Category Archives: Articles

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Hey guys

Category : Articles

Hey guys! For those of you who don’t know me, I’m Isaac Ryan.
I’d just like to say that this is an amazing opportunity for me to stand here and talk with all of you guys. This is really exciting for me, and I’m going to explain why you should definitely vote me in for the 2018 school captaincy.
During the course of my schooling, I have come to realise that the role of a school captain requires much responsibility, but also an awesome and enthusiastic attitude towards solving all the challenges and dilemmas which may present themselves in everyday life at school. In previous years I have had amazing captains at this school, and I have come to appreciate what it means to have someone who can lead and show kindness and enthusiasm. I hope to be that role model for you all.
Now, I’m not here to even pretend that I can solve every one of all your problems! But I will say this, if you ever need someone to talk to, someone just to chat too, that’s me! I want to make sure that if there is a problem, I can help in some small way. I want you to be confident in the fact that you can come to this school and make lifelong friendships. I want you to know that


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Peranan utama seorang ibu adalah memelihara dan menjaga anak-anak mereka

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Peranan utama seorang ibu adalah memelihara dan menjaga anak-anak mereka. cabaran untuk menaikkan anak-anak yang baik semata-mata terletak pada tangan mereka kerana fakta bahawa kebanyakan keluarga hari ini masih menjadi patriarki. Maksudnya, minda pada zaman dahulu bahawa bapa berkewajiban untuk bekerja dan memperoleh sementara ibu harus tinggal di rumah dan bertanggungjawab terhadap anak-anak dan seluruh isi rumah. Walau bagaimanapun, banyak keluarga sepanjang dekad yang lalu telah mengubah pengaturan keluarga mereka di mana ibu-ibu juga dijangka mendapat pendapatan untuk keluarga juga. Terdapat keperluan ibu untuk membantu ayah dalam meningkatkan penghasilan keluarga kerana keperluan ekonomi yang semakin meningkat. Kebanyakan keluarga hari ini mempunyai lebih daripada satu anak, yang bermaksud bahawa pendapatan yang diperoleh bapa tidak cukup untuk keluarga. Ada ketidakstabilan ekonomi di seluruh dunia dan nilai wang tidak lagi besar, sebab itulah ayah dan ibunya dapat bekerja bersama untuk memenuhi keperluan keluarga. Selain alasan ekonomi, ibu juga perlu berkembang sebagai seorang wanita dengan mewujudkan kerjaya untuk dirinya sendiri. Satu kelengkapan diri melalui orientasi kerjaya juga penting untuk mengembangkan keupayaan ibu dalam aspek lain selain daripada menaikkan anak. Kerjaya profesional yang memuaskan diperlukan oleh ibu untuk mengatasi rasa tidak puas hati mereka dan meningkatkan harga diri mereka. Ibu masih boleh menaikkan anak mereka sambil menubuhkan kerjaya profesional mereka. Dengan cara ini, ibu dapat mencapai kepuasan sebagai seorang ibu dan sebagai seorang wanita yang bernilai kepada masyarakat. Akhirnya, ibu memainkan peranan penting dalam masyarakat dan masyarakat secara amnya. Ibu juga harus diberi kuasa dengan meningkatkan penyertaan mereka dalam aktiviti kemasyarakatan seperti pendidikan, gerakan sosial dan kesihatan. Dalam pendidikan, ibu yang bekerja sebagai guru terbukti berjaya kerana ikatan mereka dengan anak sekolah dan pelajar secara keseluruhan. Ibu-ibu adalah tokoh yang boleh dipercayai dan dipercayai dalam pergerakan sosial termasuk sebab-sebab kemanusiaan yang mengapa mereka sering terlibat dalam banyak aktiviti masyarakat. Dari segi kesihatan, ibu-


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Content Marketing Content marketing is type of marketing that focused on create

