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Graph (glowscotland, 2017)
The dotted line separates the number of molecules that have enough activation energy (EA) to react and dissolve in the solution. As can be seen, T2 is the reaction with the higher temperature, as it is more spread out across the y-axis of kinetic energies. T1 is the reaction with the lower temperature and is not spread out and shifted to the left, meaning that it has less energy. The amount of molecules that have enough Activation Energy to react with for T2 and significantly higher than T1. This would mean an increase in temperature causes an increase the kinetic energy of particles and the amount of which can react.
Variables
Independent
Temperature of solution: Changed through use of a Bunsen burner
Dependent
Solubility of KNO3: Measured
Controlled
Volume of water: Must be kept constant as will alter the focus of the rate of solubility. Controlled by: Measuring constant amount of water for each trial using a pipette
Mass of KNO3: Must be kept constant as will alter the focus of the rate of solubility Controlled by: Weighing correct amount of potassium nitrate using electric weight
Controlled apparatus: The same apparatus must be used in each trial as to not change the weight nor volume of mixture Controlled by: Taking care to use the same apparatus each time, if need for washing, the apparatus must be dried thoroughly
Time allowed for KNO3 to dissolve: Must be kept constant as will alter the focus of the rate of solubility. Controlled by: Using a timer and timing each trial exactly as KNO3 is added to liquid
Time spent mixing solution: Must be kept constant as will alter the focus of the rate of solubility. Controlled by: Using a timer and timing the amount of time solution mixed in each trial
mATERIALS

Potassium nitrate (300 g)
Distilled water
5x 100 ml beakers
5x shallow bowls
Measuring cylinder
Electric weight
Timer
Paper towels
Labels and different color markers
Stirring rod
6x pipettes
Electric thermometer
Heat plate
Ice
Notebook

Oven
Safety utensils
Oven mitts
Lab coat
Goggles
METHODOLOGY
To carry out this experiment, a proper procedure is needed that meets all requirements. A notebook was kept on hand to record the original mass of KNO3¬ and the volume of water that was used in the reactions. Then for further results gathered, a table was filled out on the notebook to ensure that results were kept accessible and easy to record. A molar concentration—most commonly used to express the concentration of a solute in a solution—must be calculated (reference). This is done through using the molar solution concentration equation below:
C=m/v*1/MW
C = molar concentration (mol/L) M = mass of solute (g) V = volume of solution (L) MW = Molecular weight (g/mol)
Preliminary experiments showed that the use of a beaker or a deep utensil was not every efiicient as the water evaporated very slowly. Therefore, shallow bowls were used. This method caused for more water to over a larger surface area and thus be more spread out as the heat from the oven was also exposed to more surface area of the solution.
All bowls were weighed regardless of if they were of the same make and model as there could be slight discrepancies between the weights which was proven correct.
Ice was kept on-hand to cool down the solutions if they were heated to more than the extent required.
The amount of solution that was created was 70 ml. This amount of chosen as 50 ml would be too small and 70 ml was enough not to spill out the beaker when stirring.
The water must be completely saturated with the potassium nitrate. This means that all solutions must be exposed to enough KNO3 that a point is reached when no more can be dissolved. If this is not done, the increase in solubility due to temperature will not be detectable. More surface area of the solution is in contact with heat.
The different temperature levels, 0°C, 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C were chosen as these would show the most significant difference . Preliminary experiments showed that if the temperature differences were too similar (e.g. 10°C, 20°C etc…), the differences in solubility were not evident.
Pipettes must be entered into the solution a centimeters below the water level. This ensures that no air bubbles are picked up along with the water and makes for more accurate calculations.
It is important to keep in mind the conditions in which the evaporation is taking place. The humidity in the air and the altitude at which the evaporation is taking place may have a slight effect on the results (reference).
When the KNO3 solution has evaporated and the result weighed, a calculation must take place to obtain the solubility of KNO3 at differing temperatures.
The mass of the salt residue from the evaporated solution must be subtracted from
Calculate the mass of the evaporated water by subtracting the mass of solution after evaporation from the mass before evaporation.
eXPERIMENTAL pROCEDURE
Preheat oven to 250 degrees Fahrenheit
Take each of the 5 beakers, pipettes and shallow bowls and label with a color, noting the colors in a notebook
Weigh each of the 5 bowls and note down the weight based on the color
Pour 70 mL of distilled water into each beaker
Observe the solubility of KNO3¬ exposed to different 0 °C:
Check the temperature of the distilled water using the electric thermometer, if the temperature is not at 0 °C, add ice to the water until it reaches 0 °C
Add 15 grams to the distilled water and stir thoroughly until the KNO3¬ dissolves.
Take care to keep the temperature of the mixture at a steady level
Continue adding 15 grams and stirring until no more can be dissolved and potassium nitrate crystals gather at the bottom of the beaker
Using a specific pipettes, measure 15 ml of the solution, and empty into the appropriate bowl
Apply the above steps to each temperature 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C, taking care to use heating plate for warmer temperatures
After completing all 5 bowls, weigh each bowl again and note down the new weight
Place the 5 bowls into the preheated oven and observe until all water has evaporated and the crystalized potassium nitrate remaining in the bowls.
Using oven mitts, remove bowls from oven WARNING: HOT
Weigh 5 bowls again and note down
Repeat steps for 5 trials
rESULTS
rAW dATA


