Genghis Khan and Mongolian Empire
Genghis Khan, who was acknowledged and accepted by all Mongolian people to rule the Mongolian Empire during AD 13-14. Mongolian Empire is well-known as the largest continuous empire that emerged in the central of Asian continent. Because of the good governance by Genghis Khan, Mongolian Empire was able to stretch its territory and dominance to Eastern Europe reaching Japan before extending its empire to Siberia in the eastern follow by stretching into India and Iran. Mongolian Empire was known as the nomadic tribe which was totally governed and led by Genghis Khan before transcending his power to the next successors. The main reason why Genghis Khan made his Mongolian Empire much more famous because he was able to dominate over many continents as well as to make the huge progress in trade, technology, and ideology making it prevalent through Eurasia (Europe-Asia). In order to get insight into the formation and continuity and also benefit of Mongolian Empire under the lead of Genghis Khan, this literature intends to go over the history of pre-empire context of Mongolian Empire, the beginning of the famous leader, Genghis Khan, the early organization of Mongolian Empire, the passing away of Genghis Khan before Mongolian Empire stretching into many continents, including Asia and Europe, and also its military organization and society of Mongolian Empire ever existing.
Going over the pre-empire context of Mongolia, Since the 10th century, Loa dynasty had been able to totally manipulate the connecting territories of Mongolia, Manchuria, and some areas of northern China. However, later on in 1125, Lao dynasty was challenged by Jin dynasty, which was determined to take over Lao dynasty in Mongolia with his best struggle. Subsequently, in the 1330s, the Golden King ruled by Jin dynasty was finally able to defy Khamag Mongol confederation which was governed by the grandfather of Genghis Khan, named Khabul Khan. There were five tribal confederations, which are Keraites, Khamag Mongol, Naiman, Megris, and Tatar, being successful in taking control over Mongolian plateau. This was under the contribution of Jin emperors who was able to pose the great disputes between Mongols and Tatar with an aim to make the nomadic tribes deviated and distracted from one another. Later on, Tatar was crooked by Ambaghai Khan, the successor of Jin empire, which resulted in the retribution of Mongols through invading the frontiers, ending up with the failure of Jurchen assault and invasion which happened in 1143. Later on, the policy of Jin dynasty was changed by reaching the agreement with Mongols by signing the peace treaty. This resulted in the re-attack of Mongols over Tatar, which finally ended up with the hostilities throughout the period.
When it comes to the genesis of Genghis Khan, Mongol chieftain gave birth to this greatest leader of Mongolian Empire. During his childhood, Genghis Khan was raised and grown up in the deserted family. When Genghis Khan became grown up, he was recruited to work with Toghrul Khan, who was the most dominant and potential leader during that time. Wang Khan was picked by Temujin to battle in the war together. Afterwards, Wang Khan was finally defeated by Temujin, which led to make him change his name as Genghis Khan. With his talent in governance, Genghis Khan was able to expand Mongolian Empire by himself collaborating with relatives. Genghis Khan was renowned by designing and taking effect of the law called the Great Yasa, which then accepted by the generation of Mogols. This new law known as the Great Yasa manipulated by Genghis Khan was responsible for taxations over the goods that were traded among Mongolian merchants during that time. With an aim for referring to the Mongolic speaking tribes totally controlled by Genghis Khan, Mongol was prevalently used and well-known since then. Temujin or Genghis Khan was renowned for launching the policy distributing all spoils to all of the families and his worriers instead of giving to the aristocrats as traditional (Micro History, 2015). He was also obstructive to cheating and exploiting his enemies by avoiding looting without his permission. Genghis Khan was also responsible for setting Khan title as the new policy which was the cause of conflict with Genghis Khan’s uncle. This legitimate heir however saw Genghis Khan as the disrespectful usurper. This legitimate heir was also responsible for exploding the war with Genghis Khan due to the serious controversy and conflict spreading to other associates before Genghis Khan’s allegiance was broken by the Mongols who once use to be his allies.
