CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY There are a lot of studies about the effect of music to memory

There are a lot of studies about the effect of music to memory. Music was defined as a form of entertainment that lessens boredom and it may increase productivity of a person. There’s music in almost everywhere, for example in parties, events, shows, and more. Music listening is one of the most enigmatic of human behaviors. Most common behaviors have a recognizable utility that can be plausibly traced to the practical motives of survival and procreation. Moreover, in the array of seemingly odd behaviors, few behaviors match music for commandeering so much time, energy, and money. Music listening is one of the most popular leisure activities. Music is a ubiquitous companion to people’s everyday lives. (Schäfer, T., et al., 2013). Listening to music is a common pastime amongst many people more so of students and younger people who listen to music while studying.

Music is very popular these days, especially among college students. Roy (2009, p. 505) stated that it’s unusual for students not to be around music; she explains that this is true because of the increased availability of portable music devices and free music on the internet. Mobile phones, MP3 players, Smart phones and any gadget that plays music instantly is readily available in this generation. People have easy access to music; they can listen to it anytime and anywhere, especially students. Music has now become a part of people’s everyday lives, that’s why some students tend to listen to music even while studying. Anderson and Fuller (2010), found that about 70% of students listen to music while studying. The types of sound or beat they prefer even vary. Some have a taste for Acoustic, Jazz, Pop, Rap, Blues or even Folk songs. It really depends on a lot of factors like culture and environment.

Many different genres of music have been studied as to their effects on different variables.

Electronic Music
An article by Lizzie Renck on how EDM enchances our brain. Music always had somewhat an impact on how we do feel, behave and more. But now Carol. A Smith and Larry W. Morris of Middle Tennessee State University had researched that EDM music or anykind of non-lyrical electronic music has positive influence on our cognitive functions of brain. According to Mandala (2016), electronic music (EDM) is very popular around the world and it is the best you can listen to when you´re working, because it keeps you active and your brain operates at high speed and with clarity. EDM produces happiness so it helps you to socialize easily.

Rock Music
Rock music is a form of music which is a combination of rock and roll and a pop music. It is a genre of music which was originated as “rock and roll”. Rock music is based around elaborate instruments, especially electric guitars and electric bass, and features a strong bass line and driving rhythm is. This is usually done by rock groups, and while fast dance music is the main form, slow skyscraper songs are also a popular part of the show. It is a song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form but the genre has become extremely diverse. Rock is a commonly music that teenagers really like to listen than other kind of genres. Rock music can either hinder or enhance a student’s mental performance, especially in the area of academic study. A variety of research shows it depends on the context. In the concentration and Studying for school, According to a study by Imperial College London, male participants who listened to rock music while performing various tasks had more difficulty staying concentrated. A University of Toronto study confirmed this for teenagers of any gender: listening to fast, loud music hinders the teenager’s ability to study, especially in reading comprehension. While in Creativity, rock music might not help some students while they’re studying, other research from the University of Toronto shows when a young person listens to their favorite rock music before studying followed by studying in silence, it not only increases the brain’s performance, but it also enhances creativity. (McCammon, 2017)
The study showed that when a student listens to their favorite genre of music before studying, no matter which genre it is as long as it’s something they like strongly and are already familiar with, their creativity and performance is boosted. Rock music is effective because its high energy can easily hold a teenager’s attention, and its memorable “hooks”–i.e. well-crafted patterns of motifs and riffs that stick in the head–help students memorize concepts when the lessons are tied to rock songs.

