Key Changes in The Nature of SportIn the middle of the nineteenth century the word ‘sport’ was recognised as field events such as hunting, shooting, or fishing with the upper-class/military purposes..
“But from the 1950’s onwards walking clubs were set up by a variety of organisations”-Manchester YMCA.
The organisation of sport has changed in a huge way. Our world has always been affected by patterns of social inequality in the past. Gender, Class, and Race are the highlights of the key changes that have developed through out our history. And did you have black women/men enjoying a game of football with a white upper-class?; unfortunately this was how society was portrayed
Once upon a time gender wasn’t a subject, sport was for white men, it was a ‘male’ thing and women were in the kitchen and expected to respect their feminine image. But women’s rights came about and from that day opportunities for women have developed.
Women play sport and they are winning medals all over the world and are recognised for their talent just as much as men, but still are limited of there equality to males playing sport e.g. a male who win Wimbledon is rewarded more than a female who win’s in the same event. What about football?! this is a phenomenal example of how men are recognised a lot more for sport than women, even though more opportunities for women have developed women are still discriminated. Cardiff City men’s team got paid half a million for winning a cup and the women got paid 75 pound. Male spectators were always more numerous than women, and in sports such as boxing, few women would be present.
Modern sport began increasing in the late 19th century. Most activities were importations from Europe and the United States. They were concentrated in sport/social clubs for young white men of relatively high social class. It was for traditional sports such as soccer, baseball, basketball, cycling, tennis, golf, track and field. The professional athletes were men and from a high class.
But women’s sports were introduced and were becoming more popular.
“1919 Women accepted into the Apline club for the first time and 1900 Field Hockey for the Scottish Women’s Hockey Association was founded.” http://www2.umist.ac.uk/sport/index2.html
In the twentieth century opportunities arises for females e.g. there was women’s tennis and basketball. Female participants were usually upper class.
“The first international Olympic-type sport festivals in the region involved only men, most representing exclusive social clubs.” reference-
Amateur and professional all competed at the same level but today sport for women is targeted for all such as disabled, ethnic, low class. Sport is also categorised in competitions you have different levels of performance ranging from beginners to elite. Male spectators were always more numerous than women, and in sports such as boxing, few women would be present.
Mexico City in 1926 was Tarahumara Indians. There were black baseball clubs, and if there were spectators they would be upper class or elite but more generally, a wide range of social classes and both sexes could be found in the stadiums. Culture today is not an issue e.g. Venus Williams won Wimbledon.
“Although now only a historical since the communist system disintegrated in the early 1990’s, this culture, dominated by the Soviet Union, is worth study because of the phenomenal sporting success Eastern Bloc countries achieved in a short space of time.”
The role models today are form ethnic minorities and have proved to be successful and culture is not as discriminated against and more doors are opening for this area.
Education Physical education existed almost exclusively in single-sex private schools that catered to the upper classes. Callisthenics and team sports were the main activities. A few schools had sport teams for both boys and girls.
Modern sports have developed in time through for stages:
1) Popular recreation (before 1790)
2) Public school athleticism (1800-1860)
3) Rationalisation of sport (1860-1919)
4) Twentieth century of sport (1920 onward) ref John huneybourne book
This shows sport has proved a successful developed process. For along time Physical education has been apart of education. Sport is valuable to our history because of life’s experiences and achievements it also makes you healthy.
Today sport takes place in schools, colleges and universities. From 1902 the government introduced a new system of practical training which was apart of elementary schools such as the lower-class or private schools. Even though private schools were fortunate to participate, teachers will still reluctant to encourage the system.
Sport was compulsory for military purposes, used in preparation for the army/navy so the kind of lessons would be much disciplined, and they would force to take part in drill activities. But eventually ‘young soldiers’ progressed well into the 1920’s-1904 it gradually became more educated, the board of education took control of the National syllabus, since this accrued military purposes decreased and physical education increased into a compulsory lesson open to public and private schools today.
Today sport is encouraged for all abilities .Physical education is optional outside schools so more opportunities for young talents are out there. Dragon sport is an example of a determined project that motivates young people to increase their participation inside and outside school’s.
Funding was very limited in the nineteenth and twentieth century. Sport wasn’t always easy to run because of lack of recourses and funding. Clubs use to beg or borrow money based of loans ECT… Today these are run by national governing bodies and various development officers who are linked with funding.
Today the National governing bodies draw their income from a variety of sources. Affiliation fees from clubs, associations and individual members. Their are sports council grants that support a number of bodies and development grants for special events from the Foundation for Sport and the Arts, the National Lottery and many more. There is a vast different in the development in funding. Sport has the help from the media on top which helps promote and make more money.
Today sport is targeted for all areas of life such as disabled, low-income, different ability’s, ethnic minority and many more. There are projects that fund for these specific areas and you don’t just fund for the best people in sport they fund for everyone from all walks of life.
There is an immense different in media in sport today. We see and hear sports everywhere. The media have produced an affect on our experience. There was no TV’s in the past so people had to rely on money from spectatorship; promotion for sport was published in newspapers and radios. Today media=funding they both support each other. There are adverts for sport everywhere around the world.
“The BBC alone devotes at least 20 hours each week, and most national newspapers donate 10-20% of their space to reporting sport.”
Now sport is commercialised through newspapers, magazines, mobile phones, and internet. T.V, radio, even adverts on streets and busses I could go on. Sport has become a major interest in our society and role models are used as commodities to sell fashion and because they appear on TV sport has become today’s fashion e.g. .David Beckham, Anna Kournikova.This wouldn’t of been the case in the 1900’s because it wasn’t as funded and developed and this is why sport has increased so popular. Media even publicise special events for disabled such as the Paralympics.
Sponsorship today helps promote sport and fund talent. If you are an elite athlete and are likely to appear on TV your chances of sponsorship is much higher. If anyone label is shown on T.V and they know the world is watching you, and then it will promote their name and bring them money as well as supporting the athlete to success.Soncership is commercial organisation giving financial help and in the past this wouldn’t of happened because their was no media so it goes to show how much of a success they both have on each other.