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Assessment Task CYPOP 2 Care for the physical and nutritional needs of babies and young children
In relation to the nutritional needs of a child from 18 months to 36 months show how to plan meals for young children that meet their nutritional needs based on government guidance and information from their carers
Between the ages of 18 and 36 months children start to learn some of their attitudes towards food and also start to develop some likes and dislikes and preferences.
During this period children are growing in height quickly and are normally very active. They therefore need a diet that will provide them with sufficient energy and protein to assist with their growth .
A nutrient dense diet is essential during this period. These are foods that are high in calories but also high in nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals. It is important not to give children foods that have high calorie content but are also high in saturated fat as they do not contain a lot of nutrients but they will fill children??™s stomach up. Such foods include sweets and crisps. Foods such as sugary puddings, pies and fried food or sugary drinks should only be offered very occasionally.
Children in this range should be eating lots of fruit and vegetables.
Settings should provide food that mirrors the meals that children have at home and therefore it is good practice to get parents involved in helping to plan meals. Providing meals that children have at home may also give other children the opportunity to try different types of meals.
Foods that contain salt, lots of sugar, nuts, raw eggs, some fish, low fat and low calorie and high fibre foods should be avoided.
At this age cows milk should be offered. Full fat milk is recommended until the age of 2 years and after that as long as children are eating well they can have semi-skimmed. Skimmed milk should not be given.
The best drinks for children are either milk as above or water. Children need sufficient water to prevent them becoming constipated and dehydrated and water should be available throughout the day.
Children should be introduced to new tastes and as stated a variety of fruits and vegetables. Children should not be forced to try new foods but encouragement and praise should be given to persuade them.
Children should be encouraged to stop eating when they are full and this does not mean when they have an empty plate. Portion size should be appropriate for this age but if children do not finish everything they need to know that it is ok.
Snacks should be offered between meals but these should not be large enough to fill children up so they will not be hungry at their main meal times.
An explanation of food allergies and intolerances that a young child may experience and the importance of following carers??™ instructions on the needs of their child
Some children have food allergies that can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to them if they come into contact with their allergen.
Some allergies are so severe that even if a child is near another child who is eating a certain food they can have a reaction. This can and does effect the food that can be given to all children in a setting.
Making sure that everyone involved in food preparation or distribution must be aware of any allergies and photos and names of children effected need to be displayed clearly in kitchen areas.
Children with allergies may need their own plates and cutlery and key worker may need to supervise meals times so that if for any reason a child has a reaction help can be called quickly.
Signs of allergies include swelling of the lips or eyes, redness to the face, itching or difficulty breathing. Children who already have had a severe reaction may have already been prescribed an Epipen and key workers will have received training on how to administer this. Care plans will also be in place for these children.
Food intolerances, all be not as serious as allergies can still be unpleasant and cause children health problems. Parents may identify these after their children have diarrhoea but it is important to realise that diarrhoea can be caused by other problems and so GP??™s advice should be if it is believed a child has an intolerance.
Coeliac disease is caused by a gluten intolerance which is found in wheat, barley and rye. Common foods contain gluten such as pasta, bread, biscuits and cakes. Gluten free products can be purchased.
Diabetes is a condition that can effect children and also their dietary requirements. It is often necessary that meals and snacks are given at very specific times and parents instructions must be followed carefully. There will also be care plans in place for children effected by this.