A lot of people have been listening to rock music since it was originated way back. People listen to music to ease their anxiety and improve their moods. Rock music helps some people cope with their problems and identify their peers hence rock music has a big following.
According to McCammon (2015), rock music helps teens to gain motivation. They find motivation just by listening to the lyrics of a rock music talking about problems they are going through. Listening to rock music also can help teens to become more tolerant and open-minded. On the other hand, rock music also helps the mood regulation by dancing to the rhythm of the rock music. Teens who suffer from depression forget their problems by means of engaging in healthy activities such as dancing. Mood regulation is one of the most important reasons why people listen to their favorite music. The listeners feel livelier and energized by listening to strong and fast beats. Rock music is also used in physical activities like workouts and intense exercises. Identifying their peers can also be affected. Punk rock music provided young people with a convenient way of expressing their true selves in ways acceptable in 20th century.
According to a report in the journal Neuroscience of Behavior and Physiology (Pavlygina RA et al., 1999), a person’s ability to recognize visual images, including letters and numbers, is faster when either rock or classical music is playing in the background.

Grade 6 students
Based on Ester Wach (2017), between the age of 6-8 years old, kids are developing a range of strategies to help them recall information. Children often memorize words before they write it some whisper the words under their breath or repeat the letters out loud to help themselves. With the 11-year olds, they use active listening in both formal and informal settings. Kids at this age also apply their existing skills to make sense of longer, more challenging reading material and continue to analyze and evaluate ideas presented in a reading material (Brain Development: Ages 11-13, n.d.)
As stated by Anthony, M. (n.d.), recent research demonstrates that there is a surge in the production of gray matter just before puberty (peaking at age 11 for girls, 12 for boys), largely affecting the frontal cortex of our brain, where executive functions are located.  Executive functions include the ability to think, plan, maintain short-term memory, organize thoughts, control impulses, problem solve, and execute tasks. This same research finds myelination of the gray matter develops slowly, with this region not fully maturing until young adulthood. Young teens start to use their amygdala to process emotions and such.

According to Thorne (2009), the memory demands for school-age children are much greater than they are for adults. As adults, we have already acquired much of the knowledge and skills we need to function day to day. Although the knowledge base for some fields such as technology changes rapidly, the new information is generally highly specific and builds on existing knowledge. On the other hand, school children are constantly bombarded with new knowledge in multiple topic areas in which they may or may not be interested. Additionally, they are expected to both learn and demonstrate the mastery of this knowledge on a weekly basis. Thus, an effective and efficient memory is critical for school success. An example added by Thone (2009) said that they may understand the three-step direction they were just given, but forget the second and third steps while carrying out the first step. If they are trying to solve a math problem that has several steps, they might forget the steps while trying to solve the problem. When they are reading a paragraph, they may forget what was at the beginning of the paragraph by the time they get to the end of the paragraph. These students will look like they have difficulty with reading comprehension. In facts, they do; but the comprehension problem is due to a failure of the memory system rather than the language system.

According to Lieury and Lorant (2013), memory has always been considered important for academic achievement. But, knowing the variety of mnemonic Mechanisms, it is not easy to ascertain which of them are concerned in school performance. Indeed, while some indicators of memory are very sensitive to ageing or to pharmacological protocols (Lieury, Trebon, Boujon, Bernoussi, & Allain, 1991; Allain, Lieury, & Gandon, 1993), they appear to be correlated only slightly or not at all with school results of pupils or students.

Lieury (2013) stated, that there is an important difference between short-term memory learning and long-term development. It`s possible for students to temporarily store knowledge in long-term memory for hours, or days, or even weeks without permanently filling it away. All new learning must be connected to prior knowledge, but the fewer connections there are, the less the new learning will stick. Isolated bits of information are more difficult to locate and use productively because there are fewer neutral pathways leading to them. That is another reason why it is important to teach new concepts through multiple pathways. If something has been taught verbally, then also deepen the connections with a visual example. If students have been writing about a topic, also have them try to verbalize the information in a class discussion, debate, or a role play.

In formation that has little meaning for students, such as empty formulas, word forms with no meaning attached, or jumbled concepts, is not deeply integrated into the neutral system and will often be quickly forgotten. Meaning is in these neutral networks, and to understand classroom content is to activate the relevant neutral connections. Knowledge that is connected to rich webs of schema sticks better and enables students to think more and more like experts (Lieury, 2013).