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There are few main team issue that we can noticed in this case

Category : Articles

There are few main team issue that we can noticed in this case. One of all is leadership style that was applied between Yusuf Chang and Latifah in Bunga Raya Bank management. The leadership style that used have their side effect respectively. Yusuf Chang is the main example that we can see when he want things his way at the same time it’s showing him a directive leader. Leadership style’s Yusuf Chang known as an autocratic leadership style also can be defined when the decision making is controlled by the leader based on their own decision beliefs and do not involve others for their suggestion or advice. In the case, there are mention about the Bunga Raya Bank’s economy has not been good this few years and growth in profit has not been good with the hike of the inflation rate. Therefore, Yusuf Chang decide to downsize and completely close several branches recommendation from Buanga Raya Bank Board’s. Because of this situation Yusuf Chang make he own conclusion without include other staff. He assume there is no choice to increase the profit but with downsize and completely close several branches it’s can survive and increase the company profis further. Based on this scenario we can see Yusuf Chang have the characteristics of autocratic leadership when he do the decision based on he way and belief.

Besides that, the main issues as we can observe in this case is skill of communicating between the top managerial and the employees of the organisation. Yusuf was leading manner in which he makes the determination based on he aim determination without include opinion from other employee. He also did not make the procedure of stating the employee about his determination to downsize and closed several subdivisions by himself. But he did inquire Latifa to arrange a meeting to discuss the matter – or rather, to present the operational strategy loosely detailing how this will take place. This is because, he assume Latifah is the one who is closest to the staff and customers.


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Abstract Oil and gas exploration and exploitation in Niger Delta region