Category : Articles

Content Marketing
Content marketing is type of marketing that focused on create, publish and distribute content for targeted prospect or customers online. This type of marketing used by the company in order to attract attention and generate leads, expand their customer base, generate or increase online sales, increase brand awareness or credibility and engage an online community of users. The ultimate objective of content marketing is to drive profitable customer action. By implementing content marketing, company are able to gain a benefit of increasing their sales, saving in their promotion activities and getting a more loyal customer. By implementing content marketing, the company will frequently send the informative message that is relevant and valuable to the customer. By implementing content marketing, the company educating people so that they know, like and trust the company and do business with company. One of the example of content marketing is books. By selling a book a writer will be able market their other service to the customer. In this context, the book become a marketing tool for them. For example, Dr. Azizan Osman wrote many books on motivational and self-development. After reading his book, the reader is eager to attend his motivational seminar. Other type of content marketing is, Infographics that include graphic with information such as include statistics, charts, graphs, and other information. By subscribing to pinterest, the customer are exposed to many content marketing in the form of infographic by a big company like Adidas and BMW motor. Content marketing is important to a company because in order to make a sales the company must stimulate the need for the product and make their prospect customer and their target market aware about their product and services. To make the customer aware about the company and services and product we need to educate the customer about our services. We need to make the information available so that the customer can make a research on our product and make comparison with our competitor. This is where we implement the content marketing. By having a lot of information that display in informative and easy to digest manner, it is easy for the customer to make a consideration on what to buy and from which company. After all the stages, the customer will make a transaction of buying a product or services that they aware, and having information about that product. By implementing content marketing the company will be able to increase their sales and profit and at the same time create a loyal customer.


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FORUM

Category : Articles

FORUM: Economic and Financial Committee (General Assembly 2)
ISSUE: Implementation of sustainable agriculture to strengthen global food security.
SUBMITTED BY: The delegate of Ukraine
____________________________________________________________________________
1. Calls upon Member States, especially those in a position to do so, and relevant United Nations organizations to make greater efforts to promote sustainable agriculture in order to substantiate and fortify global food security. A measure that can be taken to sort this is:
a) educating illiterate farmers and smallholding owners, which would inevitably bring about positive changes in terms of modernization and controlled mechanization;

2. Urges the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary
Fund (IMF) as well as governments and banks of countries to:
a) disburse loans to smallholding owners to improve their farms and agricultural methods, thereby strengthening food security and empowering smallholding owners
b) allow the smallholding owners to repay the loan in easy instalments to put less pressure on the owners and maximise profits;

3. Takes note of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development’s agreement to de-industrialize farming and further builds upon it to:
a) control the amount of monocultured land, as this leads to loss in fertility of soil
b) practice different farming methods on these monocultured lands to increase produce and soil fertility, such as:
i. crop rotation by leaving parts of the land fallow to revitalize soil as well as grow different types of crops, and then growing a different crop on the same part of the land the next harvesting season
ii. the enclosure system, to cultivate different types of crops, prevent disease etc.
iii. strip farming, to grow different varieties of crops and improve overall soil quality;

4. Recommends that cultivation of absolutely non-essential cash crops for example, rapeseed and tobacco be put to a standstill after the next harvest, and they would be replaced by food crops that can be grown in that region to further build up food security in the world, which is arguably more important than growing crops for profit alone;

5. Encourages Member States and related Organizations, particularly those in a position to do so, to practice and develop the field of hydroponics as this could be an excellent substitute for soil itself, and could be beneficial to us in a variety of ways:
a) to maximise output to a new level
b) to be used when the fertility of soil eventually diminishes
c) this is a sustainable form of agriculture and we can practice sustainable intensification on this;

6. Further takes note of (A/RES/62/190), passed on 11th February 2008 under the topic “Agricultural technology for development”, in particular clause nine, and pushes countries to increasingly use Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) to increase the yield and to produce more ecologically friendly and nutritious crops;

7. Draws the attention of the Member States to the international economic framework of the WB and the IMF which puts pressure on the LEDC’s by reducing subsidies, and should be altered accordingly in such a way that this reduces pressure on the LEDC’s, allows them to get out of trade liberalization, and also to increase the food security index by proper and fair trade throughout the country with competitively priced goods (eco-efficiency);

8. Further encourages countries heavily relying on China, USA and other major exporters of food to:
a) not rely on other countries as much as these countries do as self-dependence of all countries on the basis of food is the key to establishing global food security
b) community schemes and sustainable intensification are vital for this to occur so they should also be made use of efficiently

9. Calls for a convention of agronomists and scientists from the 10 countries with the highest food security index and the 10 countries to discuss more possible solutions as well as alternative, more eco-friendly ways to introduce micro-nutrients and macro-nutrients into GMOs and High Yielding Varieties.


