Category Archives: Articles

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The Articles of Confederation

Category : Articles

The Articles of Confederation, was not characterized by a strong government, but instead an outline which a more effective government could be built. The Articles of Confederation prevented a strong central government from having power over states rights, which created problems for a government that wants to rule with any amount of authority. This was shown in areas such as foreign relations, internal discontent over tariffs, and political party struggles.

Establishing diplomatic affairs was extremely difficult to di since the federal government had no power when it comes to tariffs and import duties , and also because it had no way of enforcing any agreement made with other countries.(Source D) Treaty with Great Britain proposed measures which would improve relations with Britain and the U.S., but because the U.S did not have strong military power ,it lacked the means to enforce the agreement of Jay’s Treaty. (Source C) U.S tried to negotiate with Spain over the right of Mississippi River, but because of the weakness of the government under the Articles of Confederation, the United States did not reach a peaceful settlement concerning the Mississippi River until the Pinckney Treaty.


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Nothing but fire and ash

Category : Articles

Nothing but fire and ash. Everyone that was once alive on earth are gone. Society is now just a daydream. As life becomes a living hell, what will you become in a land infested with monsters? The novel “The Road” by Cormac McCarthy, envisions a post-apocalyptic America, where society has long since collapsed and all that’s left is bands of marauders. With very little food in the country, humanity becomes savage to survive. What once was a race of civilized creatures has now become demons in their own little hell. In the midst of all this, a father and his son try to survive through it all. In a world such as this, it is not surprising that the people are inherently bad because of their (1) being no law and control, (2) constant fear of death, and (3) the ocean worth of distrust among everyone.
P. First, Law and control. As humans, sure we might be able to govern ourselves, but we still need boundaries. We still need lines to be told not to cross.
E. It’s why we consider ourselves as something higher than animals. In this post-apocalyptic world, with no one to control and draw those lines, there’s nothing keeping humanity from degrading and falling apart into the animal they tried to stray from. A prime example is, near the beginning of the novel where the father and boy are faced with their first encounter with someone in the book, when the father shoots the man and then come back to find that he was eaten by his own group who had come across his body. In today’s society, if someone found a dead body, they wouldn’t cook them and eat them. They would be held by law not to cannibalize that dead human being, not to mention the morale aspect of things.
A. With this world, there are no boundaries, nothing stopping people from consuming the flesh of their own. This is without a doubt, the biggest reason for humanity’s nefariousness. But for as big of a reason for humanity’s “badness”, there are a great deal of other reasons for it as well besides loss of sequence and regulations
Next, fear of death. Throughout the story the father and boy are faced with the passing of many people, including their own mother/wife. Humans always fear death for its unknown. Nobody knows exactly what will happen to them after they will die, even after religious beliefs. Because of this, instead of risking it and trying to help everybody survive, most people would kill others just to keep themselves alive. For example, the father and the boy come upon a house with a basement. Inside this basement, there are people inside there that have been eaten, but left alive. Limbs that had been burned off and eaten, with nothing but nubs of scorched bone on the ends of them. To gruesome of a sight to hold, the boy and the father flee. As they escape, the father sees people walking to the house from the backyard. A family of the sorts. A family, willing to consume another human being, scratch that, multipole human beings and leave them alive for second helpings. No good soul would ever do something like that to others. Another perfect example of the bad nature of humans in the book. But, Fear of the Grim Reaper isn’t the only reason for humanity
Last, the ocean worth of distrust. Usually when someone said oceans worth they mean it as a hyperbole, but in this instance, it is used literal. The people in the story do not trust each other at all. Nobody knows who will try stabbing them in the back. Near the end of the publication, the father and man are at the coast now, and have set up camp. As they are away from camp, they find a boat and collect supplies from it. As they come back, they find that their entire place has been raided. Every item of importance had been stolen. In instances like these, a person must know that a “good person” would never do such a thing, and thankfully the boy and the father find the thief responsible for it. Never the less, wariness leads to conflict, and on a large scale can lead to scenarios like The Road. It’s not very surprising that that much distrust led to this amount of bloodshed and chaos.
Because of their being no rules and authority, fear of the grim reaper, and the distrust among people, it is not surprising that the people in The Road are inherently bad.


