Monthly Archives: December 2016

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Business Law

Category : Articles





































Assignment Cover Sheet ??“ Internal

An Assignment cover sheet needs to be included with each assignment. Please complete all details clearly.
If you are submitting the assignment on paper, please staple this sheet to the front of each assignment. If you are submitting the assignment online, please ensure this cover sheet is included at the start of your document. (This is preferable to a separate attachment.)
Please check your Course Information Booklet or contact your School Office for assignment submission locations.

Name: Karyn Marshall
Student ID
? 8

Email: [email protected]
Course code and title: Foundations of Business Law
School: UNISA
Program code: BLW16
Course Coordinator: Jim Thomson
Day, Time, Location of Tutorial/Practical:
Assignment number: 1
Due date: 20/09/10
Assignment topic as stated in Course Information Booklet: Essay

Further Information: (e.g. state if extension was granted and attach evidence of approval, Revised Submission Date)

I declare that the work contained in this assignment is my own, except where acknowledgement of sources is made.

I authorise the University to test any work submitted by me, using text comparison software, for instances of plagiarism. I understand this will involve the University or its contractor copying my work and storing it on a database to be used in future to test work submitted by others.

I understand that I can obtain further information on this matter at

Note: The attachment of this statement on any electronically submitted assignments will be deemed to have the same authority as a signed statement.


Date received from student

Assessed by:

Dispatched (if applicable):

1034 words

In this assignment I will be writing about whether it is inevitable that Australia will become a Republic or stay as a Monarchy. I will be putting forward a case if I agree or disagree with Mr. Abbott who is the Leader of the Opposition about whether Australia should stay monarchist country or become a republic. I have a theory and I agree with Mr. Abbott that why fix a constitution that isn??™t broken. To become a Republic would take a referendum and then the results would have to go to parliament and then they would have a debate and then have a vote to see if the referendum passed or was defeated; and this would take a while to happen as nothing happens in government in a hurry.

Our constitution is over one hundred years old and is still relevant to today??™s society; I can understand people wanting a republic but have they realized how long and a costly exercise it would be and I think the money could be spent on more important things (health and education). For an amendment or adoption of the present constitution there would have to be an abolition of the monarch??™s role as Head of State and then we would need to create a new office. There would need to be provisions for the appointment and also how the Head of State could be removed; other provisions that need to be removed would be the references to the Queen and her representative the Governor General. Or we could adopt what would be classed as an Executive President which would need a completely new constitution.

To change the constitution there would need to be a referendum and the advantages of this is that the population of Australia has the right to have a direct input into the process of change; the disadvantages are that since the constitutions inception there have been 42 amendments and only eight have been passed and of the thirty-four rejected proposals only five have attracted a majority of the total number of voters, but they failed to attract a majority in four or more states we see this as Australians are reluctant to make any radical change. (1) After changing the Constitution we would then need to change the name from the Commonwealth of Australia to what the Federal Republic of Australia; but there doesn??™t seem to be a strong case to change the name. Do we change the Governor Generals title to President, but there should be no need to change the preamble of the constitution

To change the Head of State from the Queen to for example a president, how would they be elected; by the Parliament, by the Prime Minister (which could lead to a conflict of interest), by the Council of Australian States or by the People. In a Republic the Head of State would have the same powers of the Governor General so why change what we already have; it has worked for over one hundred years and I don??™t see any reason for change. In the modern constitutional monarchy it consists of democratically elected parliaments and their leaders; such as the prime minister, who exercises the power of the government. The difference between a constitutional monarchy and a republic is considered to be more of a difference of detail than of substance. In both cases the titular head of state either monarch or president serves the traditional role of embodying and representing the people of the nation, while the actual governing of the country is carried by the elected Prime Minister.

A constitutional republic is a form of representative democracy where the head of state and other elected officials must govern according to the existing constitutional law that limits the government??™s power over citizens. This type of republic has been described as a government of laws not people and these republics are a deliberate attempt to diminish the perceived threat of majoritarianism, thereby protecting dissenting individuals and minority groups from the tyranny of the majority. This not a pure democracy but it does has some democratic elements such as the ability of the people to elect their leader (e.g. the American president) and this is the type of republic that the people seem to want to have here in Australia. How would a head of state be elected in a republic, and the head of state would need to be above politics and they should be seen as a non-partisan figure.

With a constitutional monarchy it is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a codified, uncodified or blended constitution. The monarch has strictly Ceremonial duties and they may have reserved powers depending on the country??™s constitution and they have a directly or indirectly elected prime minister who leads the parliament. This system has worked well for Australia over the past one hundred years or so and many people can??™t see the need for change and also don??™t see the need for the unnecessary expense needed for a referendum.

In this instance I agree with Mr. Abbott that a Republic isn??™t inevitable; because as I see it people keep an open mind and they don??™t see the purpose in spending money on a referendum, so that then the parliament will have to agree to pass the laws to change the constitution which usually will take more than a few years; then they will have to enact a Bill of Rights and then get new law passed by the country??™s monarch which will most probably not be passed by her. Until the new laws are passed by the Queen or her representative there can be no changes to our constitution. Then we could have the problem that some of the states don??™t want to become a republic and some do; that will depend on the State??™s constitutions. I cannot see why we can??™t stay the way we are as I said before if it isn??™t broken why fix it, as I stated previously why spend all that money on a referendum when it could be better spent on health, education and infrastructure for the better of the Australian people.