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The Moroccan health care system contains a combination of public and private financing and delivery

Category : Articles

The Moroccan health care system contains a combination of public and private financing and delivery. In this regard, it is similar to health systems in other developing countries in which the government assumes responsibility primarily for basic public health activities and for management and organization of the health sector. The Moroccan government, largely through the Ministry of Health (MOH), is a main provider of services.
Despite this, access to care remains difficult, mainly for Moroccans with low income. To improve the well-being of the population, access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and poor people. The Moroccan government has launched RAMED Medical Assistance Regimen in 2012. It is a healthcare system based on the principle of social assistance and national solidarity in favor of poor individuals, who do not benefit from any other health insurance. It allows those people to have free health care services in public hospitals as well as state-provided health services. (Ministry of health, 2013).
Regardless of the effort made by the government, to facilitate health access for the poor population but, is still a group of poor people having no social safety yet. In respect of, some problems and challenges facing the health system particularly in term of medical frames, infrastructure, management, and governance.The writer chooses this topic because access to health, plays a significant role in the well-being of the individual and it contributes to the reduction of poverty. Focusing on the RAMED system as public health insurance for poor people. We will define RAMED system, discuss the reasons that prevent the entire Moroccan population to benefit from this type of health coverage and give the suitable solutions to overcome these obstacles.
To achieve universal health coverage in order to guarantee better access to health care services has been a permanent challenge the country has tries to overcome in the previous decade. It has nonetheless made a significant advance in covering a majority of the population under the RAMED system.

RAMED was first launched in 2009 in the region of Beni Mellal, before being prolonged to the rest of the country in 2012. The system, which targets the low-income population, with the objective of facilitating health care coverage to 8.5 million people, Through this 28% of Morocco’s inhabitants, an estimated group of 4 million people experiencing an extreme poverty . To benefit from this system those people must confirm that they do not own any other health insurance and have the following criteria: for the residents of urban areas, having an annual income less than 3,767 dirhams per individual assessed after weight the reported income. But an individual with annual income of 5650 dirhams is considered vulnerable. For people living in rural areas, to determine if they belong to vulnerable or poor by owning (an agriculture land, cattle, any type of personal transportation or farm equipment).The RAMED system allows to those people to benefit from totally free care, whereas 4.5 million who are vulnerable will be required to pay 120 dirhams as an annual fee, provided at 600 dirhams per year and per family. But in December 2015, the number of RAMED beneficiaries increased to 9.2 million people, exceeding its initial goal. While this proposes that more beneficiaries than primarily planned are able to get health services at affordable rates. Even if the effort made by the government to cover poor and vulnerable but, would not overtake 50% of the 33 million Moroccan citizens, that means approximately half of the Moroccans pay directly from their pockets for health services or they do not benefit to avoid financial problems. Morocco Ministry of Health, (2016).People under RAMED system benefit from a wide range of care such as
Medical and surgical hospitalization, medical consultation, mother and baby care, physical therapy, functional rehabilitation.
As an example of Morocco by the RAMED have selected this system that specifically target poor and vulnerable populations, such as in Egypt the Social Pension Health Care Programme, whereas others have chosen a universal program, eventually a national system whose purpose is to register the entire population, containing the poor similar to Ghana with the National Health Insurance Scheme  and PhilHealth in the Philippines. In the case of the Indian state of Andrah Pradesh, there is the Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, where the poverty’s status determines those who are eligible to benefit from the system based on the criteria. Thus, the target is to make the 70% of the population living under the poverty line. (Joël. A,et al.2015)
The estimated budget for RAMED is 2.7 billion dirhams where 75% is financed by the government, 19%of annual fees from beneficiaries and the residual 6% from the local authorities. Categories are determined while the heads of families filled out a form which must contain information on the number of subordinates, the family structure, the income and their property. Based on the applications filed an appropriate decision will be taken from the dedicated committee, to give eligible people a three-year family card allowing for free care.

In addition to being able to facilitate access to health care for poor people, RAMED’s principle advantage is the qualityof services offered. This program effectively presents the same kind of care is given to people covered by AMO (compulsory Health Insurance). This is a unique aspect of the program as, in most countries where two such systems remain; the advantages offered to taxpayers are more expanded than those present to the poor population.Although, the RAMED system is succeeded to cover the target population. However, certain limitations face the system few months after its implementation.

One of the measurement challenges is governance; the Ministry of Health is the only decision-making form which assigns discretionary resources. The regional health agencies rely on the localize decisions made in the capital city of Rabat. Communities do not take part in system implementation.

More than that, the procedure of identifying the poor remains ambiguous; the lack of coordination between the registration system and the resolution of the Local Permanent Commission that means some people in vulnerable status is not properly determine; moreover the administrative complication of the documentation that has to be submitted in order to benefit from RAMED system obviously excludes some group of people such as the illiterate and those in more outlying areas. Furthermore, the registration system applied to target poor people is not yet able to precisely determine the eligible population. Errors of exclusion and inclusion persist and the inducement to join RAMED seems limited.