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1 CHAPTER 1

Category : Articles

1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
Chemically modi?ed polymeric adsorbents are resins with functional groups such as phenolic
hydroxyl, acetyl, sulfonic group or amino group, grafted on hyper cross linked polymers
(Alexandratos & Natesan 1999), (Cai et al. 2005). Among these, aminated hyper cross linked
polymers display a unique advantage in adsorption of aromatic sulphonates (Pan et al. 2005)
phenol derivatives (Pan, Zhang, Wei & Ren 2008), and phenolic acids (Wang, Zhang, Zhao, Xia,
& Chen 2005) due to the presence of electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding interaction or
?–? interaction between adsorbents and adsorbents.
Polystyrene particles have excellent chemical and physical properties that make them not easy to
be degraded and damaged. Therefore polystyrene based adsorbents are usually used repeatedly.
Unmodified particles are not suitable to adsorb substances from aqueous solutions because the
surface is hydrophobic and lack of selective groups (Wang et al. 2005). However their
hydrophobicity and selectivity is increased after modification.
Nitrate is the most widely available contaminant in ground and surface waters (Liu et al 2005).
Excess of nitrate in drinking water results from anthropogenic sources, for example, over
fertilization in agriculture, cattle discharge, untreated sewage, leakage from septic systems,
infiltration of landfill leachate, and industrial waste water (Nuhoglu et al. 2005), (Hell et al.
1998), (Samatya et al. 2006), (Nataraj et. al 2006). Out of these, synthetic fertilizers are the
major contributors of nitrate pollution (Rupert 2008).

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Nitrate concentration above the maximum permissible limit in drinking water is injurious to
human health. Nitrate exposure can lead to several health issues such as increased infant
mortality, birth defects, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory
tract infections, and changes in the immune system (Majumdar & Guptar 2002), (Kross et al.
1992), (Fewtrell 2004), (Greener & Shannon 2005), (Ward, et al. 2005).
Numerous technologies are available for removal of nitrate from water. These include reverse
osmosis, electro dialysis, biological denitrification, and ion exchange methods. In case of reverse
osmosis (RO) water passes through a semipermeable membrane, and nitrate and other ions are
rejected because their size is greater than the membrane pore size.
Biological denitrification is widely practiced for the treatment of municipal and industrial
wastewater but is less commonly used in drinking water applications (Hu et al. 2001)
Ion exchange is a process in which the target ion gets exchanged with a loosely adsorbed ion on
a resin. Ion exchange is also like a reversible chemical process in which ions from an insoluble
permanent solid medium (the ion exchanger is usually a resin) are exchanged for ions in a
solution (Baes et al. 2002). This process is widely adopted for nitrate removal because of its
simplicity, effectiveness, and relatively low cost (Baes et al. 2002). Adsorption has proved to be
a relatively cheaper option which is readily applicable (Gupta & Ali 2000).
There are several methods that can be used to determine the concentration of nitrate ions and
amongst them ion selective method is the most versatile. The nitrate electrode contains an
internal reference solution in contact with a porous plastic organophilic membrane which acts as
selective nitrate exchanger (Qingshan et al. 1999). When the membrane is exposed to nitrates

3

present in water, a potential, E is developed across the membrane which is measured against a
constant reference electrode potential , E0 .The magnitude of E depends on the concentration of
nitrates present (Alexiades, & Mitrakas 1990).
1.1 Justification of the study
Conventional methods (example use of activated carbon) of removing nitrates are expensive. The
methods are also ineffective when the ions are present in high concentration (Somdutta et al.
2012). Use amino alkylated polystyrene will be of benefit because the particles have excellent
chemical and physical properties that make them not easy to be degraded and damaged.
Therefore polystyrene based adsorbents are used repeatedly. The amino alkylated polystyrene
has a large adsorption capacity.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Nitrate contamination in groundwater has become an ever increasing and serious environmental
threat since 1970s (Jeong, Kim, & Park 2012). The excessive application of fertilizers in
agriculture causes the infiltration of large quantities of this ion into underground and surface
water (Zhou et al 2007). Nitrate, due to its high water solubility (Thomson 2001), is the most
widespread groundwater contaminant in the world, imposing a serious threat to drinking water
supplies and promoting eutrophication.
Elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water can cause many health problems such as gastric
cancer, which results from the reduction of nitrate to nitrosamines in the stomach (Zheng &
Wang 2010). In addition, methemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome, a serious health risk,
occurs when nitrate is converted to nitrite, which then reacts with the haemoglobin to cause