(1) (Tasmanian Advisory Committee on Commonwealth/State Relations, A Republican Australia ??“ Issues for Tasmania, Tasmania 1995).
(G. Lindell, ???The Arrangements for Self-government for the Australian Capital territory. A Partial Road to Republicanism in the State Government 3 Public Law Review, p. 5, 1992).
(K. R. Handley, Constitution Building for a possible Republic ??“ The Problems, Paper delivered at the Curtain Raiser for the People??™s Convention, Great Hall, University of Sydney, 30 November 1996).
(B. Teague, ???The President of the Commonwealth of Australia,??? address by Federal Liberal Senator Baden Teague to the Senate, 25 June 1996)
(Republic Advisory Committee The Report of the Republican Advisory Committee. An Australian Republic, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra 1993)

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Final Final

Category : Articles

History of the Computer |
BIT 123 |

History of the Computer |
BIT 123 |

Minot state university

March 4, 2012
Authored by: Yves Mensah
Minot state university

March 4, 2012
Authored by: Yves Mensah

Computers are electronic devices used for inputting, processing and storing information for future retrieval and use, as explained by Computers have become so embedded in modern day life that they are pretty much used in every industry one can think of, from industry and commerce, to education and research, sports and entertainment to medicine and beyond. Their applications vary from a personal to public use in each of these industries. Common uses range from preparing reports, be it in school or business, analysis to communicating on social networks. But how many a time when we update our Facebook statuses, say from a Dell laptop, or submit a report onto a learning management system using a Hewlett-Packard desktop, have we taken time to think of how these machines came to be These machines we have become so attached we feel we cannot live without anymore Never or not often I guess, and as such this will be the focus of this document.
As extracted from™s nerds??™ timeline, computers have come a long way. Way back most of us can even imagine. The basic idea computing started off with the idea of working out or solving numeric problems. Math problems have been around since about 3,000 B.C. when the abacus (the computer??™s earliest known ancestor) was developed in Babylonia (now Iraq). The abacus was a simple counting aid tool useful then, for livestock or money management. Together with the Arabic number system which was developed at about the same time, it introduced notions of the zero and fixed decimal places for units, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on. This made mathematical computations very easy.
Further on the computer??™s timeline, notable advancements were made when logs were invented in 1614 by John Napier of Scotland. Thanks to him, multiplication and division could be lessened to addition and subtraction.
Not too late, within the same century in 1642, Blaise Pascal made his contribution by way of his remarkable invention of a mechanical calculator. His invention had the capacity of computing up to eight digits. Somehow the device??™s physical set-up was poor as it??™s gears often jammed during operation.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard made his mark as well when he devised an automatic loom controlled by punch cards. This was a closer step towards the development of the computer as the device we know it to be today.
Then there was the outstanding milestone in the development of the computer between 1820 and 1821 by Charles Babbage, often credited as inventor of the computer, who created the ???Difference Engine???, a colossal steam-powered calculator that printed out astronomical tables. His next invention, almost two decades later, the ???Analytic Engine??? was a mechanical problem that solved any mathematical problem using punch cards, similar to Joseph-Marie Jacquard??™s invention.
The development of electrical circuits was crucial in shaping the computer into the device we know it today. A German engineer by the name of Konrad Zuse pioneered the development of computers in this direction when he invented a general programmable calculator in 1941. He was the first to develop a device that manipulated binary math and Boolean logic in electronic calculation.
The next milestone was the conception of Colossus, a British computer designed for code breaking in December, 1943. Two years later, the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer, known throughout history as ENIAC, was developed by the Ballistics Research Laboratory in Maryland, USA, to aid in the preparation of firing tables for artillery.
Advancement of the computer in the electronic direction continued with the advent of the transistor in 1947, courtesy of Bell Telephone Laboratories. This was important as the transistor is the single most important building block of today??™s electronic devices. This paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators and computers (
In 1951, another icon in computer history, the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was developed. This computer had the capacity to store up to 12,000 digits in random access mercury-delay lines.
In 1959, Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor announced the development of the integrated circuit; know commonly today as the IC chip or microchip. It is used today in almost all electronic equipment and has revolutionized the electronics industry since then. Computers have become very affordable today, thanks to the low cost production of microchips.
Fast forward to April of 1964, IBM introduced the IBM 360 which fast became the standard institutional mainframe computer.
History of the Minicomputer
After Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor??™s breakthrough with the microchip in 1959, a typical minicomputer cost about $20,000, definitely a reservation for the rich and institutions unlike today where pretty much anyone can now own one. A microchip that cost about $1,000 back in 1959 now costs less than $10.
Setting up the computer for wide use occurred when Doug Engelbart demonstrated a word processor, an early hypertext system and a collaborative application in 1968. These three have now become popular computer applications.
History of the Microcomputer
The personal computer revolution began in April, 1972 with Intel??™s introduction of the 8008, the very first ever 8-bit microprocessor. Two years later Jonathan A. Titus designed what was termed a ???personal minicomputer??? by an electronics publication of the time. However, it was the MITS Altair 8800 that was hailed as the first personal computer when it was released in January of 1975, and thousands of orders were placed. In just about the same year, Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed BASIC for the Altair ??“ giving birth to Microsoft. And from there on personal computing took off.
The computer was developed across centuries by different collaborators, and will definitely continue to do so in the future. Throughout its evolution it is becoming more complex and at the same time executing more tasks, becoming versatile. It beats the mind to try and think what computers will look like a century from now or wonder what they will do. Applying the history of the computer to the future can reveal that the will do more and better.

