Foundations for Doctorial Study in Psychology

Activity 1.Foundations for Doctoral Study in Psychology

Analyze the major philosophical concepts of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Do you see their concepts as having relevance to the contemporary world

The Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle had similar concepts; they each viewed them according to their beliefs systems. Socrates believes that virtue of piety, wisdom, temperance, courage and justice, and logic, were the result of people ignorance and moral deficiencies because of their lack of knowledge. Many thought that Socrates was wise and morally good and a religious man. Socrates believed that true wisdom is demonstrated by acquiring knowledge and moral understanding through reasoning. Socrates challenges his students thinking by asking them questions to show the fallacies in their thinking and to cause them to reason and analyze their beliefs.

Socrates knew he was not knowledgeable on the scriptures, but still professed himself to have superior knowledge over others. Socrates clearly utilized wisdom as a tool in his teaching to convince others that he had knowledge superior to theirs, and he used this to test the logic of others by asking questions to make them think, and discover what their beliefs were based on. Socrates wanted to increase their understanding of what they believed. Socrates thought that virtue was an innate characteristic of the individual and can not be taught or learned in a classroom. Aristotle called Socrates method of induction a defining belief system that can be acquired through knowledge from scientific methods. Aristotle believes that virtue balances a person??™s deficiencies and excessive sexual traits. Aristotle thought that virtue was lies somewhere in the middle between the mean and the extreme, and that courage is the equivalent of cowardice and foolishness (Brakas, 1988).

Aristotle viewed virtue in ethical terms, and that virtue has to be taught at and early age to instill values and knowledge in the individual. Aristotle believes that there are two kinds of virtue intellectual and practical wisdom. Aristotle politics was based on the prism that man was a product of politics and his nature was to exist for justice and good. Aristotle believed that only a person who was free could be ruled by politics.

Also, he believed that all citizens should have a voice in the democratic decision-making process and that the virtue of a man and his politics will clash because politics have to be master and a man??™s innate believes because they are to warring entities. Politics can correct injustices and justice is based on the rule of the law to govern all citizens.

Aristotle??™ ethics depict human??™s as being good and their actions are motivated by a virtuous spirit which is good and ethical with high moral standards.

An ethical man??™s virtue is a prudent man who doses the right thing because he is intellectually aware of what he is doing and he chooses to do the right thing. One can only intend something which one has the power to do. Virtue is bravery, and a man can exercise temperance in his passion and desires and still keep balance and reason in his life.

A man natural justice is just at times and places the man respects the law and customs of the land. Aristotle knew that sometime a person will not choose to seek virtue because of a weak spirit. Plato and Socrates believed that an individual did not willingly do wrong, but did the wrong thing out of ignorance. In reality Plato thought that as long as the individual was regimented they would do the right thing out of habit.

Plato believed that temperance consists of justice and wisdom which is found in the truth and will bring the man happiness in possession of the truth in a ideal world, which is in itself virtue and happiness.

Plato believe that a person have to take the right road to goodness and wisdom because virtue is a single thing not a composite sign of goodness. Plato thought that people only behave well when they are rewarded.
Plato also, felt that people only pretend to be good when something was in it for them. Their rationale was that if they used wisdom they would make better choices, and fair well, and live a virtuous life. Plato believed that wisdom could not be obtained through learning, but the right beliefs could produce knowledge.
Plato also figured out that mankind s born with knowledge at birth have to recollect knowledge. Plato expounded that all things that are universal are sexually based in sensuality and not mere virtue.
Plato believed in balancing the soul, appetite, spirit, and mind with justice and who has virtue, temperance, courage, and wisdom the individual can avoid the seven deadly sins.

The Socratic Method is widely used in contemporary legal education by many law schools in the United States. In a typical class setting, the professor asks a question and calls on a student who may or may not have volunteered an answer. The professor either continues to ask the student questions or moves on to another student. Socrates had spoken about concepts to his students, and had affirmed the existence of concepts in the field of logic and morality. But he had said nothing of the nature of concepts origin.

Yes, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle concepts have relevance in the contemporary world because Socratic??™ method is still being taught in classrooms today. Teachers utilize Socratic Method to challenge students??™ beliefs by questioning the student??™s knowledge on the subject and require them to form arguments to questions on hypothetical situations to help in the teaching and training the students. Socrates method can aid the student in learning and understanding therapies in psychotherapy, such as psychotherapy and Cognitive therapy to help the student to learn, how to clarify and analyze finding in therapy and alternative methods in the therapeutic setting.
In the workplace Socratic??™s method is used in training Alternative Dispute Resolution with the Human Resource department to offer a solution to disputes.

Newton and Descartes are pivotal figures in the history of psychology. Briefly describe their contributions in relation to your understanding of modern psychology.

Newton contributed to all mathematical analytical methods use to solve problems in scientific methods to solve for the known. Newton used the tool of synthesis in synthetic models of inductive reasoning to find solutions in scientific problems that can be demonstrated and analyzes to make assessments in scientific testing.