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blueness of the skin of new born infants (Chatterjee & Woo 2009). After ingestion of plants or
water high in NO3? acute poisoning may occur within 30 minutes to 4 hours in cattle. Thus, the
problem occurs very quickly and often the cattle are observed to be normal one day and dead the
next day (Romano & Zeng 2009).
Ward et al. (2005) reviewed the epidemiologic evidence for the linkages between drinking water
NO3? and the risk of specific cancers, adverse reproductive outcomes, and other health outcomes
in the context of the current regulatory limit for nitrate in drinking water. Nitrate contaminated
water supplies have also been linked to outbreaks of infectious diseases in humans (Lin 1996).
Literature survey reveals that NO3? ion also causes diabetes and is a precursor of carcinogen
(Kostraba 1992), (Wolfe & Patz 2002).
Conventional method have several disadvantages such as only limited to certain concentrations,
generation of large amount of toxic sludge and the capital costs are much too high to be
economical. Adsorption based on the interaction between sorbent and adsorbent, offers the
advantage such as low operating cost, and high efficiency of removing low concentration ions
from water. In this study amino alkylated polystyrene has been chosen to be the adsorbent for the
removal of nitrate from water as it is a very cheap option and also reduces pollution by
polystyrene.
1.3 Research questions
The following questions will be answered by the end of the research.
? What are the adsorption properties of amino alkylated polystyrene?

5

? What are the optimum conditions for the removal of nitrates from water using amino
alkylated polystyrene?
? Which suitable isotherm best fits the adsorption of nitrate ions onto amino alkylated
polystyrene?
1.4 Aims
The aims of the project were;
? To assess the performance of amino alkylated polystyrene in the adsorption of nitrate
ions from water.
? To determine the adsorption properties of amino alkylated polystyrene.
1.5 Objectives
The objectives of the study were
? To prepare amino alkylated polystyrene
? To characterise nitrated polystyrene, aminated polystyrene and amino alkylated
polystyrene.
? To identify the optimum conditions in the removal nitrate ions from water using amino
alkylated polystyrene
? To determine the isotherm that best fits the adsorption of nitrate ions.
? To identify the adsorption properties of amino alkylated polystyrene
I.6 Limitations
The limitations of the study were failure to characterize the fuctionalized polystyrene by SEM,
BET, XRD and elemental analysis.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section outlines the information on research that has been carried out with respect to the
research problem at hand. The analytical methods of analysis are also reviewed.
2.0 Introduction
All living organisms require the nutrient nitrogen for the growth and metabolism. Nitrogen is a
component of nucleic acids and other cell components. Nitrates are essential nutrients for plants
protein synthesis and play a critical role in nitrogen cycle. The findings from (Wang & Li 2004)
show that nitrogen mainly contributes in protein and chlorophyll formation.
Nitrate is a well-known contaminant of ground and stream water. It is an important
environmental and human health analyte, and thus its detection and quantification are considered
to be essential. The heavy utilization of artificial fertilizers and the uncontrolled discharges of
raw sewage have been known to cause the penetration of large nitrate quantities into the ground
and surface waters (Shrimali & Singh, 2001).
The most important environmental problems caused by nitrogen compounds are eutrophication
of water supplies and infectious disease (Guo et al. 2001), (Chiban et al. 2012).
In order to protect public health from the adverse effects of high nitrate intake, World Health
Organisation (WHO) set the standard as 50 mg/L to regulate the nitrate concentration in drinking
water (WHO 2001).
Polymeric adsorbents have attracted increasing attention over as an alternative to activated
carbon in industrial effluent treatment mainly due to their favourable physicochemical stability,
large adsorption capacity, good selectivity and structural diversity (Zhang et al. 2007). To obtain