Work Cited
Tech Terms. Definition of a computer. Retrieved October, 10 2012 from
PBS. A History of the Computer. Retrieved October, 10 2012 from
Wikipedia. Transistor. Retrieved October, 10 2012 from
Wikipedia. Integrated Circuit. Retrieved October, 10 2012 from

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Business Law- Torts

Category : Articles

Intentional tort- The defendants are liable if an action is intentional .They are liable for the intentional tort of battery. Under this doctrine, the law transfers the perpetrator??™s intent from the target person to the actual victim of the act.

Merchant Protection Statue – this statuatory ???shopkeeper??™s privilege??? permits merchants to stop, detain and investigate suspected shoplifters without being held liable for false imprisionment if (1) there are reasonable grounds for the suspicion, (2) the suspect is only detained for a reasonable time, and (3) the investigation is conducted in a reasonable manner.

Trespass ??“ The fact that someone is acting unlawfully while intruding does not justify use of an object intended to injure unless other circumstances are presented.

Assault (can be crime and tort)- Generally, a person commits criminal assault if he purposefully, knowingly, or recklessly inflicts bodily injury upon another; if he negligently inflicts bodily injury upon another by means of dangerous weapon; or if through physical menace, he places another in fear of imminent serious bodily injury . A person commits tortious assault when he engages in “any act of such a nature as to excite an apprehension of battery [bodily injury]

Battery is An act which, directly or indirectly, is the legal cause of a harmful contact with anothers person makes the actor liable to the other, if:(a) the act is done with the intention of bringing about a harmful or offensive contact or an apprehension thereof to the other or a third person, and(b) contact is not consented to by the other or the others consent there to is procured by fraud or duress, and (c) the contact is not otherwise privileged.

Negligence ??“ the law provides that in order for a defendant to be held liable for negligence, he must owe the plaintiff a duty of care and must breach this duty.
??? Duty of care -is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. It is the first element that must be established to proceed with an action in negligence.
??? Breach of Duty Once it is established that the defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff/claimant, the matter of whether or not that duty was breached must be settled
??? contributory negligence is a defense because it destroys the plaintffs ability to recover for her injury. However, comparative negligence is not a defense. In a jurisdiction that uses comparative negligence, the plaintiff may recover provided that her actions do not meet a certain threshold.

Causation ??“ a person who commits a negligent act is not liable unless this act was the actual cause and proximate cause of the plaintiff??™s injuries. Actual cause is measured by the ???but for??? test, which may be stated as follows: the defendant??™s conduct is not a cause of the event if the event would have occurred without it. The law establishes a point along the damage chain after which a negligent party is no longer responsible for the consequences of his negligent act. This limitation on liability is referred to as proximate cause or cause in foreseeability.

Negligence per se ??“ In a negligence per se action, the plaintiff must prove (1) that a statue existed, (2) the statue was enacted to prevent the type of injury suffered, and (3) the plaintiff was within the class of personas to be protected by the statue. Under the negligence per se doctrine, the injury party does not have to prove the plaintiff breached his duty because the statue establishes that.

Liability of landowners- generally, landowners owe a duty of ordinary care to invitees and licensees, but only a duty to not wantonly and willfully injure trespassers.(someone ridiing a bike in my land)

Liability of common carriers – is a person or company that transports goods or people for any person or company and that is responsible for any possible loss of the goods during transport. A common carrier holds itself out to provide service to the general public without discrimination. Common carriers have dutie of care and must protect people and goods. Imposing this duty on public carriers is not unreasonable, since they have many methods that may be employed to protect passengers. There is a special relationship between the carrier and the passenger because bus passengers are ???sealed in a moving stell cocoon???, have no control over who is admitted onto the bus, and are wholly dependent on the bus driver to summon help or provide a means of escape when a occasion arises where such assistance is necessary.

Emotional distress- to be successful in a law suit for negligent infliction of emotional distress, the plaintiff must prove that 1) a relative was killed or injured by the defendant 2) the plaintiff suffered severe emotional distress and 3) the plaintiff??™s mental distress resulted from a sensory and contemporaneous observance of the accident. (truck hitting and killing a passenger of my car).

Defense ??“ a defendant may raise a defence (or defence) in an attempt to avoid criminal or civil liability. Besides contesting the accuracy of any allegation made against him or her in a criminal or civil proceeding, a defendant may also make allegations against the prosecutor or plaintiff or raise a defence, arguing that, even if the allegations against the defendant are true, the defendant is nevertheless not liable.
Business Ethics

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Final Fantasy Sexist

Category : Articles

Are the Final Fantasy games sexist

NOTE: Before you nag on me. I live in Hong Kong,
so eastern and western feminism may be different here.
Feminism in Asia and Japan may not be PC as is in west,
but these are just my opinions, so PRETTY PLEASE dont flame me ;_;

Final Fantasy games, despite FF6 and FFX2 having females as leads, SEXIST

Personally, I think so, compaired to other games like Rudra no Hihou (Rudras Treasure),
SD4: Legend of Mana and the SaGa series. Yeah yeah,
dont give me that lecture on how alot of Asian countries and Japan are anti-feminist,
when they are not. Women and Men work together as they do in the west and Women CHOOSE
whether they want to be sexpots or not.

