Origins, major ideas & importance of ascetic & mystical Islamic religion in society & politics of turbulent era in Western Asia from the 12th century to the 17th century.

It is however understandable that Western influences may be the reason for the extreme and negative feelings of the orthodoxy against Sufism. Indeed, these influences detract from the original Islam to a point where Sufism becomes unrecognizable as originating from Islam. One can therefore understand that the orthodoxy would wish to preserve the purity of Islam by separating themselves completely from this form of Sufism.
However, as Keller also points out, this tends towards a very narrow viewpoint, in which the orthodoxy does not allow for Sufism in any form. Keller affirms that such critics should instead adhere to what is good about Sufism, rather than discarding both the good and the bad by rejecting the direction of worship altogether.