Labor Market Discrimination

This paper discusses various types of discrimination in the labor market, especially discrimination against women.

This paper defines discrimination as an insidious factor, which prevents one or more individuals from getting the same treatment, remuneration, and opportunities that others who belong to the same category, with the same qualifications, the same abilities and capabilities get from a business enterprise, whether private or government-owned. The author points out that, in corporate discussions, men have a tendency to interrupt women and to decide on the agenda more than women interrupt men or decide on discussion topics; women’s interruptions are seen as violations of norms of subservient behavior; whereas, men’s interruptions are encouraged. The paper relates that gender discrimination is illegal according to the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, which covers employers with 15 or more full-time or part-time employers and prohibits discrimination in hiring, firing and other conditions of employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

Table of Contents
Introduction: Types of Discrimination in the Labor Market
Wage Discrimination
Occupational Discrimination
Human Capital Discrimination
Case Study: Discrimination Cases Against Wal-Mart
Gender Discrimination – Definition
How Gender Bias Influences the Wages of Women
Wage Disparity
Illegality of Pay Discrimination
Economic Disparities by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
Women’s Working Conditions
Glass Ceiling
Sexual harassment
Impact of Gender Discrimination Gender and Production Possibilities
Government Acts Civil Rights Acts Affirmative Action

Wal-Mart, the biggest supermarket in the United States has had its fair share of lawsuits involving racial discrimination, sexual harassment, age discrimination and other employment problems. The costliest is a class suit, which, if won by the accusers, could result in Wal-Mart paying hundreds of millions of dollars in damages to some 700,000 women workers. The women hope to be able to shatter the largest glass ceiling, at Wal-Mart, dismantle procedures and practices and allow women workers better options at work.