In summary, the minds of the young adults are starting to change: some develop and some adjusts. The researchers selected in this range of age to test their newly developed minds if some really did change in their mind or not.
According to United Kingdom legislation you are obliged to wear hearing protection if you work in an environment with 80 decibels of sound or higher on a daily basis. Pupils talk loudly among each other, one-to-one or in group settings. Yelling and screaming can expose pupils and teachers to dangerous noise levels as high as 130 dB, sometimes resulting in permanent hearing damage. In a quiet classroom setting, it has 40 dB, 60 dB is the average human voice and 70 dB and above irritating range of sound which also can lead to health problem more likely hearing loss.
General Memory
Memory is a process that retains, retrieves and uses information that is no longer present (Goldstein, 2011). There have been many researchers (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1986; Cowan, 1988; Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) that have proposed models and theories in an attempt to explain what memory is and what it does. Memory is an integral part of everyday life. It is required for simple tasks, such as keeping a phone number in mind before dialing it, or for more complex tasks such as learning a mathematical formula to apply to a sum.
Memory is the process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage it must change the information so that it may put the memory in to the encoding storage is the second memory stage or process. Encoding is the receiving of sensory information and transforming it into some form which can be stored. Storing is the process of putting the information into memory. Retrieval is the process of gaining access to the stored information (Morgan et al., 2008).
Memory is a process that keeps, recover and uses information that is no longer present (Goldstein, 2011). There have been many researchers that suggest models and theories that try to explain what memory is and what it does. It is proposed that memory has combines structures including sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory and working memory. Each of these structures give distinct stages in the memory process and has different time-spans for different information (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1986; Cowan, 1988; Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995).

The interaction of these three processes is required for the proper functioning of memory. Memory failure, that is forgetting, can occur when information has not been properly encoded and stored and therefore, there can be no retrieval (Baddeley, Eysenck and Anderson, 2009).

According to Amir and Malik (2013), the human memory system is a complex system and is difficult to separate its components into different parts. However, in terms of time, capacity, and operations, it is typically divided into 3 types: 1 Sensory memory: The capability of holding sensory information from stimuli received through the 5 senses. Its time duration is very short and occurs in seconds. It works as a buffer in getting the stimuli via the senses. This information is then handed over from sensory to STM through selective attention. 2. Short-term memory: A temporary storage of small amounts of material for a short period, typically up to 15 seconds for approximately 7 items – information generated in STM due to paying attention to sensory memory. 3. Long-term memory: The collection of material over long durations of time; includes unlimited amounts of information.
More of the researchers focused on short-term memory (STM) because it is responsible for immediate recall as it holds information for a short period of time (Baddeley, Eysenck & Anderson, 2009). Most information that is stored in STM is eventually forgotten with a less chance to access long-term memory (LTM). There is a 15 to 20 seconds duration of STM provided there is no rehearsal of information presented (Goldstein, 2011). One measure of STM is digit span which attempts to explain how many digits a person is able to recall. Typically, a person can recall between 5 and 9 digits (Miller, 1956). Krueger and Salthouse (2011) examined the serial position effect and they proposed that the recency effect, where last items on a list are better recalled, due to the most recent items being still readily available in the STM at the time of recall. Krueger and Salthouse (2011) also discovered that recency recall is less dependent on episodic memory than primacy recall or recall of the middle items on a list because its present in STM.
Although the modal model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) included sensory memory, STM and LTM, Baddeley noticed that this model did not account for the ability to perform two simultaneous tasks, for example reading whilst remembering certain numbers (Goldstein, 2011). Consequently, Baddeley (2000) proposed a WM which is a STM storage system as well as having the ability to manipulate the information that is presented.

Working memory
The working of memory cannot be reduced to just a single explanation. It is composed of various interrelated systems. In 1968, the Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory was proposed. It stated a three-stage model of memory. Information, which was recorded by an individual’s sensory system, enters sensory memory which holds the information momentarily. The information then moves to short-term memory, where it is stored for 15 to 25 seconds. And finally, the information moves to long-term memory where it is relatively permanent. The amount and kind of rehearsal of the information determines whether the information will move from short-term memory to long-term memory, or not (Feldman, 2004).