Additionally, the unequal distribution of medical public services between cities; the elevated rate of bed and physician per 1 000 people and some medical services are located only in big cities like Casablanca and Rabat. Well, the problem is the RAMED will not be effective if a poor have to bear the travel and the expenditure to get cured also, the lack of financial supplies to finance the system. Therefore, access to medical care provided by public and university hospitals remains reliant on the contribution of the vulnerable.  (HYPERLINK “https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/author/youssef-sourgogmail-com/”Youssef sourgo,2014)
The health information system in Morocco is directed by a national plan developed in 2005 to enhance information literacy; introduce a modern mode of data collection, and rationalize the community and management of quality information. However, equivalent systems of data collection continue to exist and the transferring of information from the circumference to the center remains to be a challenge. A recent assessment of civil registration and vital statistics declare that several gaps and areas require an improvement.

According to Mohammed Hamouiyi, former head of the emergency department at the MS told OBG. , the issue now is the increased workload that follows the expanded coverage by RAMED, taking on to consider the shortage of medical frames, and its influence and impact on the quality of care being delivered.

To overcome all these challenges the Moroccan government should ensure that care services covered by RAMED are accessible, especially in rural areas where there is lack of framework and medical professional.

The Moroccan government should increase the number of public resources devoted to health care to spread coverage, meet the population’s care demands, and develop the field of the benefits package. The government will also need to modify the division of public resources through regions, providers and provide a pledge for financial commitments to local authorities, particularly in rural areas.

Refine and justify the process for beneficiaries from RAMED cards, as well as enhance the process of eligibility to cover the entire target population, determine the difficulties of renewing eligibility and the cause that pushes for the beneficiaries not to renew RAMED cards.
To conclude, Morocco established RAMED insurance to enable access to health care services for the majority of the poor and vulnerable population and protect them from financial hardships. The system proved its effectiveness by achieving the eventual goal to cover 8.5 million population, despite that a large part of the population is still not covered because of many challenges.

To achieve universal health coverage for the vulnerable and poor population; RAMED system must still be consolidated to achieve more improvements.


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Unit 10 support the well-being and resilience of children and young people in residential childcare

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Unit 10 support the well-being and resilience of children and young people in residential childcare.
10a. understand the well-being and resilience of children and young people.
10a.1.Explain factors that impact on the well-being of children and young people.
There are several factors that can have a positive impact a young person’s well-being. These factors consist of:
• Having the conditions to learn and develop: Children need to be given the conditions to learn and develop. This includes cognitive and emotional development, adopted through access to play in the early years and high-quality education in school, and physical development, for example through a nutritious diet. School is a key area of children’s lives where experiences vary greatly and negative
• Having enough of what matters: Children’s well-being is affected by ‘having enough’ and ‘fitting in’ rather than being rich or gathering material goods purely for its own sake. Family circumstances, household income, and parental employment are key factors which determine whether children have access to those items and experiences.
• Having positive relationships with family and friends: Children want and need positive, loving relationships with the people closest to them. Overall, the strongest driver of low subjective well-being is where children experience weak and uncaring relationships with their family or carer. The structure of the family itself has only a small effect on a child’s well-being. Children also need positive, stable, relationships with their friends, with social isolation a strong driver of low levels of well-being.
• Having opportunities to take part in positive activities to thrive: A healthy balance of time use is as important for children as it is for adults. The need for a balance that suits the individual needs of children means that they should be actively involved in decisions about how they spend their time.
• Having a safe and suitable home involvement and local area: Children need safe and suitable environments at home and in their local area. Where children are unhappy in these environments, often through feeling unsafe, feeling that they have a lack of privacy, or feeling that their home or local area has inadequate facilities, this has a strong association with lower levels of well-being.
• Having a positive view on themselves and an identity that is respected: Children need to see themselves in a positive light, and deserve to feel, and be, respected by all adults and other children. Our evidence shows that how children feel about their appearance, whether they are being bullied, and whether they believe that their voice is being heard and opinions respected, are key drivers of their well-being.