Category : Articles

Abstract Oil and gas exploration and exploitation in Niger Delta region (Nigeria) have been characterized by environmental degradation as a result of oil spillage, flaring of gas, deforestation and other unwholesome practices of oil and gas multinational companies operating in the area. The devastation of the environment is the consequence of all stages of oil and gas activities from the exploration, drilling to transportation and storage. These environmentally unfriendly acts adversely affect the inhabitants whose livelihoods depend on the ecosystem for survival. This paper focuses on Niger Delta region, the country’s hydrocarbon hub. The main goal of the study is to review the environmental, health and social implications resulting from oil spill, gas flaring and other exploration related activities. It also suggests ways to mitigate some of these impacts through government policies and regulations of the oil and gas industries operating in the region.
Keywords: Niger Delta Region, Oil and Gas Activities, Oil Spillage, Gas Flaring, Gas Pollution, Ecosystems’ value, Nature Protection
Introduction The environmental challenges faced by Nigeria are diverse, but the purpose of this research is to focus on crude oil, which is the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy. Environmental hazards due to petroleum exploration and exploitation is a global challenge now. Oil and gas spills have posed a major environmental threat to the habitats of the indigenous oil-bearing communities, and if not effectively managed could lead to the complete ecosystems’ devastation.
Ecosystems’ value
Studies indicate that Nigeria has of about 159 functional oil fields and 1481 wells operating in the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta region. Most of these fields are small and scattered 11. Petroleum products in Nigeria are mainly transported through network of petroleum pipelines scattered mostly in the Niger Delta region, and across Nigeria. Nigeria’s crude oil is categorized mostly as “light” and “sweet”, as the oil is largely sulphur-free. Currently, India is the largest importer of crude oil from Nigeria. Crude oil from Nigeria is being exported to other countries via six export terminals in the country. All six terminals operate at different capacities. Two of these terminals are being operated by Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), while the other four are being operated by Texaco, Mobil and Agip. SPDC operates the Forcados and Bonny terminals that have a combined storage capacity of 13 million barrels (2,100,000 m3) of crude oil. Qua Iboe Terminal in Akwa Ibom state is being operated by Mobil, while Chevron controls the Escravos Terminal located in Delta State with a storage capacity of 3.6 million barrels (570,000 m3). Agip operates the Brass Terminal in Brass which has a storage capacity of 3,558,000 barrels (565,700 m3). And Pennington Terminal is being operated by Texaco 12.
Oil spills
It is estimated that in the past five decades about 9 million-13 million (1.5 million tons) of oil has been spilled into the Niger Delta ecosystem 13. Araromi in the present Ondo state was the first place to experience oil spill in Nigeria. in 1908 19. Nigeria recorded a major spill in July 1979 when the Forcados tank 6 Terminal in Delta state, spilled 570,000 barrels of oil into the Forcados estuary polluting the ecosystem 19 and 21. An estimate 421,000 barrels of oil was blown into the ocean from January 17th to January 30th 1980 from an oil well called Funiwa in the delta, causing the devastation of about 863 acres of mangrove forest within six miles of the shore 8, 21 and 22. Another major oil spillage was the Ogada-Brass pipeline oil spillage near Etiama Nembe in February 1995 which spilled approximately 24,000 barrels of oil, the spilled oil flooded over freshwater swamp forest and into the brackish water mangrove swamp. In 2008 alone it was reported by Amnesty International that a total of over 100,000 barrels of crude oil was spilled in Bode community even though Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) put the figure at just 1600 barrels 2. Again, Amnesty International argued that even though figures on the website of SPDC had shown that between 2007 and 2014, an estimated 1693 incidences of spill occurred and more than 350,000 barrels of crude oil spilled into the region, the actual volume of crude spilled was underestimated 2. The majority of the spill incidences in the Niger Delta occur on land, swamp, offshore, farmland, etc. and cause severe hardship to the inhabitants 13, 14, 15, and 20.