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large adsorption capacity and better selectivity for a specific anion, chemical modification of
ordinary polymeric resins is adopted by introducing functional groups onto the matrix of the
resin (Huang, Liu, Luo & Xu 2007). In particular introduction of amino and hydroxyl groups as
hydrogen bonding acceptors or donors onto the matrices of the resin will develop a series of
hydrogen bonding polymeric resins (Pan et al. 2003), (Ming et al. 2006).
2.1 Functionalization of polystyrene
Polystyrene is fuctionalized through various methods of nitration, amination and alkylation to
produce polynitrostyrene, polyaminostyrene and amino alkylated polystyrene.
2.1.1 Nitration of polystyrene
There are several methods that can be used nitration of polystyrene and they include direct
nitration with a concentrated nitric acid and sulphuric acid mixture, nitration in carbon
tetrachloride with acetyl nitrate, nitration in N, N?-dimethyl formamide with a concentrated nitric
acid and sulphuric acid mixture and nitration in 3-nitrotoluene with a concentrated nitric acid and
sulphuric acid mixture. Philippides et al. (1993) reported that reported that the first three methods
give products with low degrees of substitution and lead to a broadening of the molecular weight
distribution, but that method last gives poly (4-nitrostyrene) with minimal effect on the breadth
of the molecular weight distribution.
Philippides et al. (1993) has reported the effect of nitrating medium on the nitration of
polystyrene in which polystyrene is nitrated in anhydrous mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric
acid. Degree of substitution varies from one to two nitro groups per benzene ring and increases
with increasing time, temperature and concentration of nitric acid in the nitrating medium. The
effect of polar and nonpolar solvents on nitration are examined by nitrating the polymer in

8

fuming nitric acid or with a mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid in presence of dimethyl
formamide and carbon tetrachloride.
Dimethyl formamide increases the reaction rate with fuming nitric acid but decreases the
nitration rate in nitrating mixtures. Carbon tetrachloride decreases the nitration rate in fuming
nitric acid but increases the nitration rate in nitrating mixtures. The results are explained in terms
of mechanism of formation Of NO2+ in various nitrating media. Degradation of polymer is less in
the presence of organic solvents than in concentrated acids.
Shyaa (2012) indicates that nitration involves formation of a very strong electrophile, the
nitronium ion which is linear. This occurs following the interaction of two very strong acids,
sulphuric acid and nitric acid. Sulphuric acid is strong and it protonates the nitric acid on the OH
group such that a water molecule can leave. Benzene attacks the positively charged atom of the
electrophile, where one of the N=O is broken at the same time. This is followed by rapid loss of
a proton to generate the aromaticity. The equation 2.1 shows generation of the electrophile NO2+.
HNO3 + H2SO4 ? NO2+ + OSO3H- + H20 equation 2.1

Figure 2.1 Nitration of polystyrene

9

Concentrated sulphuric acid acts a catalyst. Nitration of polystyrene results in monomer
disubstituted product depending on the conditions of the nitration experiment, but the nitration in
ortho-position is slow and does not occur in this reaction due to steric hindrance.
2.1.2 Amination of nitrated polystyrene
Several methods different methods for the direct amination of nitrobenzene have been reported
(Stern & Cheng 1993). The most useful of these with respect to synthetic utility is vicarious
nucleophilic substitution for hydrogen (VNS). This class of reaction has been shown to be useful
for the introduction of carbon, oxygen and amine nucleophiles into nitro arenes but demands the
positioning of a good leaving group ? to the nucleophilic center which is eliminated during the
decomposition of the proposed ? complex intermediate. These methods generate reasonable
yields of nitroaninilines.
By contrast a more direct and automatically efficient route for the production of aromatic amines
would be via the direct displacement of hydrogen from nitrobenzene using amides as
nucleophiles. Aminolysis of the resulting aromatic amide would produce the corresponding
nitroaniline.
Amination of polynitrostryrene can also be carried out by reductive methods of the nitro group
(Abadie et al. 2006). Metals such as tin and iron are used to reduce the nitro groups.
Polyaminostyrene are synthetically important compounds that acts as precursors to the synthesis
of many interesting molecule and can be readily synthesized from polynitrostyrene compound
via reduction methods. Tin powder in concentrated HCl in ethanol gives a yield of 67% .This
process has been considered as effective method for the synthesis of polyaminostyrene. However

10

notable disadvantages to these methods include high reaction temperatures and relatively long
reaction times.