Based on the phonological loop it deals with the storage of verbal and auditory information; the visuospatial sketchpad stores spatial and visual information; and the central executive acts as a mediator between LTM and WM and primarily divides attention between the different activities that the person is performing, for example recalling visual stimuli that is presented to a person while listening to a background music (Baddeley ; Hitch, 1974). This is indicative of the central executive’s attempt at ignoring “irrelevant” information (e.g visual stimuli to be recalled). WM model of Baddeley & Hitch (1974), is important in explaining the connection between the development of recall accuracy, age, and speech rate. Further investigation led Baddeley to re-consider WM by adding the episodic buffer to its composition which he believes he provides more storage as well as enabling a connection with LTM, however, he admits the full extent of the episodic buffer is not yet known (Baddeley et al., 2009). Furthermore, even though the WM has been extensively studied, there is not much evidence of its function for music (Williamson, Baddeley, & Hitch, 2006). There is, neuroscientific evidence emerging to suggest that the cortical areas that are typically related to storage and rehearsal of WM are also active when a person is listening to music (Brown, Martinez, Hodges, Fox, & Parson, 2004). Hulme and Tordoff (1989) studied the acoustic similarity on series recall and their findings suggest support for Baddeley and Hitch’s WM model. Hulme and Tordoff (1989) suggested the development of the articulatory loop.

Crawford and Stankov (1983) point out individual differences in recall ability. It focused on primacy and recency effects and the cognitive abilities that are linked. The finding suggest that primacy effect is related to procession speed, with higher speed of processing leading to greater recall of the first few items in a list. Hulme and Tordoff (1989) investigated the effects of speech rate, word length, and acoustic similarity on serial recall. The results from their study suggest that recall accuracy increases with age, corresponding with increased speech rate. Krueger and Salthouse (2011) examined the recall ability of words based on different list sections of those words. In this study, they dealt with serial position effect which is identified but the first and last sections of a list being better recalled than the middle sections. This is in turn broken into the primacy effect, where the first items on a list are better recalled, and the recency effect, where the last items are better recalled.
Recall (memory)
Recall or remembering is a retrieval of memory refers to the subsequent re-accessing of events or information from the past, which have been previously encoded and stored in the brain. A computer can also retrieve an information but not like our brain can. It is a mental process of retrieving an information from the past. (Boundless. “Memory Retrieval: Recognition and Recall.” Boundless Psychology Boundless, 2016.) The three types of recall are Free call, cued call and serial call. The free call is a process which a person has a list to remember and then is tested by being asked to recall them in order. It is another commonly studied paradigm in memory research. Like serial recall, free recall is subject to the primacy and recency effects. Cues can facilitate recovery of memories that have been “lost.” In research, a process called cued recall is used to study these effects. Cued recall occurs when a person is given a list to remember and is then given cues during the testing phase to aid in the retrieval of memories. The stronger the link between the cue and the testing word, the better the participant will recall the words. Researchers have used this procedure to test memory. People tend to recall items or events in the order in which they occurred. This is called serial recall and can be used to help cue memories. By thinking about a string of events or even words, it is possible to use a previous memory to cue the next item in the series. Serial recall helps a person to remember the order of events in his or her life. These memories appear to exist on a continuum on which more recent events are more easily recalled.

When recalling serial items presented as a list (a common occurrence in memory studies), two effects tend to surface: the primacy effect and the recency effect.

