Puerto Ricans became United State (U.S) citizens in 1917, because the War Department wanted Puerto Ricans to join World War 1 (Advameg Inc., 2008). Puerto Ricans have three historical traditions: Spanish colonial, Afro-Caribbean, and North American, Their religious beliefs and other identifying components of their culture hare heavily upon Spanish and Afro-Caribbean traditions (Advameg Inc., 2008). Puerto Rican people identify strongly with their homeland, even though they are U.S citizens they rarely refer to themselves as Americans. The linguistic affiliation??™s of Puerto Ricans is Spanish, but the Spanish that they speck is different from other Latin Americans or Caribbean regions. The ability to speak English is very large, and the migration between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland and the practice of teaching English, and the exchange of faculty and student between U.S. mainland and Puerto Rican universities is quite common.
Puerto Ricans Political status in American is a freely associate state, that was but in the constitution in 1952 within the federal system of the United States. Prior to the constitution in 1952, neither Puerto Rican women nor illiterate males had been allowed to vote. Although Puerto Rican have been United States citizens since 1917, They cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but those 18 years and older may vote for a resident commissioner to the U.S house of representatives who is allowed to speak but may vote only in committees (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). Puerto Rico has three main political parties, each of which advocates a different political status for the island. The two leading parties are Popular Democratic Party and New Progressive party (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). The Popular Democratic Party supports the continuation of the commonwealth status and the New Progressive Party favors the U.S. statehood (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009).
The economy in Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies, the currency is U.S dollars, the basic minimum rare per hour is $3.61 to $5.15 and the average hourly wage is $8.08. The average family size is 3.6 and the income per family is $27,017. Puerto Rico has its own tax system, and it is based on self-assessment (Welcome to Puerto Rico, 2009). Puerto Ricans religious beliefs are predominantly Catholic, yet their beliefs, rituals, and practices often stay outside the orthodox boundaries of Catholicism. Parts of the island still host beliefs in the evil eye, saint??™ miracles, faith healing and witchcraft (Advameg Inc., 2008). Puerto Ricans families are traditionally where husbands and fathers are heads of households. Older male children are expected to be responsible for younger siblings, especially females. Women are responsible for the day- to- day running of the household (Green).
Mexican Americans are residents of the U.S who trace their ancestry to Mexico. Mexican Americans linguistic is Spanish and it serves as an important unifying force in the Mexican American community. Mexican American does not give up their native language, English is spoken in public but Spanish is used in the home (Microsoft Corporation, 1993-2009). The Religion of Mexican American are mostly Roman Catholic, however, a significant number of Mexican American are Jews. Religious holidays, such as Christmas and Easter are celebrated with passion (Microsoft Corporation, 1993-2009).
Familial conventions of Mexican Americans, traditionally the mother served as the central figure in the family home, they are expected to be passive in relations with their husbands. Many women now work outside their home. Mexican American families often include many adult family members living in the same household for extended periods of time (Microsoft Corporation, 1993-2009). Mexican Americans are blue-collar workers such as service workers, manufacturing workers and farm laborers. The Mexican workers usually met the demands for cheap labor (Mexican American). The economic issues of the Mexican is a major issue with them because their paid less than an American, they are seen as cheap labor.
Mexican American Political stance is considered to be largely supporters of the Democratic Party, bur also support Republican, Green Party or none at all (Mexican American).
Columbian Americans are from the northwest corner of South America and covers an area of 439,735 square miles, about three times the size of Montana. Most Colombian Americans are Roman Catholic; a few are Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, or Hindu. (Sturner, 2008).
Colombia has the highest kidnapping rate, with 2,216 reported abductions in 1998 (Sturner, 2008). The first Colombian American was probably in the nineteenth century. Colombian Americans were among the national groups at the center of a political debate about immigration that reached a peak when immigrant from Asia, Africa outnumbered those from Europe. It called or a stricter control of immigration. Colombian Americans faced serious obstacles to achieving success in the U.S. in the 1990 from other immigrants coming to the U.S.; language was a barrier against advancement because most Colombian Americans did not have the proficiency in English. ???An important holiday is Colombian Independence Day on July 20 (celebrated on November 11 by immigrants from the Caribbean coast), which is marked with traditional foods such as tamales, chorizos, empanadas, Colombian coffee, yuca congelada, tapas, arepas (thick cornmeal patties sometimes served with cheese), obleas (a confection made with two wafers and a layer of caramel in between), a chilled, blended drink made of milk, sugar, and a fruit known as curuba, and the alcoholic beverage aguardiente cristal; creole specialties including ajiaco, a hearty soup made with chicken, several varieties of potato, capers, herbs, avocado, and corn on the cob; and Andean beans, plantains, fried pork skins, and rice. Colombian Americans also share in the celebration of other Latin American independence days and in cultural festivals held from time to time in major cities.??? (Sturner, 2008).
Colombian Americans consider themselves to have the most elegant Spanish spoken in South America. Colombians tend to speck faster than most South Americans. Colombian Americans focal concern is to preserve their families intact against pressures in American society (Sturner, 2008). The traditional values define the home, the husband is the wage earner and head of house and the wife sets the tone of the household. Children are taught to obey their parent and respect authority. Economic traditions are that Colombians moved to the U.S. to work. In the U.S. pursued professional careers, took employment as laborers, factory workers and domestic servants. Colombian Americans has more economic chose in the U.S.
Cuban Americans are descendant of Spanish colonizers and of African slaves. Cubans have had a long history of migrating to the U.S. The National language is Spanish, Cubans who are born in America tend to speak English (Buffington, 2008)Among many Cubans that are born in the United States who speak English at school and speak Spanish at home is considered Spangilsh. The Cuban American family is different in significant way from a Cuban family. The Cuban family is strong parental control over children??™s lives, and the importance of non-nuclear relationships for the nuclear family (Buffington, 2008). In the U.S these elements are less characterize among families. The religion of Cuban Americans are either Roman Catholics or as nonreligious. Cuban Americans say they either have no preference or have another religious affiliation.
Cubans rates of unemployment were lower than those of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans and somewhat higher than white Americans. Cuban Americans are better off financially than other Hispanic Americans and nearly as well off as the average American (Buffington, 2008). Cubans are considered a successful migrant group (Buffington, 2008). Cuban Americans are to be conservative politically and to vote overwhelmingly for the Republican Party in elections. Cubans Are growing in a large number hoping to have the American dream and most do succeed.
(n.d.). Retrieved September 5, 2009, from Mexican American: http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/mexican-american/economic-issues.html
Advameg Inc. (2008). Retrieved Septemper 5, 2009, from Puerto Ricans Orientation: http://www.everyculture.com/Middle-America-Caribbean/Puerto-Ricans-Orientation.html
Advameg Inc. (2008). Retrieved September 5, 2009, from Puerto Ricans Religion and Expressive culture: http://www.everyculture.com/Middle-America-Caribbean/Puerto-Ricans-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html
Buffington, s. (2008). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from Cuban Americans: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Cuban-Americans.html
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2009). Retrieved Septemper 5, 2009, from Puerto Rico : http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482879/Puerto-Rico/54536/Administration-and-social-conditions
Green, D. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from Puerto Rican Americans: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Puerto-Rican-Americans.html
Microsoft Corporation. (1993-2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from Mexican Americans: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761587500/mexican_americans.html
Sturner, P. (2008). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from Colombian Americans: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Colombian-Americans.html
Welcome to Puerto Rico. (2009, February 11). Retrieved September 5, 2009, from Economy: http://welcome.topuertorico.org/economy.shtml