Figure 2.2 Amination of nitrated polystyrene

2.1.3 Alkylation of aminated polystyrene
One of the most frequently used procedures for the preparation of tertiary amines is the N-
alkylation of primary and secondary amines with alkyl halides in the presence of a base such as
KOH potassium, sodium amide, CsOH, (Salvatore 2002) thallium(I) ethoxide, CsF / Celite
(Hayat 2001) and Hünig’s base (Moore 2005). Other methods for N-alkylation include the
displacement of methanesulfonates, p-toluenesulfonates or p-nitrobenzene sulphonates by
amines on solid supports (Olsen 2003).
Tertiary amines on solid supports have also been synthesised by a variety of other protocols
(Lober 2004). Some other methods, such as a Mannich-type reaction (Tremblay-

11

Morin 2004) reductive and catalytic amination, (Sajiki et al. 2004) metal initiated amination of
alkenes, alkynes and aryl halides, (Okano et al. 2003) deamination of quaternary hydrazinium
halides and reduction of N-tosylamidines, have been devised for alkylation.
Unsymmetrical tertiary amines have been obtained in a single step through the CuCl/B(OMe)3
catalysed reaction of primary amines, alkyl halides and ?-chlorine-substituted allylsilanes.
Synthesis of tertiary amines using a palladium-catalysed nucleophilic substitution of benzylic
esters and secondary amines has been reported (Kuwano et al. 2003).

Figure 2.3 Alkylation of aminated polystyrene

2.2 Application of functionalized polystyrene
Functionalized polystyrene has many applications in the field of Chemistry. Some of the most
significant applications include use as a stationary phase in chromatography and as an adsorbent
for removal of organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous media.
2.2.1 Application as stationary phase in chromatography

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The majority of stationary phases currently used for separation of ionic compounds are based on
organic polymers and silica gel. In contrast to stationary phases prepared on silica gel, organic
polymers show higher stability towards extreme pH conditions. The silica-based anion
exchangers (Matsushita, Tada, Baba ; Osako 1983), (Vydac 1991) can be operated only in pH
range between 2.0–9.5 while polymeric ion exchangers are stable across the entire pH range.
Thus, styrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) copolymers (Weiss ; Jensen 2003), (Gawdzik, Matynia
; Osypiuk 1998) polyvinyl and polymethacrylate resin are the most important organic polymers
used as materials in the manufacturing process for polymer-based anion exchangers.
Bocian, Kosobucki ; Gawdzik (2011) described the synthesis and properties of the multilayered
stationary phases, which contain quaternary amine functional groups for the analysis of anions
by ion chromatography. They worked on the separation of an inorganic anions sample (F–, Cl?,
NO2? Br?, NO3?, additionally HPO42? and SO42?).
2.2.2 Application as an adsorbent for removal of organic and inorganic compounds from
aqueous media
Zhang et al. (2008) did a comparative investigation for uptake of dissolved organic matter
(DOM). They did their investigation on refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land?ll
leachate treatment plant with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. An aminated
polymeric adsorbent NDA-8 with tertiary amino groups was synthesized, which exhibited high
adsorption capacity to the DOM (raw water after coagulation). In their findings resin NDA-8
performed better in the uptake of the DOM than resin DAX-8 and A100 which are commercial
polystyrene resins.

13

Electrostatic attraction was considered as the decisive interaction between the adsorbent and
adsorbate. Special attention was paid to the correlation between porous structure and adsorption
capacity. The mesopore of NDA-8 played a crucial role during uptake of the DOM. In general,
resin in chloride form performed a higher removal rate of DOC. According to the column
adsorption test, total adsorption capacity of NDA-8 was calculated to 52.28 mg DOC/mL wet
resin. 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution could regenerate the adsorbent e?ciently.
Zhang et al. (2009) worked on removal of aromatic sulphonates from aqueous solution by
aminated polymeric sorbents. They worked on sorption of aromatic sulphonates onto two
aminated polystyrene sorbents with different pore structures M-101 and D-301 was investigated
for optimization of their potential in application in chemical waste water treatment.
Sodium benzene BS, sodium 2 naphthalene sulphonate 2- NS and disodium 2,6 naphthalene
disulphonate 2,6 NDS were selected as reference solutes and sodium disulphate was used as a
competitive inorganic salt. Sorption selectivity of both sorbents was dependent upon the
concentration levels of aromatic sulphonates in solution coexisting with sodium sulphate at high
levels. Their findings showed that both sorbents exhibited different characters. D-301 presented
more favourable sorption for the solutes at relatively high levels (higher than 5 mM 0.7 mM for
2-NS and 0.05 mM for 2.6 NS, while M-101emoved aromatic sulfonates more completely when
the solute concentration was kept at relatively low levels.
2.3 Characterization of functionalized polystyrene adsorbent.
The functionalized polystyrene is characterized using various techniques which include FTIR,
XRD, BET and SEM.

