The rock cycle is what makes rocks change between the three types of rocks, Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Igneous and Metamorphic can be turned into Sedimentary through the process of weathering and erosion. Sedimentary and Igneous can be turned into a metamorphic rock when the rocks are both heated and have pressure applied to them. Metamorphic and Sedimentary can be made into Igneous by them melting, which turns them into Magma, once they cool they make crystals and form igneous rocks. The rock cycle takes place over millions of years.
Precambrian eon: All the continents are stuck together forming 2 supercontinents Gondwanaland and Laurasia.
The only rocks found from the Hadean era are from meteorites.
Paleozoic era: Earth’s core has cooled down to modern levels.
Gondwanaland moves up to the equator and breaks apart.
Mesozoic era: The two supercontinents crashed into each other forming the one supercontinent Pangea
Due to plate tectonics Pangea is about to break apart into modern continents.
Cenozoic era: The Atlantic has turned from a valley into an ocean
Pressure crushes in the western coasts of both North and South America forming the Rocky and Andes Mountains.
3. 1. Earthquakes; Earthquakes are created between the boundary of two plates are elevate in severity when the two plates collide. They stick together and massive amounts of stress are created until it is eventually released causing an earthquake.
2. Tsunamis; Tsunamis occur when earthquakes happen in water, the ground moves creating displaced water, which will form a tsunami.
3. Volcanoes; Volcanoes occur when one plate is pushed on top of the other and magma reaches the surface, they can be volatile and destructive.
4. Mountains; Mountains occur when one plate is pushed on top of the other.
5. Climate; As plates move, continents experience climate change, this is part of the reason behind ice ages.
4. The specific criteria that is used to differentiate between the different regions are:
Relief attributes of land
How permafrost is distributed
Region Geological Features Features of Glaciation
Covers 16% of Canada.
Has both Mountainous and flat topography, varied soil, climate and vegetation. Has very large, distinct mountain ranges, along with flat plains and plateaus.
Sporadic volcanic activity. Glaciation in the Cordillera has formed large U-shaped valleys, basins, till plains, etc.
Northern Mountains and Lowlands-
Covers 26% of Canada.
Mostly covered in continuous Permafrost.
5% Of the area is made up of Glaciers. Mostly sedimentary rock that forms hills and plains.
In the south rocks are mainly flat.
In the north rocks are folded. Glaciation in the Northern Mountains and Lowlands have caused an area similar to an upright saucer that is being flooded by the Hudson Bay.
Covers 18% of Canada.
Typically semiarid climate. Generally low and flat with little to no trees,
Region mostly made up of Flat-lying limestone and shale. Marine Bedrock is covered in glacial deposits such as rolling Moraines and till plains
Covers 48% of Canada.
It is the oldest landmass in Canada and the result of several cycles of building and erosion.
Rich in potash oil and gas deposits Made up of Crystallized Precambrian rocks.
Over the years has been worn down to a flat plain. Thin layer of glacial till.
Large Moraines around the Hudson Bay from the last ice retreat.
Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands-
Covers 1.8% of Canada.
Contains the 7 Montenegrin hills, which are the roots of ancient volcanoes. Area can be barren, dry, forested or boggy depending on coastal winds. Glaciation has covered this area in glacial till.
Contains rolling drumlin fields.
Covers 3.6% of Canada
The mountains are much older then the ones in Western Cordillera
Both highlands and lowlands Has mountains and highlands in the shape of a Z
Denudation has removed several kilometers of rocks over the years which reveals previously buried structures. Terrain looks like the Shield, with smoothed bedrock plains, boulderly tills and a myriad of lakes.
Hudson Bay Lowlands-
Covers 3.2% of Canada
The coast at low tides reveal marshy flats and the occasional glacial boulder. Contains Dry, forested areas separated by boggy depressions Bedrock is completely covered by glacial and marine sediments
5. Precambrian Shield-
Offers a multitude of minerals such as gold, copper and zinc.
Very scenic area, with waterfalls, lakes and massive forests,
Has the ability to have very deep harbors for ocean freighters.
Rich in minerals such as coal
Rich in lumber
A lot of sources for dams/hydro electricity
Hudson Bay Lowlands-
Has many resources such as gold and nickel.
Tourism from fishing, kayaking and canoeing
Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands
Excellent farming land due to great soil and a warm climate relative to Canada.
Northern Mountains and Lowlands
Contains an abundance of very valuable minerals such as Diamonds and Gold.
Tourism from the Northern Lights.
Flat plains for farming crops and animals.
Contains a lot of gas deposits and oil
6 A: 400452 is on a bridge.
418488 is on top of Raffinerie de Sucre, a cannery
427455 is on top of Le Pain de Sucre, the largest summit on the mountain.
B: The Hospital is on 419465
The Commercial Centre is on 398468
C: The elevation on 455423 is 100m
The elevation on 428443 is 150m
D: If the index line is 100m the contour lines would be 20m
E: The Richelieu river is flowing north to the province of Quebec.
7. Temperate West Coast-
Coastal Mountain Barrier
Maritime effect along the Pacific coast
Warm Alaskan currents
Temperate East Coast-
Cold, dry continental winter air
Warm, moist gulf air in the summer
Cold northeasterly winter winds
Polar winds blowing across open plains and lowlands
Cold, dry arctic air
Polar northeasterly winds in winter
Southwesterly winds in the summer
The Cordillera is a barrier to the pacific air
Receives no maritime effects
Cold, dry, Arctic air moves across the open spaces.
Cold North Pole winds
Polar high-pressure zones
Little maritime effect
9. The Earth does not statically revolve around the sun. It rotates which causes day and night and also tilts. The ring that the Earth follows around the sun is also not a perfect circle, meaning that the Earth will be further away from the sun in certain parts of its revolution. In the December Solstice, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, causing Canada to be colder. In the June Solstice it is tilted towards the sun, which results in the country heating up.
10. I do believe that climate, landforms, soils and vegetation all influence each other in one way or another. Landforms change depending on the heat, and precipitation, for instance it will change whether the landform is cold and icy such as Nunavut, or if it is so hot you melt, like in Arizona. Soil changes depending on precipitation, is it rich and fertile, or worthless barren dirt? Finally Climate also affects vegetation, Blistering heat and a lack of water, or vice versa will evolve vegetation, the growth and development of vegetation is dependant on the soil as well.