Now, back to my rant here.
Why do most gamers say that alot of the heroines in the Final Fantasy games strike a blow for feminism. Au contrair!

On looks, why do most of the female characters look like bullimic, silicone pumped Brittney Spears or Barbie doll wannabes
And holding that stuff up to young girl gamers That is basically saying the message “IF you have a size zero to five figure,
have fake breasts and wear skin tight or revealing clothing, everything will be fine!” No wonder here in Hong Kong we have
little girls dressing all trampy and stuff. Im not saying that the girls should be overweight (UGH!), but at least have
them from size six to ten, or sizes twelve to fourteen and please, HAVE THE GIRLS WEAR ARMOR OR REAL CLOTHING!

Other than how the Final Fantasy heroines physical appearances,
most of them seem to be quite dependent on men or be really boy crazy.
Come on now, that is so 1980s video gaming. The only difference is,
that the girls of Final Fantasy have to join your party and have to learn to fight for themselves.
What message is this sending to Girl Gamers here in Asia
“You have to look attractive and have a man in your life. If you dont, you will be wicked.”

Here in Asia, there are just as many girl gamers as there is boy gamers, and girls play stuff from fighting,
to RPGs and Action games. And yes, I have seen positive female role models in alot of Japanese and eastern video games.
In Rudra no Hihou/Rudras Treasure, Riza is you typical paladin claded in armor and clothing, is hard working, has typical
female flaws lacking in FF heroines and does most of the hard work in Rudras world, more than oh, lets say Scion or Dune.
In SaGa Frontier, we were presented to Asellus, the first lesbian character in a Square RPG, willing to complement her own
destiny. And in the recent Seiken Densetsu 4:Legend of Mana, Corona is the oldest sibling of Bud, and seems to be in charge of
things, while Bud is just your typical goof-off little brother.

So see, there are decent female role models in Japanese video games! Why people overlook it, is indeed an unsolved mystery.

So before you nag on about the Grand Theft Auto series (while quite offensive and stereotypical, but nonetheless, politically incorrect fun),
check out the Final Fantasy games and how the females are portrayed. Disturbing thing is, unlike the Grand Theft Auto games (where no one is suppose
to be a role model!), these anorexic, boy crazy, super model heroines with silicone boobs are held up to girl gamers as role models here, which is
indeed ironic and hypocritical.

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Final Exam

Category : Articles

19) Which of the following is not a cost driver of customer services costs A. Number of service calls is not a cost driver of customer services costs. B. All of these answers are correct C. Hours spent servicing products are not a cost driver of customer services costs. D. Travel costs are not a cost driver of customer services costs.

20) Which value chain function would include the cost of computer-aided design equipment and cost to develop the prototype of a product A. The production function would include these costs. B. The marketing function would include these costs C. The distribution function would include these costs. D. The design of product, services, and processes function would include these costs.

21) Which value chain function would include depreciation on transportation cost A. The distribution function would include depreciation on transportation cost. B. The marketing function would include depreciation on transportation cost C. The production function would include depreciation on transportation cost. D. The customer service function would include depreciation on transportation cost.

22) If the sales price per unit is $100, the unit variable cost is $75, and total fixed costs are $150,000, then the break even volume in dollar sales rounded to the nearest whole dollar is _____. A. $600,000 B. $150,000 C. $200,000 D. $1,500

23) Hug Me Company produces dolls. Each doll sells for $20.00. Variable costs per unit total $14.00, of which $6.25 is for direct materials and $5.25 is for direct labor. If total fixed costs are $435,000, then the break even volume in dollars is _____. A. $1,450,000 B. $435,000 C. $621,429 D. $1,023,529

24) Walnut Corporation sells desks at $480 per desk. The costs associated with each desk are as follows: Direct materials $195 Direct labor 126 Variable factory overhead 51 Total fixed costs for the period are $456,840. The contribution margin per desk is _____. A. $195 B. $126 C. $51 D. $108

25) _____ is a method of approximating cost functions. A. Cost driver analysis B. Account analysis C. Product analysis D. Transaction analysis

26) Managers should apply two principles to obtain accurate and useful cost functions. These principles are ____. A. plausibility and believability B. believability and validity C. reliability and validity D. plausibility and reliability

27) _____ of approximating cost functions does not involve the analysis of past costs. A. High low analysis B. least-squares regression C. Engineering analysis D. Visual fit analysis

28) _____ is a name for a system that first accumulates overhead costs for each of the activities of an organization, and then assigns the costs of activities to the products, services, or other cost objects that caused that activity. A. Activity based costing B. Transaction costing C. Transaction based accounting D. Cost driver accounting

29) The change from traditional costing to activity-based costing may reveal that _____. A. both high and low volume products are undercosted B. both high and low volume products are overcosted C. high volume products are overcosted D. low volume products are overcosted

30) _____ need cost accounting systems. A. Manufacturing firms, service organizations, and nonprofit organizations B. Manufacturing firms and nonprofit organizations C. Manufacturing firms and service organizations D. Service organizations and nonprofit organizations

31) A _____ gives the expected sales under a given set of conditions. A. sales forecast B. budget forecast C. sales prediction D. sales budget

32) _____ budgeting is when budgets are formulated with the active participation of all affected employees A. Shared B. Participative C. Financial D. Team

33) _____ models are mathematical models of the master budget that can react to any set of assumption about sales, costs, and product mix. A. Futuring B. Accounting C. Budgeting analysis D. Financial planning

