The threat of Entry
This is a weak force in this industry. Each company currently in the industry has strong brand images, leaving a harder job for new companies. The capital expenditures to start an express transportation company are large, and the companies currently are achieving economies of scale by going global. Any smaller company will not be able to achieve these right away, not allowing them to compete on prices. Another factor threatening potential entrants is trade tariffs and international regulations. Most companies currently in the industry have already established relations with foreign countries. New companies will have to prove themselves to foreign companies, suppliers, and customers.
The threat of substitutes
This is a weak to moderate force in this industry. Businesses and individuals that wish to ship cargo and packages can do it with other modes of transportation such as trucks, trains and boats. However, the customers that use air freight transportation usually desire convenience, speed, and low cost. Traditional transportation modes do not offer all three of these. Businesses and Individuals who want to ship documents can use e-mail, the Internet, and Facsimiles. However, these can take some time to scan and load, and then it is uncertain that your document will get to its destination.
The power of buyers
This is a moderate force in this industry because competition keeps prices similar among the companies. The only difference is companies, such as Federal Express who have value-added services that allow a higher price. Also, the buyers of the services in this industry are reactionary. They do not know the technology before it happens. They become dependent on the technology, service and speed offered by the companies in this industry and will pay for it.
The power of suppliers
This is a strong force if the suppliers serve industries other than Air Freight. If a supplier only has accounts or the majority of their accounts with these companies, they will not be able to control prices and supplies. Suppliers that are involved in this industry are: vehicle manufacturers, airplane manufacturers, fuel suppliers, labor, airports, and shipping materials manufacturers.
Competitive rivalry
This is a strong force in this industry because the competitors use price cuts to compete, there is a low cost and ease to switching brands, and the companies in this industry diversify and acquire other companies for strategic growth and synergy.

Is Graffiti An Art?