Petroleum industry specificity
Studies indicate that Nigeria has of about 159 functional oil fields and 1481 wells operating in the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta region. Most of these fields are small and scattered 11. Petroleum products in Nigeria are mainly transported through network of petroleum pipelines scattered mostly in the Niger Delta region, and across Nigeria. Nigeria’s crude oil is categorized mostly as “light” and “sweet”, as the oil is largely sulphur-free. Currently, India is the largest importer of crude oil from Nigeria. Crude oil from Nigeria is being exported to other countries via six export terminals in the country. All six terminals operate at different capacities. Two of these terminals are being operated by Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), while the other four are being operated by Texaco, Mobil and Agip. SPDC operates the Forcados and Bonny terminals that have a combined storage capacity of 13 million barrels (2,100,000 m3) of crude oil. Qua Iboe Terminal in Akwa Ibom state is being operated by Mobil, while Chevron controls the Escravos Terminal located in Delta State with a storage capacity of 3.6 million barrels (570,000 m3). Agip operates the Brass Terminal in Brass which has a storage capacity of 3,558,000 barrels (565,700 m3). And Pennington Terminal is being operated by Texaco 12.
Oil spills
It is estimated that in the past five decades about 9 million-13 million (1.5 million tons) of oil has been spilled into the Niger Delta ecosystem 13. Araromi in the present Ondo state was the first place to experience oil spill in Nigeria. in 1908 19. Nigeria recorded a major spill in July 1979 when the Forcados tank 6 Terminal in Delta state, spilled 570,000 barrels of oil into the Forcados estuary polluting the ecosystem 19 and 21. An estimate 421,000 barrels of oil was blown into the ocean from January 17th to January 30th 1980 from an oil well called Funiwa in the delta, causing the devastation of about 863 acres of mangrove forest within six miles of the shore 8, 21 and 22. Another major oil spillage was the Ogada-Brass pipeline oil spillage near Etiama Nembe in February 1995 which spilled approximately 24,000 barrels of oil, the spilled oil flooded over freshwater swamp forest and into the brackish water mangrove swamp. In 2008 alone it was reported by Amnesty International that a total of over 100,000 barrels of crude oil was spilled in Bode community even though Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) put the figure at just 1600 barrels 2. Again, Amnesty International argued that even though figures on the website of SPDC had shown that between 2007 and 2014, an estimated 1693 incidences of spill occurred and more than 350,000 barrels of crude oil spilled into the region, the actual volume of crude spilled was underestimated 2. The majority of the spill incidences in the Niger Delta occur on land, swamp, offshore, farmland, etc. and cause severe hardship to the inhabitants 13, 14, 15, and 20.

Gas Flaring Flaring of gas is another environmental challenge experienced in the Niger Delta area. Gas has been flared in Nigeria’s Niger Delta since the beginning of exploitation and exploration of crude oil in the 1950s. Nigeria even with the challenges of energy insecurity and legislative frameworks to combat the dangers of gas flaring still suffers multiple environmental and health issues due to the continuous release of CO2 and other poisonous gasses into the atmosphere It has been recorded that Nigeria flares about 40% natural gas while more than 10% is been re-injected to enhance the recovery of oil 16. The estimated quantity of natural gas flared in Niger Delta is about 17.2 billion m3 per year, this volume is approximately equivalent to a quarter of the current power consumption need of the whole of Africa 1.
This ruinous practice by oil and gas companies operating in the region has diffused highly toxic gasses into the atmosphere in Niger Delta. The concentration of these toxicants have caused acid rain, which has resulted to loss of soil fertility, destruction of vegetation and devastation of buildings by corrugation of roofs. The indigenous people of the area have also suffered numerous adverse health challenges. Cases of reproductive deformities in children, cancer, neurological, reproductive and skin infections have been reported 18.