34) Important factors considered by sales forecasters include all of the following except _____. A. the desired level of sales B. competitors??™ activities C. past patterns of sales D. marketing research studies

35) Unit sales of Product A are currently 10,000, while unit sales of Product B are double those of Product A. The com?¬panys sales forecast will be _____, assuming sales of Product A increase by 10% and those of Product B increase by 4,000 units. A. 11,000 and 22,000 units, respectively B. none of these answers is correct C. 10,000 and 20,000 units, respectively D. 11,000 and 24,000 units, respectively

36) A sales forecast is _____. A. the result of decisions to create conditions B. all of these answers are correct C. a prediction of sales under a given set of conditions D. the same as a sales budget that will generate a desired level of sales

37) The master budget quantifies targets for all of the following except _____. A. production B. cost driver activity C. sales D. markets

38) _____ probably would not be used as a measure of activity in a flexible budget. A. Number of direct labor hours worked B. Number of hours worked by salespeople C. Sales volume D. Number of machine hours used

39) _____ are components of a master budget. A. An operating budget and a financial budget B. A cash budget and an activity budget C. A strategic plan and an operating budget D. A continuous budget and a static budget

40) _____ is not a type of cost allocation. A. Reallocation of costs from service departments to production departments B. Reallocation of costs from production departments to service departments C. Allocation of costs to the appropriate organizational unit D. Allocation of costs of a particular organizational unit to products or services

41) The use of budgeted service department cost rates protects using departments from _____. A. all of these answers are correct B. service outages C. price fluctuations D. service department efficiencies

42) Cost allocation base refers to the _____. A. cost objectives B. total allocated costs C. total costs to be allocated D. cost driver

43) Murphy Company has two service departments, Maintenance and Personnel, as well as two production departments, Mixing and Finishing. Maintenance costs are allocated based on square footage while personnel costs are allocated based on number of employees. The following information has been gathered for the current year: Maintenance Personnel Mixing Finishing Direct dept. costs $126,000 $84,000 $105,000 $175,000 Square footage 800 400 1,600 1,200 Number of employees 8 12 24 32 If the step-down method of allocating costs is used and the Personnel Department is allocated first, then the amount of overhead that would be allocated from Personnel to Mixing is _____. A. $78,000 B. $63,000 C. $58,500 D. $31,500

44) Kevin Company has two service departments, Maintenance and Personnel, as well as two production departments, Mixing and Finishing. Maintenance costs are allocated based on square footage while personnel costs are allocated based on number of employees. The following information has been gathered for the current year: Maintenance Personnel Mixing Finishing Direct dept. costs $126,000 $84,000 $105,000 $175,000 Square footage 800 400 1,600 1,200 Number of employees 8 12 24 32 If the step-down method of allocating costs is used and the Personnel Department is allocated first, then the amount of overhead that would be allocated from Personnel to Finishing is _____. A. $105,000 B. $31,500 C. $72,000 D. $42,000

45) Gomez Company has two service departments, Maintenance and Personnel, as well as two production departments, Mixing and Finishing. Maintenance costs are allocated based on square footage while personnel costs are allocated based on number of employees. The following information has been gathered for the current year _____. Maintenance Personnel Mixing Finishing Direct dept. costs $126,000 $84,000 $105,000 $175,000 Square footage 800 400 1,600 1,200 Number of employees 8 12 24 32 If the step-down method is used to allocate costs and the Maintenance Department is allocated first, the amount of overhead that would be allocated from Maintenance to Mixing is: A. $36,000 B. $42,750 C. $42,000 D. $63,000

46) _____ is (are) used for external reporting. A. Absorption costing and variable costing B. Direct costing C. Variable costing D. Absorption costing

47) _____ is another term for variable costing. A. Absorption costing B. Traditional costing C. Direct costing D. Full costing

48) In absorption costing, costs are separated into the major categories of_____. A. variable and nonmanufacturing B. fixed and variable C. manufacturing and fixed D. manufacturing and nonmanufacturing

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Business Law Offer and Acceptance Video

Category : Articles

Option 3: Contracts: Offer and Acceptance Video
Julie Garcia
August 22, 2011
Angela Floyd

Contracts: Offer and Acceptance Video
Businesses are full of agreements made between individuals and other businesses. Although verbal agreements exist a formal contract provides better protection for both parties involved. Because formal contracts are legally binding, this formality serves as a safeguard for a business in a court of law. ???Written contracts provide individuals and businesses with a legal documentation, stating the expectation of both parties and how negative situations will be resolved??? (Vitez, Media 2011).
For the purpose of this assignment, option three, Contracts: Offer and Acceptance has been selected. Based on the implied terms of the contact verbally communicated in the video a contract will be created.
Seller: Non-Linear Pro
Item Purchased:
1each Non-Linear Pro
Special Terms and conditions
Training Included
Option to buy or lease
One-month trial bases, plus the cost of leasing the equipment

Although the seller, Jack Brannan convinces the customer into a one-month trail, the agreement has several gray areas. For instance, the seller of the Non-Linar Pro never answered the buyer??™s question of how often the item needed to be upgraded or advised any fee??™s or price point for upgrades.
The training included was not detailed. For instance, how many days or how many trainers will be provided at time of trial, purchase, or lease period. In addition, there was no talk or negotiations about future technical questions or maintenance for the Non-Linear Pro.
Although the buyer and seller agreed on the one-month trial bases, neither party discussed the cost of leasing the equipment. This is a major concern. The buyer and seller should have worked out pricing for both a lease and an outright purchase. This would have allowed the buyer to make a more economical choice.
Also Jack Branna never addressed the lead-time for this item. Jack should have given the customer a time frame regarding when the Non-Linar Pro will be delivered or the exact start date of the one-month trail.
Another important aspect that was left out was the payment terms. Does the buyer need to pay the leasing cost of the equipment upfront, before the unit is delivered, or at the end of the trial. Also if the buyer decides to purchase the Non-Linar Pro will the money that was already paid for the one-month trial be deducted if the Non-Linar Pro is purchased or leased.