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2.3.1 FTIR
FTIR is one of the most widely used tools for the detection of functional groups in pure
compounds and mixtures and for compound comparison. Infrared study is related to the
vibrational motion of atoms or molecules.
This study is mainly used for structure elucidation in organic and inorganic compounds. These
compounds absorb electromagnetic energy in the infrared region of the spectrum. IR radiation
does not have sufficient energy to cause the excitation of electrons. However, it causes atoms or
group of atoms to vibrate faster about the bonds, which connect them. The compounds absorb
energy from a particular region since the vibrations are quantized. The position of a particular
absorption band is specified by a particular wave number (Tourintio et al, 1998).
Shyaa (2012) worked on synthesis, characterization and thermal study of polyimides derived
from polystyrene. Infrared (FTIR) spectra and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to
characterize polymers. The chemical structure of poly(4nitro styrene) was analysed by FTIR
analysis which confirmed the nitration of polystyrene.
There finding were as the vibration band at 3107 cm-1 attributed for aromatic C-H stretching, the
band at 2854 cm-1 for aliphatic C-H stretching, 1597, 1518 cm-1 for asymmetric (ArNO2) N=O
stretching, 1390 cm-1 for symmetric stretching N=O, 1329 cm-1 for C-N stretching. The
polyaminostyrene was analysed by FT-IR, there were two bands, the asymmetrical N- H stretch
and symmetrical N-H stretch, located at 3323, 3215 cm-1. The N-H bending vibration for primary

15

amines was observed in the region 1618, 1583 cm-1. The C-N stretching vibration for aromatic
amines was observed in the region 1315 -1273 cm-1.
Sun et al. (2014) determined the microstructure and mechanical properties of aminated
polystyrene spheres / epoxy polymer blends. In their research polystyrene spheres were chosen
as soft fillers to toughen epoxy polymer. In order to weaken the aggregation of polystyrene
spheres in epoxy matrix caused by phase separation, amination treatment was firstly done on
them. They reported that FTIR was employed to distinguish the difference between native
polystyrene spheres and aminated polystyrene spheres.
The FTIR test displayed a spectral profile characterized by the presence of specific bands related
to polystyrene. Their findings were, at 3024cm-1 (-CH aromatic) and 2847 cm-1 (-CH2), 1600 cm-
1 (-C-C) aromatic, 1492-1451 cm-1 (-C6H5 in plane), 1200-1100 cm-1 (=C-H aromatic, out of
plane) 900-600cm-1 (=C-H aromatic in plane). Compared with the FTIR spectra of polystyrene
sphere, new peaks at 3420 cm-1, 3323 cm-1, 3215 cm-1 and 1613 cm-1 were observed on that of
aminated polystyrene spheres. There were typical peaks of N-H stretching and bending modes in
primary amines (Covolan et al. 2000). The disappeared peak 1830 cm –1 indicated that the amine
substitution reaction occurs on the para orienting of the polystyrene.

16

Figure 2.4 Comparison of FTIR spectrum for aminated polystyrene and polystyrene (Covolan et
al. 2000)
2.3.2 XRD
X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase
identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The
analysed material is finely ground, homogenized, and average bulk composition is determined.
X-ray powder diffraction is most widely used for the identification of unknown crystalline
materials. Determination of unknown solids is critical to studies in geology, environmental
science, material science, engineering and biology. Other applications include, characterization
of crystalline materials, identification of fine grained minerals such as clays and mixed layer

17

clays that are difficult to determine and optically determination of unit cell dimensions
measurement of sample purity (Khondker1 ; Lakhani 2015).
XRD technique offers the following advantages its powerful and rapid ( 1, the
adsorption is not favourable, the adsorption connections become weak and the adsorption
capacity decreases. The value of 1/n was less than one (Table 4.2), this revealed favourable
adsorption conditions. The correlation coefficient value was 0.9806 which is less than the
Langmuir value. Therefore, adsorption does not fit well to Freundlich isotherm . These findings
were in line with those of (Gammoudi ; Srasra 2012) who worked on nitrate sorption by
organosmectites.
Table 4.2 Freundlich parameters for adsorption of nitrate ions onto AAP
KF N 1/n R2
18.373 1.862891 0.5368 0.9806