Ecosystem survival In the ecosystem, all constituent parts are crucial in order to survive. The inhabitants are an integral part of the Niger Delta’s wider ecosystem. As such, they are affected by the dangerous and sometimes catastrophic impacts of oil exploration and exploitation activities. The people of Niger Delta are adversely affected by oil spills since they occur at a particular place and extend over a wide area. It is on record that, indigenous communities were relocated due to the oil spill; resulting to loss of ancestral home, farmlands, fishing areas and other means of their livelihoods which directly and indirectly rely on the ecosystem. The indigenous people of the Delta have incurred colossal losses as a result of these spills. Moreover, persistent pollution has exposed the native population to a new set of illnesses to compound those they were susceptible due to their extremely poor living conditions. A study conducted between 2000 and 2005 showed a decline in water bodies, mangroves and close forests and with an increase in bare land, settlements and mixed, man-made forests 21.
Conclusion
Negative environmental health and social impacts of the oil industry are a major concern in Niger Delta region. Information on oil spills remains scrappy. While larger spill are more likely to be reported (albeit at times with delays), the problems created by smaller, but more common spills are easier to conceal and thus tend to be underestimated. In addition, to the direct health, social and environmental effects, there are far-reaching impacts on livelihoods in local communities that largely depend on natural resources from agriculture, fisheries and other ecosystem services for survival. There is a serious lack of manpower and equipment, to effectively monitor and respond to oil spill, gas flaring and other environmental hazards prevalent in the area. Since the government seem to lack adequate information about the extent of the devastation, it reduces its ability to combat the menace of environmental degradation and the resultant consequences on the inhabitants and the ecosystem. Most environmentalists in the area have blamed the oil companies for their noxious oil and gas activities. However, the authorities are also responsible because they have the prerogative to provide laws, licenses and legislation that must be adhered to by these multinationals. Recently, improvements have been recorded on tackling these environmental challenges through some government agencies, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders through a large-scale campaign to prevent environmental degradation and remediate the environment.
Proposals
• Immediate restoration and remediation of the entire Niger Delta ecosystems with special attention to polluted sites. There should be concerted efforts both by the government and the multinationals to ensure a total environmental rehabilitation of the region.
• Massive investment into the development of environmental management and research centers. These institutions will be saddled (among other things) with the responsibilities of developing new ideas of operation to minimize environmental hazards.
• Environmentally friendly methods and techniques should be adopted to minimize degradation to the barest minimum. Gas flaring should be stopped immediately. The gasses instead should be converted into the other sources of energy.
• The government should ensure that periodic Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) are being conducted.
• The obsolete laws of oil and gas should be reviewed and updated with an emphasis on compliance by the oil companies.
• The indigenous people of the area should be given the opportunity to be key players in the oil and gas sector to give them a sense of belonging. And all oil-bearing communities should be adequately compensated through the infrastructural development of their local communities.
• Government and the oil companies should collaborate and engage the people to sensitize them on the importance of the conservation of the environment. The people should be aware of the dangers of vandalizing oil and gas facilities.
• The government should provide an enabling environment for the development of alternative energy sources and also diversify the economy.


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In 1942 during World War Two

Category : Articles

In 1942 during World War Two, Australia fought in the Kokoda Track Campaign. The Kokoda Track is a narrow path that runs through the Owen Stanley Range in Papua New Guinea. The campaign went from July to November 1942 and consisted of many battles fought between the Japanese and Australians. Australia played a significant roll in the Kokoda Track Campaign, which was significant in the progression and outcome of World Was Two because it stopped the Japanese from gaining access to attack Australian mainland and shipping in the Pacific and the defeat of the Japanese inspired the Australians to continue fighting in the war. The success of the Kokoda Track Campaign saved Australia from being invaded or isolated by the Japanese, boosted their pride and it also improved their military operations and strategies.

Australia’s victory of the Kokoda Track Campaign prevented the Japanese from gaining a base at which could be used to attack Australian mainland. The threat of the Japanese attacking Australia loomed in everyone’s minds. Australia was already attacked by Japan through the bombing of Darwin; therefore, they were very likely to strike again, and they did. The Japanese objective was to capture Port Moresby because it had an airfield. This airfield could be used as a place to launch an amphibious operation. Japan had already launched amphibious operations in other countries. The Australian’s needed to keep hold of Port Moresby if they want to advance northwards; also, to prevent Japan from taking over, “Without Port Moresby the threat was a hollow one.” (Anzac Portal).

Gallipoli is the event that comes to mind when Australian’s think of World War One. When Australian’s think of World War Two Kokoda is what they think of. Both of these events weren’t the biggest contributors to the overall outcome of the war, but “…both have captured the Australian imagination.” (Anzac Portal). Over the course of four months Australia had to fight in appalling conditions. Much of the track can only be travelled by foot because it travels through dense jungle; as a result, the soldiers had to carry heavy equipment and all their supplies. During the campaign the soldiers also contracted diseases, such as dysentery and malaria. Even with the harsh conditions and problems they faced, the Australian soldiers fought extremely well and managed to win the battle. To this day people walk along the Kokoda Track to experience the harsh conditions the soldiers faced and to pay respect to them as well. After the victory of the Australian soldiers, the Japanese dominance crumbled. On the other hand, the spirit and morale of the Australian soldiers increase. This victory gave the soldiers the strength and courage to continue fighting in the war.

