This chapter explains and justifies the methods, approaches and instruments which were used in collection and analysis of data. The chapter will define target population, sampling methods and how questions were formulated.
3.2 Research Philosophy
According to Cohen and Crabtree (2006), Research philosophy simply means a way on how. They further explain that the research process proceeds in a variety of setting and context and these settings allows the researcher to approach the world with a set of ideas of framework that specifies a set of questions that are going to be examined in specified ways.
The researcher used a combination of positivist approach and the phenomenological approach, which considered being appropriate. To conserve authenticity and credibility of the research a qualitative approach that recognises the complexity and dynamism was adapted largely. The questionnaires will be partly structured and partly unstructured to ensure objectivity, uniformity and generalisation through positivism.
3.3 Research Approach
Research Approach is the process used to collect data and information for the purpose of making decisions. Kothari (2013).A mixed research of qualitative and quantitative research was largely adopted. The research instruments, which include questionnaires with close-ended and open-ended questions and interviews.
Qualitative workplace offers the chance to provide subtle inside information that synopsis a trouble. The researcher then used a quantitative, this approach relegates qualitative analytic thinking to an exploratory tool and able to maximize quantitative analysis as a tool to both explore and define a trouble and potential solutions. Kumar (2011).The mixture enable the researcher some flexibility in the analysis. The type of research, which was conducted, is a survey research where questionnaires were personally administered of the population of interest being ZIMRA Domestic Taxes Harare managerial representatives, workers committee members and HR personnel and the works council who have knowledge about the issues of collective bargaining negotiation process.
3.4 Research Design
Kothari (2013) noted that Research design is an action plan utilised by the research to move from one position to the next through following logical steps to answer research questions. Case study will be used; Kothari (2013) indicated that case studies are in-depth investigations of different phenomena that may include a single person, an organization or a community. The researcher further stated that information is gathered from different contexts through the use different research instruments, which may include interviews and questionnaires. Zimbabwe Revenue Authority Domestic Taxes Harare was selected as a case study.
According to Annum (2015), Population is a set of individuals, items, or data from which statistical is taken. The researcher argues that the selected population will able to give the wanted results of the study .The population of interests will be all managerial representatives, workers committee members, non-managerial employees, HR personnel, and the works council who have knowledgeable information about collective bargaining negotiation process.
A sample is a stage set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical universe by a defined procedure .Creswell (2009). The sampling distribution usually represents a subset of manageable size. The sample size of the written report indicates the relative numbers of those sampled from the respective population. According to Kothari (2013), sample distribution enables that the survey is relatively small section of the population and still be in a position to collect data representation of the whole. Sampling will enable the research actor to collect information on the small area of population but still the results were able to couple the whole population under study
Table 1: Showing population sample
Category Total population Target population
Works council Chairperson
Workers Committee Chairperson
Workers Committee representatives
Human Resource Personnel
Non-managerial employees 9 7
Total 39 35
3.5.2 Sampling Procedure
Creswell (2009) defined sampling as the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population so that by studying the sample and understanding the properties of the sample subjects it would be possible to generalise the properties of the population. Purposive sampling is one whereby a researcher selects a sample on the basis of their knowledge of the population, its elements and the nature of research aims .Creswell (2009). It is a sampling technique that is under non probability sampling that deals with case selection of that are representative of the population that is usually combined with techniques under probability sampling to reduce the weakness of each technique Singleton and Straits(2005).
According to Bell (2014) with purposive sampling a target, population for study will be quickly and only one organisation was selected which reduced expenses for the researcher. The opinions of the target population will be obtained quickly as the internal audit group will be readily accessible to the researcher. Straits and Singleton (2005).Secondly the results of purposive sampling could not be generalised for all parastatals but give an understanding of the fundamental relationship aimed to be revealed by the research. Generalisation obtained from the case study can be filtered through the researcher’s knowledge of the topic being studied to give reliable results. With purposive sample, you are likely to get the opinions of your target population.
The researcher is to implorer homogeneous sampling method, which targets a small group with similar characteristic to represent the whole. According to Kumar (2011), purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where one need to reach a target sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. With purposive sample, you are likely to get the opinions of your target population. This sampling technique will therefore be used in this research in the selection of union officials and other parastatals department employees who are members of trade unions whom have once being represented by trade unions to acquire relevant information to address the problem. The researcher will use purposive sampling because we sample with a purpose in mind.
3.6 Data Collection Procedure
Permission was sought from the organisation. Questionnaires were hand delivered personally to respondents. A cover letter accompanied the questionnaire, which explained the purpose of the study and emphasised privacy and confidentiality. Bell (2014) supports that confidentiality needs to be maintained when carrying research. A follow up was made a week later; personally, administered questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. Observation will also be used an auxiliary tool though it was used in retrospect.
Secondary data will be used in the course of research obtained from the ZIMRA websites, internal reports, annual plans and procedure manuals. Secondary data will be used to formulate research questionnaires based on relatedness to the subject of study and with the aim of bridging the knowledge gap.