Turning to look over the early organization of Mongolian Empire under the lead of Genghis Khan, lots of innovative approaches for governing the military forces and the army were introduced by Genghis Khan. His initial organization was aimed at dividing decimal subsections of abans, zuuns, and Mingghants (Andrews, E, 2014). During his early organization, Genghis Khan was reluctant to give the rewards to whoever gives loyalty and sacrifice to him by endowing those with higher status and position in addition to giving them to become the head of his military units as well as of household so that they could become the allies of Genghis Khan despite of their coming from very low-ranked family status. More interestingly, Genghis Khan initiated to take the new laws and policies into effect, which was known as Ikh Zasag or Yassa, which was responsible for taking effects on daily lives of Mongolian people as well as on the political affairs of the nomadic Mongolians during that period of time. Moreover, Genghis Khan was renowned for initiating to conquer selling Mongolian females as well as fighting against the criminals in Mongolian Empire along with banning hinting animals when their breeding seasons come during his reign. With the assignment of Genghis Khan, Mongolian Empire was kept historical records by Shigi- Khuthugh whom Khan assigned to perform keeping the records of Mongolian Empire. Genghis Khan had the laws put into effects on foods, family, and the military; besides, he intended to have religion announced and decreed to be freedom while giving full contribution to trades both domestically and internationally. Because of his policy during his early organization, the beneficiaries are poor people and the clergy who were exempted from taxation. Additionally, Genghis Khan was responsible for supporting literacy for all Mongolian people by opting for Uyghur script (Kuddus, I, 2016).
Taking into consideration his expansion of Mongolian Empire into other continents, this began with Genghis Khan having the great conflicts with Jin Empire of Jurchens. Besides, Genghis Khan had to cope with the bipolar power of Tibet and Khara Khitai (New World Encyclopedia, n.d). It was the renown of Genghis Khan to push Mongolian Empire invading into central Asia, which was responsible for destroying Transoxiana and Persin in the eastern parts. Shortly afterGenghis Khan passed away, he had Mongolian Empire given to his successors, as his sons and his family. This allowed the entire imperial family of Genghis Khan to possess the joint property of Mongolian Empire, which ten led to the emergence of Mongol aristocracy. When Gerghis Khan passed away in 1227, his sons and his family who possessed Mongolian Empire as the sections, dispatched military force to occupy and battle many other nations. In 1246, Mongolian army invaded to battle Italia by stationing outside the war of the country before the spread of epidemics within this country. This led to many thousand deaths of Mongolian soldiers who then was fired as the bullet to attack the city of caffa Italy. After being successful in attacking and occupying Italy, the Mongolian troop under the lead of Genghis Khan moved his Mongolian army to Mediterranean Sea in the Eastern Europe with the same strategic war as plague. With his cruel strategy, more than 25 million people came down with the plague caused by the military assault of Mongolian troop.
Another achievement of Mongolia Empire was the invasion into Russian and China by the successors of Genghis Khan. This happened after the death of Genghis Khan’s son, which led the Mongol to withdraw their military troop from Southern China despite some of Mongolian trop still battering Tibet. In 1237, Mongolan troop began to battle Ryazan with three consecutive days of attacks. Finally, the city of Ryazan and their people were seized and captures by Mongolian troops and army, of which all Kievan fell victims to Mogolian army as the Asian invaders. After that, Mongolian troop continued to battle at Batu and Subutai. During the attack on Russia, Mongolian troops destroyed the capital city of Russia together with killing lots of their people. With its repercussion, the Mongolian army was ongoing to attack Poland and Hungary subsequently. After succeeding in defeating Poland and Hungary, Mongolian troop continued to attack Bohemia, Serbia, and Babenberg Australia before approaching into Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Mongolian army under the lead of Genghis Khan’s successors continued to battle northern Albania and Vienna in 1241. Furthermore, Mongolian army still moved to battle and invade into the Middle East and South China in order to expand its territories following stabilizing in finance of the country.
Genghis Khan and Mongolian Empire Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan and Mongolian Empire