By the end of the Kokoda Track Campaign Australia’s military operations and strategies were improved. Initially the Japanese was on the offensive. They were taking over land that was of importance and the Australians were on the defensive. They were trying to prevent Japan from achieving their strategic goal. The Japanese realised they had over exerted themselves and decided to defend their gains. This was the perfect opportunity to launch a counter-attack and retake back some land the Japanese had occupied.


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The BlaBlaWriting service enables its users to download or paste texts with no limitation of their size or number of trials

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The BlaBlaWriting service enables its users to download or paste texts with no limitation of their size or number of trials. One more benefit is that you can also upload several files at once. The World Wide Web contains a huge amount of information, but powerful plagiarism scanners and detectors manage to go through the entire Internet to define similar or exact words and sentences used in the essay that you check. When the system has analyzed your work, it provides a detailed plagiarism report. You can see the percentage of the actual authenticity of your essay. If the result is not satisfactory, you may also use other services on the website. They include writing a brand new essay by professionals on the topic you require or improving your written task to provide it with a higher rate of uniqueness. These are additional offers that can be ordered online. If you have time to enhance the quality of the paper yourself, you should rewrite the highlighted sentences that suggest copying or add proper citations. Doing this will improve your essays.

The BlaBlaWriting service enables its users to download or paste texts with no limitation of their size or number of trials. One more benefit is that you can also upload several files at once. The World Wide Web contains a huge amount of information, but powerful plagiarism scanners and detectors manage to go through the entire Internet to define similar or exact words and sentences used in the essay that you check. When the system has analyzed your work, it provides a detailed plagiarism report. You can see the percentage of the actual authenticity of your essay. If the result is not satisfactory, you may also use other services on the website. They include writing a brand new essay by professionals on the topic you require or improving your written task to provide it with a higher rate of uniqueness. These are additional offers that can be ordered online. If you have time to enhance the quality of the paper yourself, you should rewrite the highlighted sentences that suggest copying or add proper citations. Doing this will improve your essays.

The BlaBlaWriting service enables its users to download or paste texts with no limitation of their size or number of trials. One more benefit is that you can also upload several files at once. The World Wide Web contains a huge amount of information, but powerful plagiarism scanners and detectors manage to go through the entire Internet to define similar or exact words and sentences used in the essay that you check. When the system has analyzed your work, it provides a detailed plagiarism report. You can see the percentage of the actual authenticity of your essay. If the result is not satisfactory, you may also use other services on the website. They include writing a brand new essay by professionals on the topic you require or improving your written task to provide it with a higher rate of uniqueness. These are additional offers that can be ordered online. If you have time to enhance the quality of the paper yourself, you should rewrite the highlighted sentences that suggest copying or add proper citations. Doing this will improve your essays.

The BlaBlaWriting service enables its users to download or paste texts with no limitation of their size or number of trials. One more benefit is that you can also upload several files at once. The World Wide Web contains a huge amount of information, but powerful plagiarism scanners and detectors manage to go through the entire Internet to define similar or exact words and sentences used in the essay that you check. When the system has analyzed your work, it provides a detailed plagiarism report. You can see the percentage of the actual authenticity of your essay. If the result is not satisfactory, you may also use other services on the website. They include writing a brand new essay by professionals on the topic you require or improving your written task to provide it with a higher rate of uniqueness. These are additional offers that can be ordered online. If you have time to enhance the quality of the paper yourself, you should rewrite the highlighted sentences that suggest copying or add proper citations. Doing this will improve your essays.


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To know about the connection of these topics it is must to know about the link between these phrases as well as the basic concept of these two

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To know about the connection of these topics it is must to know about the link between these phrases as well as the basic concept of these two. Firstly, to know what is computer software and wireless Information systems and then secondly to discuss about their affects upon each other. Computer software is basically some programs or events that are written just to achieve certain functions by the software engineers. Events are the set of steps that is written and combined to make a pr Computer software is basically some programs or events that are written just to achieve certain functions by the software engineers. Events are the set of steps that is written and combined to make a pr