50

Fig 4.9 Freundlich isotherm linear plot for the adsorption of nitrate ions
4.3.3 Temkin isotherm
A plot of qe againist ?n C? is shown in figure 4.10. The plot gives constants B and KT
from the slope and the intercept respectively. The data did not show a good fit to the
Temkin isotherm model compared to the Langmuir isotherm, based on the fact that the R2
value was 0.933. The same results were obtained by (Liao et al. 2010) using carbonate
hydroxyapatite extracted from egg shell as an as an adsorbent. The adsorption parameters
for this study are given in table 4.3.

y = 0.5368x + 1.2642
R² = 0.9806
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
00.20.40.60.811.21.4
log q

log C

51

Table 4.3.Temkin parameters for adsorption of nitrate ions on AAP
B KT R2
25.27 1.4586 0.9333

Fig 4.10 Temkin isotherm linear plot for the adsorption of nitrate ions.
4.4 Results for characterization of functionalized polystyrene by FTIR
4.4.1 Results for characterization of polystyrene by FTIR
The chemical structure of polystyrene was analyzed by FT-IR analysis in figure 4.11.The
y = 25.27x + 9.5396
R² = 0.933
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
00.511.522.53
q
?;#55349;;#56775;

52

FTIR, spectra displayed a spectral profile characterized by presence of specific peaks at
3023 cm-1, (-CH aromatic) and 2918 and 2840 cm-1 (-CH2), 1600 cm-1 (-C-C) aromatic,
1491 cm-1 (C6H5 in plane), 1451 cm-1 (-C6H5 in plane), 1100 cm-1 (=CH aromatic, out of
plane) 694 cm-1 (-CH- aromatic. These results are in line with the findings of (Covolan et
al. 2000).

Figure 4.11 FTIR spectrum of pure polystyrene
4.4.2 Results for characterization of nitrated polystyrene by FTIR
The chemical structure of polynitrostyrene was analyzed by FT-IR analysis which
confirmed the nitration of polystyrene as shown in figure 4.12. The new peaks at 1518
cm-1 for asymmetric (C6H5NO2) N=O stretching, 1342 cm-1 for symmetric stretching
N=O, and 1200 cm-1 for C-N stretching. These results were in line with those of (Shyaa

53

2012).

Figure 4.12 FTIR spectrum for nitrated polystyrene
4.4.3 Results for characterization of aminated polystyrene by FTIR
The polyaminostyrene FTIR spectrum is shown figure 4.13. There is a broad band at 3340 cm-1
which is typical of the N-H stretching in primary amines. The N-H bending vibration for primary
amines is observed at 1602 cm-1.

54

Figure 4.13 FTIR spectrum for aminated polystyrene
4.4.4 Results for characterization of amino alkylated polystyrene
The FTIR for amino alkylated polystyrene is shown in figure 4.14. The peak at 1056 cm-1 is
responsible for the C-N (N-CH3) stretch in amino alkylated polystyrene. The peak around 3000
cm-1 is for the –CH3 group. Tetiary amines do not show any bond in the region 3300 -3000 cm-1
since they do not have an N-H (Xiong ; Yao 2009).

55

Figure 4.14 FTIR spectrum of amino alkylated polystyrene

56

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion
This study investigated the adsorption characteristics and suitability of AAP as potential
adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions using batch technique. The results
showed that this clay could be used as potential sorbent and it was highly effective as low cost
adsorbent for the removal of nitrates ions from aqueous solutions. The batch study parameters,
pH of solution, mass of adsorbent, initial solution concentration, contact time and temperature
were found to be effective on the adsorption processes. The adsorption equilibrium was attained
within 3 hours.. The percentage removal was found to decrease with increase in pH. The increase
in adsorbent dosage increased the percent removal of nitrate due to the increase in adsorbent
surface area in adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm
equation and this adsorbent showed large uptake capacity of nitrate Q max,exp = 81 mg/g). AAP
adsorbent proved to be a highly efficient adsorbent for remediation of nitrate contaminated water
owing to its exceptional uptake capacity as well as high selectivity for this anionic contaminant.
5.2 Recommendations
The recommendations for this study are
? Various anions beside nitrate ions should also be analysed to maximise the use of the
AAP adsorbent.
? Studies on application of the beads on real environmental samples are required
? Use of the adsorbent as a anion preconcetration method is also required