Newton??™s contribution to modern psychology is the study the mind using inductive reasoning to solve problems. Newton developments of the reliable theory have been used in human beings to develop scientific disciplines on behaviour and mental processes. Newton??™s study of the mind focuses on both individual and group behaviour interactions. Newton based his theories on clinical psychology in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in specialized fields like child psychology, sports psychology comparative psychology, educational psychology, and social psychology.

Newton??™s research and findings on the issues in psychology included cognition, intelligence, learning, personality, perception, emotion, motivation that are shaped by genetics or environment that use psychological research including laboratory experimentation, interviews, statistical analysis have helped scientists to develop theories that are applicable today in scientific research. Newton thought that a quest for further understanding of reality could only be conceivable if theories were based on universal laws that are governed by laws that can be calculated mathematically in an algebraic equation. Newton??™s deduction phenomena arguments seek to explain rational probabilities in theories in deductive reasoning to show absolute rational probabilities in theories. Newton theorized that truths in analysis of a problem can produce a hypothesis in mathematical inductive logic (Doring, 1990).

Newton also contributed statistics to psychology and statistics have played a huge role in psychology and science.

Newton invented statistics and scientists have used statistics in scientific research to show probability in psychological testing. Studies conducted on the brain and human behavior is possible today because of Newton mathematical statistical assessments.

Descartes made valuable contributions to science, mathematics, and most of all, philosophy. The ???Cartesian philosophy;??? was the first complete and coherent philosophical system of modern times (Descartes, 1960). .Descartes took perhaps the greatest mathematical step in history by applying mathematics to the development of graphical representation of motion by the use of so-called ???Cartesian co-ordinates??? (Descartes, 1960). Descartes goal was to achieve what his antecedents had achieved and to improve on their theories: on the fundamental of the connection between number and form. The trend of medieval mathematics had been to isolate the two, assuming that form was unrelated to the mathematics of quantities and equations. Descartes, by uniting the two realms of mathematics, paved the way for the explanation of the motions of heavenly bodies, the effects of gravity on projectiles, and many more phenomena that had previously been described but never explained in the clear logic of mathematics (Balz, 1952). It is possible that the application of algebraic methods to the geometry of form and motion is the most important step taken in the progress of the exact sciences.

Practitioners of science today use Descartes method to research the knowledge of research paradigms and to get rid of any radical doubts. Also Descartes states that all problems must be put in smaller parts and described as abstract equations. Descartes used the combination of algebra and geometry to express mathematics and algebra in geometric forms with an understanding of properties of objects in the real world by reducing their shapes and approaching them in sense perception. In Descartes statements Cogito ergo sum, ???I think, therefore I exist???, he states that thinking in itself has caused human life to exist (Descartes, 1960). Also Descartes argues that anything seen through sensory perception should be doubted. Descartes asserts that other things should be question and analyzed for the truth and not accepted because of your perceptions…Descartes reasoned as clearly perceived must be subjected to reasoning to receive knowledge Descartes believed that if he presented all his arguments as trains of thought that anyone could understand them and that no one could be swayed (Balz, 1952). In the book Discourse on the Method, Descartes states that ???In which the Author…explains the most abstruse Topics he could choose, and does so in such a way that even persons who have never studied can understand them??? (Descartes, 1960). The job of the scientist was to observe, measure objects, and then explain the causes of the results. Descartes combined inductive and deductive reasoning methods in experimental research to gather evidence in combination with systematic interpretation in deduction of logic (Balz, 1952).

Compare and contrast the Empirical approach of Locke and Hume with the Nativistic views of Leibniz and Kant.

Locke and Hume Empirical approach, experience consists of external reflection and sensation. The major disagreement between the rationalists and empiricists on the source of our ideas was their content and descriptions of knowledge in our world. Furthermore according to them our ideas are complex or simple, with the former being gotten as passive in reflection or sensation and the latter is built by the mind from various mental exercises. At the beginning ideas accounts how counter-example acknowledge and then put aside by Hume presenting his own version of the empiricist theory. For instance when looking at a mental image of a shade of blue, Locke states that the idea is a simple one and should be passed right by the mind through experience, Hume view is contrary to Locke??™s and that mental images are more complicated .. Many critics of Locke??™s account have showed weaknesses in their explanation of how we gain such concepts as mental operation of abstraction on individual cases. (Malherbe 1997). Now going on with Leibniz and Kant, they offer a rationalist reply to the Nativistic views on his first concern in the New Essays on Human Understanding. Where Locke and Hume put forth the image of the mind as blank tablet on the experience he dictates, Leibniz and Kant offer the image of a block of marble in which the veins of which determine the sculpted figures will accept. In this metaphor Leibniz??™s metaphor contains the insight that Locke missed. Furthermore the mind plays a role in getting to the nature of its contents of the mind??™s understanding. However Locke and Hume??™s account of the concept of the acquisition appears reasonable. For noticing the common feature on many things you already have the concept of the feature that is to be questioned (Carruthers, 2006). Hume draws out the important issues of the empiricist in their denial of the Innate Concept thesis. When experience is the source of many ideas, then that persons experience is the determination of the content of our ideas (Hume, 1955). The skeptical arguments of Locke and Hume (which became famous for the tenacity of their logic) they maintained all of that knowledge, even the most basic beliefs about nature that cannot be conclusively established by reasoning. The similarities between Locke & Hume and Leibniz and Kant, was the idea of a necessary connecter between numbers of among event arising from a number of similar examples that had the consistent domino effect in the idea that suggested that circumstances can be surveyed in all positions. Furthermore Locke, Hume, Leibniz and Kant believed that in a number of examples the difference from a, single example, whether it is similar with the repetition of many examples the mind operates on based events in the belief or existence of something in the events. They make connection in the mind which is the customary transition of the imagination of an object and to impress it on the mind so that a form of power can make connection to the idea (Hume, 1955). Also they say that the source of an idea in experience the majority of the time determines its content. Following these ideas and connections human beings may define a cause of an object followed by another that are followed by other objects as similar to the second (Hume, 1955). In their claims Locke, Hume, Leibniz and Kant have the knowledge and causal connections in the world turned to the limited content of empirically based concept of cause, and effect of knowledge and the claim of constant conjunction of events and one??™s feelings of expectation (Hume, 1955).