3.7 Research Instruments
Research instrument can be defined as the apparatus or tools that are being used in collecting information to find the solution on the problem under study Pierce (2009). Research instrument examples such as survey, questionnaire, test, musical scale, rating, or tool designed to measure the variable(s), feature (s), or information of involvement, often a behavioural or psychological characteristic.
Annum (2015) defines questionnaires as a data collection system mostly used in case studies. Annum (2015) further elaborated questionnaires that, these are methodically organized papers, with questions that are intentionally created to gather information from research participants. The questions are carefully laid out such that they provide more light on the area to be studied and the problem identified. The respondents are selected from the sample that is being studied and their responses becomes information required for the research. The researcher used semi-structured questionnaires. The researcher adopted this instrument because it covered a larger number of people at the same time; saving time and work, Nie et al (2011) support this. Semi-structured questionnaires can also be completed anonymously thus giving respondents time to express their feelings and opinions without fear of victimization.
In this study both open and closed ended questions will used in the collection of data. According to Creswell (2009),questionnaires are an efficient data collection mechanism when the researcher knows exactly what is required how to measure the variables of interests. They are easy to administer and less costly since they were hand delivered. Questionnaires also offered anonymity thus, therefore respondents were free to answer sensitive questions, which resulted in the collection of valid data. Large amounts of data were collected from large representative sample over a relatively short period of time thus making the research findings amenable to generalizability. Questionnaires will be sent to the human resource department, workers union, workers committee contained research questions on the effectiveness of collective bargaining negotiation process as a tool in improving wages.
An interview can be defined as a verbal exchange of information between the researcher and the respondent. According to Nie et al (2011), interviews encompass interaction, where the researcher poses questions to the participants and expects answers, it is the duty of the researcher to identify the participants with the required information and even ask further questions to seek clarification. An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people. It is initiated by the researcher in order to get information required. Interviews will be used to get information from manager and the responded will not be accessible and had no time to respond to questionnaires. The use of face-to-face interview provided an opportunity to have personal experience of the participant’s emotional expression and other forms of non-verbal communication this resulted in the drawing of logical and rational conclusions. Interviews also allowed for an in-depth discussion of the problem under investigation since vernacular language can be used in some cases.
However, this method had its own limitations. Interviews resulted in distortion of information or facts due to researcher biases. Interviews were also time consuming. The presence of the researcher might have led to change of behaviour.
3.8 Reliability and Validity Issues
Reliability of the questionnaires which will be used in the research offers consistency in the results which research analysts always search for. The analysis of data to be collected will be guided by the research questions which the study seeks to look into. Validity can be described as the best available approximation to the truth or falsify a given inference, proposition or conclusion. Annum (2015),reliability refers to the consistency of measurement or the degree at which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used. The results that will be found from questionnaires sent to respondent will be considered valid and reliable. However, reliability can be compromised by responded who will give biased information. Reliability can also be compromised by respondent literacy levels, which cannot comprehend the language, or the structure of the questionnaire presented to them.
Validity and reliability of interviews will be enhanced by the fact that the researcher will be available to clarify the question that the respondent will not understand and also the researcher will seek clarification on responses that are ambiguous. Reliability of the information given by the respondent can be compromised if the respondent tries to impress the researcher there by giving biased information.
Data presentation is a science set that seek to identify, locate, manipulate, formatting and present information in such a way as to optimally communicate meaning and proper knowledge. Kothari (2013). Data will be presented in form of graphs, pie charts and mesa using the micro soft excel. The aim of the researcher in data analysis was to present results that are accurate, well-clarified, comprehensive clear to the reader. To ensure elimination of ambiguity, the researcher gave descriptive interpretation of the information presented relating it to the previous research findings.
3.9.2 Data Analysis
Creswell (2009), defined data analysis as a process of system of rules applying statistical and logical techniques to describe, illustrate, condense, recap, and evaluate information. In other words Data analysis is the process for collection and analysis of qualitative data that involve three concurrent sub processes of data reduction, data policy drawing and verifying conclusions. The researcher will be using basic tools like percentages and presented data in form of tables and charts. Charts have an advantage of giving a strong visual impression of data whilst tables assists in summarising and simplifying the data.
3.10 Ethical Considerations
The researcher prior to carrying out the research took into consideration various ethical considerations. Ethical considerations involve the researcher taking into account how humans may feel about the potential result of the research Cozby and Bates (2017).The researcher clearly explained to the participants that the research will only be used for academic purposes and that their confidentiality will be guaranteed. A cover letter to Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) Domestic Taxes Harare sorting authority highlighted the issue of confidentiality and anonymity and the respondents will be made aware that this research was for academic purposes. The researcher also disclosed the study and its composition to the respondents and accorded them time to seek clarification on areas they felt were unclear.
This chapter look at the research paradigm, research approach, research design, population, sampling procedure, sample and sampling procedure, data collection procedure, research instruments, reliability and validity of the research, data analysis and ethical considerations of the study. The next chapter, which is the chapter four, will be looking on the data presentation, data analysis and demographic data.