10a.2. Explain why it is important to for children and young people to develop resilience.
Resilience is important for a number of reasons; it enables us to develop mechanisms for protection against experiences which could be overwhelming, it helps us to maintain balance in our lives during difficult or stressful periods of time and can also protect us from the development of some mental health difficulties and issues. Some of the various benefits to becoming more resilient are listed below.
• Improved learning and academic achievement.
• Lower absences from education or study due to sickness.
• Reduced use of risk taking behaviours such as excessive drinking, smoking or use of drugs.
• Increased involvement in community or family activities.
• A lower rate of mortality and increased physical health
10a.3. Describe attitudes and approaches that support children and young people to develop their well-being and resilience in a residential setting.
Working within wings as a care worker, it is principal that staff provide the young people with the correct care and support to help enhance each person’s well-being and resilience. Staff can support the young people to develop this by;
• providing and sticking to rules and boundaries so that the young people know what is expected from them
• staff to provide opportunities and experiences so that the young person can achieve something and feel pride and accomplishment
• staff to consistently use praise and acknowledgement of the young person’s success
• encourage each young person to express themselves and for staff to take an interest in whatever the young person desires to do.

10a.4. Describe ways of working with key people to enable them to support well-being and resilience in children and young people.
Within wings setting, the young people work closely with our professional therapeutic team. This can provide the correct support each young person may need to enhance their well-being and resilience. Staff members can also work closely with the therapeutic team to design certain plans and techniques which will help the young person. working closely with key people within the organisation will provide the young people the appropriate care possible and support they require to succeed.

10b. be able to support the development of children and young people’s social and emotional identity and self-esteem.
10b.1. Explain why social and emotional identities are important to the well-being and resilience of children and young people.
It is crucial that a child or young person develop social and emotional identities as it helps children and young people to recognise and value their place in family, the community and wider society. Having clear social and emotional identities also develops a sense of belonging as well as the ability to form positive relationships. Children and young people who feel emotionally secure are more likely to have a positive disposition to learning. Children and young people who have strong social and emotional identities can easily fit into peer groups without feeling out of place. This helps children and young people as they can build friendships easier and quicker as well as brush off peer pressure, resulting in the young person to think for themselves and choose right decisions.
10b.5. Explain how planning and decision making offer a way to develop a child or young person’s social and emotional identity and self-esteem.
Within our setting at Wings, we as staff regularly encourage our young people to get involved with planning and organising activities or events for themselves and others. By allowing the young people to get involved with this it is providing them the opportunity to make positive decisions which will stay with them for the rest of their lives. By helping to organise and plan positive activities and events they will feel confident in the future to do this again as well as have pride in their ability and achievement. As staff members, they may need to map out the possible outcomes for both positive and negative decisions to enable the young person to fully understand the impact he/she has on their decision making. This is very important to explore the possible outcomes with the young person, so they can develop their understanding as well as refer to this process in the future whenever they become involved in a similar situation. This gives the young person the control they desire on their lives. By giving them opportunities like this and working with the young people in decision making they are enhancing their confidence and sense of control.

10d. be able to recognise and respond to signs of distress in children and young people
10d.1. explain why children and young people may communicate distress through behaviour rather than verbally.
Some children in care have experienced significant trauma. Often difficult behavior results in an excessive focus on control rather than understanding meaning. Trauma theorists confirm the common perception that children in care are often functioning at a different developmental level than would be expected by their age. At the heart of trauma is terror. However painful their family experiences have been, children in care suffer further loss of everything that is familiar to them when they are removed from home. They must cope with new routines and rituals, a different rhythm to their day and strange people who behave in ways that are unfamiliar and therefore is frightening. Traumatized children often test whether adults caring for them can accept and survive them even at their most challenging. Some challenging behaviors may be children’s attempts to manage distress and to soothe themselves. Self-injury, overdosing and substance misuse all help children find respite from overwhelming feelings. Children may also engage in risk-taking behavior to fill the emptiness they experience or create a skewed sense of belonging. Children familiar to terror may, at times, find calmness and order very disconcerting. In response they may recreate the adrenaline-charged situations they have been removed from, by engaging in violence and other anti-social behavior.

10d.2. Explain how to recognise when day to day activities can amount to mental health concerns that require intervention for the individual child or young person.
Within our setting at Wings, each young person behaves and responds to certain situations in a variety of ways. As a staff member it is vital that we take note of how the young person is behaving and act appropriately. By working closely with the young people and understanding their needs this allows staff to monitor and address issues quicker as we understand what behaviour they show in certain situations. With regards to recognising mental health concerns, staff usually look out for the following behaviours:
• Withdrawal
• Self-injuries behaviour
• Excessive risk behaviour
• Eating disorders
• Obsessive disorders
• Aggression
If staff indicate these behaviours from any of our young people, then this is the time when intervention is required. Staff can do this in several ways. They can speak with the child themselves if they have a positive relationship with them. This will hopefully allow the young person to open up regarding their issues and allow staff and the young person to develop coping strategies etc. Within Wings there is a therapeutic team available to help in these kinds of situations. Staff can approach the team to gather information on how to address the situation or pass on the behaviours so that the therapeutic team can step in and work with staff and the young person to resolve the issues.