This transaction has left room for assumptions. Making assumptions can be dangerous in the business world. The seller should have outlined clearly the terms of the sale. By detailing specific terms and conditions, he would protect himself, his company, and the equipment. The buyer should have also outlined expectations for this transaction. Although the buyer asked several important questions, he never received an answer. The above example contact is scary to look at because it contains no details to any aspect of the transaction. Both parties should have executed a formal contract.

Chron Small Business Retrieved August 22, 2011

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Final Essay

Category : Articles

Department of Economics University of California Berkeley

Fall 2012 Economics 1 Professor Olney

The Comprehensive Essay Question
This is exactly the question you will be given on December 11 as your comprehensive essay question. Options: [1] You can write your essay during the final on Dec. 11. Or [2] You can turn the essay in by Dec. 7. If you choose to write your essay during the December 11 exam, we??™ll provide you with lined paper. If you choose the Dec. 7 (early) option: Essay must be submitted via bspace ???assignments??? tab. Due date is Friday December 7, 5:00 p.m. No late electronic submissions. 10-11-12 pt font; double spaced; 1,000 words maximum; your name & SID & GSI??™s name on first page. Use ???quote marks??? and cite your sources. Works cited page not included in 1,000 word maximum. Congratulations! You??™re an intern in your U.S. Senator??™s office in Washington DC. Fabulous job!! You??™ve been asked to write a briefing paper for the Senator outlining the economic issues inherent in the negotiations over the ???Fiscal Cliff??? (or as some term it, the ???Austerity Bomb???). Her memo to you follows. You want to impress your new boss with how much you learned in your econ class at Cal. You also want to make a positive contribution, so you want to be clear and organized. The Senator truly wants your recommendation, which should be well supported by the arguments you put forth in the briefing paper. You??™ve got at least a week before she wants your paper, so that??™s plenty of time to do a bit of research if you need to learn more about the issues. On January 1, a set of federal tax increases and spending cuts totaling about $600 billion are scheduled to go into effect. Congress can take action before or after January 1. I must decide what action I will support. The options seem to be [1] do nothing and let the tax increases and spending cuts take effect on January 1; [2] do something small, letting most but not all of the changes take effect; or [3] do something big, letting few if any of the tax increases and spending cuts take effect. I need your economic analysis to guide me as I make my decision. There??™s a bit of political brinkmanship going on in terms of the timing of what we in Congress do. Your analysis doesn??™t need to address whether we enact changes before or after January 1. I??™ve got a Poli.Sci. intern writing a briefing paper on that issue. I??™d appreciate it if you could address the following issues in your briefing paper. If there are other important issues that you think I should also consider, feel free to include those in your paper. But do address these issues, please. ??? Impact on businesses of increases in taxes they pay. I??™ve heard some say that increasing taxes paid by businesses could trigger thousands of bankruptcies. Others dispute this claim and say the businesses will just pass the taxes on to their consumers. I need help making sense of all this. Debt and deficit issues. Some say this is the time to reduce the federal budget deficit because it is ???too big.??? Others say this is not the time because the economy is still weak. Yet others say that the structural deficit isn??™t as big as the total deficit, and it??™s the structural deficit that matters. How do I sort all this out Monetary policy. I??™ve heard some say that because the Fed is facing the zero lower bound, they can not use interest rate policy to offset the contractionary effects of tax increases and spending cuts. How would they normally react to the fiscal changes Is it true that they are unable to aid the economy now Unemployment and inflation. What would be the effect of the tax increases and spending cuts on unemployment and inflation I??™d like to protect my constituents as best I can. If the spending cuts were all focused on some other region of the country, would that protect the workers in our state The mix of taxes and spending. It sounds as if whatever we do, there will be damage to the economy. Can we mitigate some of that damage by picking and choosing whose taxes to increase and which spending to cut Can you provide some suggestions





Finally, I??™d appreciate your opinion. What option do you recommend I follow and why I??™m particularly interested in the reasons behind your recommendation. And, as always, Go Bears!

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Business Law Ip 1

Category : Articles

UCC and UCIC 1
David S Myers
Unit 4 IP
Business 255-100A-2
Professor Bassey
American Intercontinental University Online
Jan 31, 2010

This report will be discussing the UCC and UCITA, and the following 4 questions will be answered.


1. Before the UCC and the UCITA, what was one of the first, and most significant, of the U.S. governments attempts to promote uniformity in commercial laws from state to state (Hint: think of “commerce” and Constitution).

Answer: According to the Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act is a proposed law that will govern all contracts for the development, sale, licensing, support and maintenance of computer software and for many other contracts involving information. (guide, 1997-2000) The most significant attempt to promote uniformity in commercial laws from state to state was the ???Commerce Clause???, which is found in article 1 section 8 of the U. S. Constitution. The two key factors in section 8 are; ???To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes??? and ???To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States???.