There are two main types of memory retrieval: recall and recognition. In recall, the information must be retrieved from memories. In recognition, the presentation of a familiar outside stimulus provides a cue that the information has been seen before. A cue might be an object or a scene—any stimulus that reminds a person of something related. Recall may be assisted when retrieval cues are presented that enable the subject to quickly access the information in memory.
Interference effects occur when two or more perceptual or cognitive processes are in conflict. Human perception and cognition involve many different mental systems that parse and process information independently of one another. The outputs of these systems are communicated to working memory, where they are interpreted. When the outputs are congruent, the process of interpretation occurs quickly and performance is optimal. When outputs are incongruent, interference occurs and additional processing is needed to resolve the conflict. The additional time required to resolve such conflicts has a negative impact on performance (William Lidwell, Kritina Holden and Jill Butler, 2010)
Interference with the memory may due to an overlap between other independent systems. Any overlap need to be complete because declarative memories may only interfere with specific component of a procedural memory. The concept of an overlapping architecture explain the interference between different memories is appealing because human functional imaging studies have demonstrated that brain areas such as the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are activated during both declarative and procedural learning, and so there is an experimental evidence for an overlap between declarative and procedural processing. It also stated that interference could arise from a competition between declarative and processing for shared overlapping resource. However, several recent studies have started to challenge the classical idea that memory interference arise from a competition between memories. Converging animal and human work has begun to suggest that memory interference arise from brain areas generating a coupling or bridge between other independent declarative and procedural processing, and this coupling causes the interference between the memories according to Edwin Robertson (2012)
We have difficulty in remembering things when one memory or thought interferes in some way with the memory we are trying to recall. This is most pronounced when two different responses are associated by the same stimulus.

Proactive interference is the forgetting of information due to interference from previous knowledge in LTM. Past memories can inhibit the encoding of new memories. This is particularly true if they are learned in similar contexts and the new information is similar to previous information. This is what is happening when you have trouble remembering your new phone number because your old one is stuck in your head. Retroactive interference occurs when you forget a previously learned task due to the learning of new task. In other words, later learning interferes with the earlier learning where new memories disrupt old memories (Mcleod, 2008).

A study of Singh (2006) says that individual memory is seemingly the more untouched and somehow neglected aspect of efforts to develop effective learning solutions. Several psychoanalytical studies have been conducted in the past to understand the process of learning and retention. One such study, the Serial Position Effect Theory, attempts to describe the phenomenon of retention and decay of memory. The study postulates the effect of “Primacy” and “Recency” on the retention of information in the memory and similar patterns are observed across all samples of the test population. The theory states that the information presented most recently are more likely to be retained in the memory that the information presented in between.

Omotayo (2013) concluded that forgetting or memory loss refers to apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in an individual’s long-term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage. Problems with remembering, learning and retaining new information are a few of the most common complaints of older adults. Many different factors influence the actual process of forgetting. Omotayo (2013) also added an example of one of these factors could be the amount of time the new information is stored in the memory. Events involved with forgetting can happen either before or after the actual memory process. The amount of time the information is stored in the memory, depending on the minutes hours or even days, can increase or decrease depending on how well the information is encoded. Studies show that retention improves the increased rehearsal. This improvement occurs because rehearsal helps to transfer information into long term memory.

Failing to retrieve an event does not mean that this specific event has been forever forgotten. This could just mean the information was not encoded well. Research has shown that there are a few health behaviors that to some extent can prevent forgetting from happening so often. One of the simplest ways to keep the brain healthy and prevent forgetting is to stay active and exercise. Staying active is important because overall it keeps the body healthy. When the body is healthy the brain is healthy and less inflamed as well. Older adults who were more active were found to have had less episodes of forgetting compared to those older adults who were less active (Omotayo, 2013).

The goal of this study is to find out if listening to music aids in memory recall or encumbers it because a lot of students nowadays are accustomed to music to the extent of being habituated to it. The researchers’ concern is to know whether it really benefits them.

Specific Objectives:
determine the level of memory recall of Grade 6 students who were grouped to control and experimental group in terms of:

determine the significant difference between:
pre-test of control group and experimental group;
post-test of control group and experimental group;
To find out if listening to music is conducive in studying.

To know which music genre is preferable while studying.

Generally, this study aimed to answer the effect of rock music to the recall (memory) of Grade 6 students from Mahonri Academy and Sciences Highschool.

Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of memory recall of Grade 6 students who were grouped to control and experimental groups in terms of:
a. pre-test
b. post test
2. What is the significant difference between:
a. pre-test of control group and experimental groups;
b. post-test of control group and experimental groups;
3. What genre of music is preferable while studying.

Retrieval cues may be based on context-the setting or situation in which information is encoded and retrieved. (Godden and Baddeley, 1975) Context dependent cues are environmental cues in the specific situation (‘context’) where a memory was formed that act as retrieval cues to help access the memories formed in that context. Taking an eyewitness back to a crime scene (the ‘context’) will assist them in recalling events. It has been demonstrated that the recall of specific episodes and information improves when the context present when retrieving, is the same as when the information was encoded. Context also refers to the way information is presented. Evidence indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval.

Through this study the researchers see the role of context dependent cues in memory recall and use music, specifically, classical and rock music as the context to the memory recall of the students, this also give them more information on how human mind works.

FIGURE 1: The framework shows the flow of the experiment. The straight line indicates the difference, while the broken line introduces the presence of treatment. This figure shows that relationship of the independent variable which is Music with two levels; the Rock Music and Electronic Music, to the dependent variable, the Word ; Digit Recall. The control group will not receive treatment while the experimental groups will listen to a particular music genre which will serve as a treatment.

Ho: There is no significant difference between the scores of the participants in both control group and experimental group.

Ha: There is a significant difference between the scores of the participants in both control group and experimental group.

Ho: Music doesn’t have any significant effect on memory recall.

Ha: Music has a significant effect on memory recall.

The study has undertaken to understand the relationship and effect of music to the memory retention of the grade 6 students of Mahonri Academy and Sciences Highschool. This study became significant in several ways that will provide and benefit the people related to this study.

Students: As a student, memory retention is essential for their learning and through gaining idea on effectiveness of memory retention which they can apply in their daily lives. They will know whether the music they’re listening to will serve as an helpful instrument in studying or a distraction and entertainment only.
Teachers: they will become aware of the effect of music to their students, if it can be a distraction or enhancement to their student’s memory retention which can help teachers in their teaching.

Parents: this study would help them to recognize what type of music does their children prefer to listen while studying.

School Administration: this study would be a great help for them to know whether their students’ habit of listening to music is a help in the field of studying, so that they will improve their regulations in the school.

Composers and singers: this study would help them to be aware to the effect of music to the memory retention of the grade 6 students.

Future researchers: this study would give them additional information on the effect of rock music to the memory retention of the grade 6 students.

The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally:
Music. An art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the “color” of a musical sound). Music can be defined as the vocal and instrumental sound to produce form, harmony and expression (Effect of Music and Noise on Working Memory Psychology Essay, 2013). In this study it is used as the independent variable that can manipulate the test scores of Grade 6 students from Mahonri Academy and Sciences High School.

Electronic Music. It is genre of music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In this study it used as another level of the independent variable.

Rock Music. It is a genre of popular music with a prominent vocal melody, accompanied by electric guitar, bass guitar , and drums. Many styles of rock music also use keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, mellotron , and synthesizers. In this study it used as another level of the independent variable.

Memory Recall. It refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of the three core processes of memory). In this study it serves as the dependent variable that is being influenced by the genre of music.
Students. Or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.This refers to the person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college. Memory has always been considered important for academic achievement. But, knowing the variety of mnemonic Mechanisms, it is not easy to ascertain which of them are concerned in school performance according to Lieury and Lorant (2013). In this study they are the participants of the study who received a treatment romantic comedy film as a treatment.

School. It refers to the diverse physical locations, contexts, and cultures in which students learn. A learning environments that have both a direct and indirect influence on student learning, including their engagement in what is being taught, their motivation to learn, and their sense of well-being, belonging, and personal safety (Abbott. 2014). In this study, it is the place where the experiment was conducted.

The Effect of Music to Memory Recall of Grade 6 students of Mahonri Academy and Sciences High School
In partial fulfillment of