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Rhino’s play a crucial role in their environment

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Rhino’s play a crucial role in their environment. Rhinos are big grazers ,eating lots of vegetation which helps shape the African landscape. Other anaimals benefit and it keeps a healthly balance within the environment.

Local people depend on the natural resources from these environments for food,fuel etc. Ecotourism can be a vital sustainable source of funds fro local communities. As one of Africa’s wildlife “big five” rhinos are a popular sight for tourists. By helping protect the rhino we’re helping its environment for the benefit of both people and wildlife for generations to come. and better life can be achieved for all of us.


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In the strong acid-weak base titration

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In the strong acid-weak base titration, 0.1 M ammonium hydroxide ( NH4OH ) was titrated with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid ( HCl ). 2 drops of phenolphthalein were added as indicator into the conical flask which contains 25mL of hydrochloric acid, the mixture in the conical flask was colourless. Ammonium hydroxide was then titrated slowly into the conical flask and the conical flask was swirled gently to ensure complete reaction between the strong acid and weak base. The titration stops when the colour of the titrand changed from colourless to pale pink. The average titrant (29.55 mL) of 0.1 M of ammonium hydroxide was added into the conical flask. Phenolphthalein was then replaced by screened methyl orange as an indicator, the initial colour of the mixture in the conical flask was red. The average titre of (26.45 mL) of 0.1 M of ammonium hydroxide was added to change the colour of the titrand from red to grey in conical flask.

In weak acid-strong base titration, 0.1 M sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) was titrated with 0.1 M acetic acid (CH3COOH). 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added into the conical flask which contains 25mL of acetic acid. Sodium hydroxide was then titrated slowly into conical flask and the conical flask was swirled gently to ensure the reaction is reacted completely. The titration stops when the colour of the titrand changed from colourless to pale pink. The average titrant (28.60 mL) of 0.1 M of sodium hydroxide was added into conical flask. By using screened methyl orange as indicator, the average titrant (2.20 mL) of 0.1 M of sodium hydroxide was added to change the colour of titrand from red to grey in the conical flask.

In experiment part II (A), pH titration curve in the strong acid-weak base titration indicates that the initial pH value of the titrand is pH 1.33. The low initial pH value is due to the strong acid, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid ( HCl ). During the titration, the pH value increases steadily but not significant as the buffer solution is being built up, when extra base was added into the acid which can resist pH change. It increases to pH 2.94 after 25.00 mL of ammonium hydroxide was added. However, the pH value increases greatly from 3.59 to 5.99 when added extra 0.50mL of ammonium hydroxide as shown in the Graph 1.1. The pH values increase slowly as extra ammonium hydroxide was added. The equivalence point, which is the steepest point of graph, is pH 4.79.

In experiment part II (B), pH titration curve in the weak acid-strong base titration illustrates that the initial pH value of the titrand is pH 2.32, the pH is higher due to the weak acid, 0.1 M acetic acid. The pH value rises progressively due to the presence of buffer solution. The changes in pH values are small even when extra base was added. It increases to pH 7.00 after 26.00 mL of sodium hydroxide was added. The pH rises from 9.03 to 10.08 as another 0.5mL of sodium hydroxide was added. Based on the Graph 1.2, the equivalence point, which is the steepest point of graph, is pH 9.915.


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Category : Articles

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Prohibtionists expected other companies to skyrocket

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Prohibtionists expected other companies to skyrocket, they expected the movie theater to rise, the soda and chewing gum companies to gain more sales, but none of that happened. The entertainment industry declined, resturants failed because there wasn’t liquor to sell. Also the Eighteenth Amendment only prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages, it didn’t ban the possession or consumption of alcohol in the United States. The Volstead Act, the law that provided for the enforcement of Prohibition, also left enough loopholes that eventually opened doors to people being able to drink. The effects of Prohibition on law enforcement wasn’t good. The amount of money being exchanged during the era proved that there was a corrupting influence in both the federal Bureau of Prohibition and at a local level. Police officers were constantly bribed to go into bootlegging themselves. Many stayed honest, but a lot took to the bribes. The growth of Liquor trade in the U.S made millions of criminals. (Lerner)