2. Based on the information presented above, what do you see as the major differences between Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code and UCITA

Answer: The UCC Article 2 is governs contracts to facilitate the sale, shipment and delivery of tangible goods, i.e., movable personal property in the USA
3. What is the legal distinction between selling a product and licensing it
Answer: The UCITA is intended to facilitate the “licensing” of intangible computer-related intellectual property, with an emphasis on permitting owners of software the ability to maintain control over their intellectual property forever. In an ordinary sale, software, despite the presence of a “shrinkwrap” licensing contract, is considered the property of the buyer, after the transaction takes place, and the buyer is free to essentially ignore any portion of the agreement that prevents the buyer from exercising control over the software, including the right of resale.? 
A sale is a complete and final transfer from a seller to a buyer, of all right, title and interest in and to the property identified in the contract. A license is the right to use the

property of another under certain agreed-upon terms and conditions.

4. Many of the provisions in the UCITA were first proposed as a modification to Article 2 of the UCC. Why do you think the drafters decided to propose it as a separate and distinct uniform act

Answer: The UCITA is extremely controversial. It stands hundreds of years of contract law “on its head.” The UCITA interferes with the U.S. Copyright Act by effectively limiting what is known as the “First Sale Doctrine,” which permits a purchaser of a copy of the creative work of another, the right to resell that copy. To this extent, the UCITA may be unconstitutional.

guide, B. S. (1997-2000). Bad Software. Retrieved 01 31, 2010, from Bad Software:
Kraner, C. (2001). UCITA and Proposed Revision to UCC Article 2. Retrieved 01 31, 10, from UCITA and Proposed Revision to UCC Article 2:


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Final Essay

Category : Articles

page one

Renting an Apartment is a better option than Buying a House.
Vanessa Ocampo
Com/156 University Composition and Communication II
Jeffrey Pietruszynski

The topic that I??™ve decided to write my final essay about is, renting an apartment is a better option than buying a house. Whether renting is a better options than buying depends on many people??™s income and if they have a decent secure job. When it comes to concerning renting an apartment or a house it can be somewhat time- consuming “for example” from the initial application to the lease document itself, and including everything in between, the process doesnt always move fast, depending on? how fast the landlord wants to be in doing his background checks. Understanding the process is the best way to ensure that both parties receive the transaction successfully.
Once a tenant expresses interest in a rental property, the first thing she or he may do is view the property inside and out. If she or he is still interested, she or he may fill out an application. This gives the landlord personal information on the tenant so the landlord can begin doing some background checks. He may run the information through the? credit? bureaus? (if the tenant gives permission to do so) and through local court systems to make sure there is nothing unsavory about the renters.
Another aspect of renting a property is the process of reference. For a tenant, “this” is similar to a job? application, where a employer may check the past employers to ensure she or he was a good employee; landlords want to make sure of the same thing when it comes to concerning rental history. Landlords use this process to discover if past landlords had problems with the tenant, what the tenants payment history was like and if the past landlord would rent to this person again.
Once the landlord has checked references and determined that the rental candidate is desirable, he or she may make an offer to the tenant. During this time, the tenant may negotiate concession associated with renting the property. Perhaps the landlord found something during the walk-through that needs to be fixed, or they may ask for a lesser rent price because of a lack of certain services.
page two
This is the final step of the process. The landlord will gather a lease that includes clause for any concession he may have made during the negotiation process. The landlord will also specify rental procedures in this document, from when the rent is due each month to late fees payments and anything else the tenant may need to know. The tenant looks over the lease and if they agrees with whats included, the renters may sign it and receive the keys right away.

Overall when renting an apartment or a house it give the person the flexibly to choose according to his or her income. The good thing about renting is that the rent is at a fixed rate and if there was a annual rise, and the renters couldnt afford that rise than they are free to leave and look somewhere else where they can afford paying rent. Buying a house in these indefinite times of economic recession is indeed an added burden. In another words it is just a matter of choice and affordabilitys while renting an apartment, but buying a house is a baggage of economic responsibilities and strenuous binding.

Selecting a buyers agent to help you find your dream home is an important first step or if you dont want a real estate agent thats up to you and your spouse. Buying a house is one of the most important transactions youll ever take on. It is exciting, and you can keep the stress level to a minimum if you take the time to learn about your legal rights and how the home buying process works in California. First-time home buyers and repeat buyers need to be informed. Like most home buyers, youll probably work with a real estate broker or salesperson (agent) to find your new home. A license is needed for someone to participate in a real estate transaction. Generally, this is a broker, with salespersons working under a managing or sponsoring brokers. When you contact a real estate professional, she or he should provide a? consumer disclosure form? explaining all the roles of buying a house.

Looking at a homes involves more than finding one attractive to your eyes, but overall condition is important. When you visit homes for sale, sellers must disclose of all important facts about the homes defects. It doesnt matter if disclosure affects whether the property will sell, or the ultimate sales price paid. When you find a house youd like to buy, your agent will put together a? purchase and sale agreement, which contains all of the terms of the sale, including:

page three

* Sellers and purchasers names and addresses
* Purchase price and down payment
* Financing arrangements
* The propertys legal description
* Requirement for good and marketable title
* Property condition
* Closing and possession dates
* Statement of settlement costs
* Condition for who bears the risk if the property is damaged before closing
* Property liens

When you buy a house, you also buy? title insurance. A? title search? is a review of public records, looking for any problems with the titles validity before closing. The policy insures against loss dues because of certain title defects that didnt turn up during the title search. Your real estate or title company investigates the? legal title? of the property you want to buy, and may find issues youll need to understand.