4. Both James Mill, and his son, John Stuart Mill, are said to have influenced the course of psychology. What was their influence and how did they differ Describe John Stuart Mill??™s position on women rights

Both James and John Stuart Mill contributed to shaping both political economy and academic psychology. Their writings on psychology were published in economics and psychology. James Mill assumptions on economic psychology were based on common sense thinking the goal of psychology is to study how the mind thinks, reason, and how we think affect human behavior. The goal of economics in Psychology is the scientific research to discover how humans manage their spending, and the psychological effects the economic have on human behavior and how through systematic and objective methods of observation and experimentation changing in the economy and human behavior and cognitive functioning His son John Stuart ideas on the economy and human behavior were focus on the psychological Law of and profits and losses between labor and the economy.
Also, James Mill was influential in establishing academic psychology. James Mill??™s study the mind and behavior using science to explain the how the mental processes of association.
Both James Mill and his son, John Stuart Mill believed in associationism ability to explain how mentally the mind makes association. James Mill believed that ideas were added together to form more complex ideas. However, there was a basic flaw with this philosophy: John Stuart Mill believed in the process called mental chemistry where complex ideas are formed not simple ideas that a small child could make up.

John Stuart Mill studied the mind with both schools of psychology posteriori and the priori Mill distinguishes between the a posteriori and a priori schools of psychology. The former ???resolves the whole contents of the mind into experience.??? (Mill, 1963-1991). The latter emphasizes that ???in every act of thought, down to the most elementary, there is an ingredient which is not given to the mind, but contributed by the mind in virtue of its inherent powers.??? (Mill, 1963). In the a priori or intuitionist school, experience ???instead of being the source and prototype of our ideas, is itself a product of the mind??™s own forces working on the impressions we receive from without, and has always a mental as well as an external element.??? (Mill, 1963-1991).

b. Describe John Stuart Mill??™s position on women??™s rights.

John Stuart Mill was an advocate for women rights; he was a forerunner of equal rights for women.
John Stuart Mill lobby for the recognition of women right to personal, legal and political rights He felt that women were just as able as men at supporting themselves in the home or outside the home. John Stuart Mill believed that women should have the right to go to college and become whatever they chose. Mill believed that it was a crime that women were not allowed to contribute their skills to society.
John Stuart Mill gave voice to his objections to the subjugation of women (1869) he gave speeches he viewed men control over women to slavery. John Stuart Mill loudly showed his distain for any man to use his physical strength or violence to isolate and control women he wanted laws implemented to protect women. The males of John Stuart Mill time iterated it was their physical, psychological, and sexual right to dominate the females in their homes, because of their intimate relationships with them.
John Stuart Mill expounded that marriage was a partnership not a dictatorship with to very capable reasoning human beings. Women in John Stuart Mill time were taxed, but could not vote or make as much money as a man. Mill felt that the continual subjugation of women would end the adversely affect society.


Balz, Albert G. A. (1952). Descartes and the Modern Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Brakas, George. (1988). Aristotle??™s Concept of the Universal. New York: Georg Olms Verlag.

Mill, John Stuart. (1963-1991). The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Carruthers, P. (1992). Human Knowledge and Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Descartes, Rene. (1960). Discourse on Method, in Discourse on Method and Meditations.

New York: Library of Liberal Arts.

Doring, Jon. (1990). Reasoning from phenomena: Lessons from Newton. Philosophy of Science Association, 2, 197-208.
Haakonssen, Knud. (1985). James Mill and Scottish Moral Philosophy. Political Studies, XXXIII, 628-641.
Hume, D. (1955). An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs- Merrill.

Malherbe, Michel. (1997). ???Vernunft und Glaube???. herausgegeben von Udo Thiel, 247-270.

Mill, John. (1859). On Liberty. London, UK: John W. Parker and Son, West Strand.