This essay discusses the Southeast Asian Peasant Rebellions of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
This is a comprehensive discussion of whether the Southeast Asian Peasant Rebellions of the 19th and early 20th centuries were localized, nationalistic, or both. The paper cites multiple sources and argues that there were elements of nationalism involved in these rebellions, but that, at the same time, they were often localized events.
“For the most part, during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, peasant rebellions in Southeast Asia have been localized events, usually fairly narrow in scope, as well as in sheer numbers. Nationalism has tended not to render itself a major cause of these uprisings, and instead, the peasants have typically rebelled against local tyrannies and unjust local policies. Southeast Asian residents have traditionally identified strongly with their villages, rather than with their nations, and this sociological organization certainly played a role in the lack of widespread nationalistic rebellions. As colonial rule wore on, however, nationalistic sentiment increased, and eventually gave rise to several nationalist-based peasant uprising in Southeast Asia, including the Hsaya San Rebellion in Burma, and to a lesser extent, the Cao Dai in Southern Vietnam.”