Typical title issues relate to easements and liens. An easement is a right to use property, such as a utility easement. Liens are a charge against a property to satisfy the current owners debt. Tax liens, mechanics liens and mortgages are examples. You usually wont want your new home to be subject to the sellers unpaid liens. The title search serves to reveal whether there are possible title problems. A lawyer can help you assess and solve these problems so you can complete your purchase and enjoy your new home without worries.

So weather your buying or renting it can be confusing all at the same time but a vital decision can happen while we settle down in life. If we take into consideration the above factor of cost, maintenance, time and, anguish, it certainly assures that renting a house is more lucrative than buying a house. Renting a house gives the renters a complete freedom from stress and anguish, and also saves their time to enjoy a happy and healthy affordable lifestyle.

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Business Information Systems Proposal

Category : Articles

Business Information Systems Proposal
Timothy Frost
August 14, 2012
Rob Fisher

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3-4

Information Systems Overview 5

* Information Systems 5-6
* Information Systems Advantages and Disadvantages 7-8

Everyone??™s Favorite Records Business Proposal
This is a business proposal representative of Everyone??™s Favorite Records; a startup for a small brick & mortar record company based in Tampa, Florida. The purpose of this proposal is to highlight several information systems that will be incorporated so as to simply and organize its operations, their uses, and the benefits and drawbacks for implementing these systems.

Information Systems, used in every business today from private to public as well as government organizations are necessary to every company??™s operations. They are the processes for organizing and streamlining operations using software, hardware, and networking technology. Information Systems are important and without them companies cannot function. They allow information to be sent and receive through different channels and for the input and output of data originating from multiple geographical locations simultaneously. These functions enable proper control and managing of various operations within an organization. Many of these systems operate from either a CPU or within an organization??™s network server. In today??™s global economy many companies utilize several of these information systems and many of these systems are interdependent upon other systems so as to efficiently operate. Following is an overview of several information systems that will be integrated in the operations for Everyone??™s Favorite Records store.

Information Systems Overview

There are many information systems that companies use throughout their operations to ensure they are operating at maximum efficiency as it relates to expenditures, allocation of resources, and management of employees. Below is an illustration of the various information systems in use.

To provide further clarity I will explain the various information systems utilized by Everyone??™s Favorite Records store and how they will be implemented into the operations to organize and manage data.
1. Functional Area Information System: this system will allow activities to be performed by specific departments such as marketing, payroll, sales, etc.
2. Management Information System: this system involves the collection of information necessary to compile reports and data, which is useful for solving problems and determining profitability.
3. The Decision Support System: this system allows access to data and analysis tools that is necessary for making decisions.
4. The Electronic Commerce System: this system provides a platform that enables transactions among organizations and individuals via Internet or Intranet.
5. The Office Automation System: this system allows daily activities to be completed among individuals using various office tools like Microsoft Word, Excel, etc.

Information Systems Table

The following table highlights the information systems in use by Everyone??™s Favorite Records, their functions, and examples of use.

Type | Function | Examples |
Functional Area Information System | Provides support for the various activities within an organization | System used for processing payroll |
Management Information System | Provides reports related to specific transactions | Compiling sales data |
Decision Support System | Provides access to data and analysis tools | Using data to make budgetary changes |
Electronic Commerce System | Enables various transactions among customers and organizations | Internet and Intranet |
Office Automation System | Support daily work activities within an organization | Utilizing tools such as Microsoft Word, Excel, Power point |

Advantages of Information Systems

There are many benefits to using these information systems within our organization as they will contribute greatly to our competitiveness in the market. Some of these benefits are:
1. Reduce expenses
2. Efficient management of time
3. Maintain accurate inventory and product levels
4. Accurately record data for budgeting and planning purposes
5. Provide useful resources and tools for employees such as software and hardware
Disadvantages of Information Systems

There are also drawbacks to using information systems within our organization. These disadvantages include:
1. System and equipment failure resulting in possible loss of data or slow operations
2. Increased utilities costs to maintain
3. Eliminates the human factor because of automation, thus resulting in possible job losses
In conclusion information systems are vital to every company??™s operations. They allow for information to be collected and use for many purposes such as data management, sales, payroll processing, planning, budgeting, etc. They play a key role in measuring a company??™s performance, their efficiency, and creates customer value by enabling companies to establish relationships with customers. The use of these systems is the contributing factor to the success of many small and large companies, and enables interaction among customers and companies globally. The benefits to using these systems outweigh greatly the disadvantages of their use. If our company is to be competitive in the marketplace and grow it is imperative that we employ these systems. For without them Everyone??™s Favorite Records store will surely fail and become another statistic.

Information Systems & Small Business: Research Issues. (2004, Oct-Dec). Journal of Global Information Management, 12(4), 5. Retrieved from
New Developments Concerning Business Information Systems. (2005). Management Research News, 28(11-12), 164-170. Retrieved from
Powerful Proposals: How to Give Your Business the Winning Edge. (2005, Nov). Technical Communication, 52(4), 467-468. Retrieved from
Rainer Jr., R. K., & Cegielski, C. G. (2007). Introduction to Information Systems (3rd ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database..