57

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I love to exercise. The first effect of being happy is having energy. There are many ways of having energy. Exercise is one of the ways that can gain energy. Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help maintain weight loss. When I engage in physical activity, I burn calories. As a result of burning calories and lose wight, my body will lean and fit. So this is one of the effects that usually makes me more confidante, improve my self esteem and make me happy. In addition, having energy makes me live longer. For instance, exercise and have energy make my healthy, and less likely to get diseases. So, this is one of the important reasons that makes me happy. Furthermore, Do an actual workout is also one of the effects that makes me happy. For example, physical activities such as ride a bicycle or walk for 30 minutes stimulates that brain that may leave me feeling happier and more relaxed.


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Living as a Christian in daily lives is the life that I am practicing every day and becomes the torch for me in the darkness

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Living as a Christian in daily lives is the life that I am practicing every day and becomes the torch for me in the darkness. It is not easy to live out every single day as a true Christian when we should face lots of challenges in every second in our life. As a Christian, we suppose to live our life by faith. Personally, I am not really living my every single day by faith, but what important is I always try my best in practicing it.

What I have learnt from Christianity is the connection between us and almighty God. As a Christian, our goal is to love God. Through God’s grace and power, we can clearly see the motives and thoughts of our hearts. This is the reason why Christ lives in us, we obey him not because we afraid of him but it is because we love him. Someone who committed sin should ask for forgiveness in confidence that he or she will be forgiven. In the daily lives of Christian, reading Bible is not an exception for a good spiritual health. The Bible teaches us that our life is one of constant growth. It lets us to grow independently and mature in Christ. The God’s book keeps us from sin, it guides, corrects every action we done. It is all we need in a human’s life. “I have hidden your word in my heart that I might not sin against you” (Psalm119:11). As we are facing temptations to sin every day, we get guidance and corrections to face it and overcome the temptations through Bible. We will acknowledge the situations rather than facing it with a clueless mind. Next, reading the Bible guides us to discover our next move. “Your word is a lamp for my feet, a light on my path” (Psalm 119:105). Sometimes we can feel we are wondering about what is our purpose on the earth, what should be done to live our life to the fullest. As a teenager, sometimes I can feel we are lacking direction in every day we have been through. When we read the Bible, we can clearly see that God has a purpose for every one of us to be done in our lives. His commands give us direction, even in the most critical situation or the calmest moment that we experienced. The God’s words motivate us to live above our circumstances. We must learn to live graciously within them, and realize God is always with us. We should not ever let our circumstances get us down. Furthermore, reading Bible brings us a new perspective that we can know God’s will. The Bible can bring a new perspective into the understanding when we screwed up and things just do not really seem right. We always think about only one side of an issue without consider any of the factors. Reading Bible may change our thoughts and reminds us that there are other ways to think on the happening of our lives. “Therefore, I urge you, brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God-this is your true and proper worship. Do not conform the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is-his good, pleasing and perfect will” (Roman 12:1-2). We can say that Bible is a life-changing book. We can see that lots of people wanted to find their solutions for the problems that always come. But what we can see is the solutions are mostly coming from words in Bible. It makes a huge difference in our life, it helps us grow our spiritual health, explains the happenings and becomes our last authority.
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The main strategic issues facing Coca Cola China are :
• Health trend :
The products of Coca Cola company are considered to be bad and harmful for health .They contain a large percentage of sugar .In 2006 , the government agencies of India have claimed that Coca Cola’s products contain pesticides that generate dangerous problem for health and a study in the medical journal ‘The Lancet in 2001 ‘ reveled that the probability of a child to be obese increase greatly with the sugar-sweetened soft drink that he adds to his diet .Furthermore , according to the European journal of Cancer Prevention , drinking regularly soft drinks elevate the blood sugar and insulin levels in the body ,they include high-fructose corn syrup that was linked to the rise of obesity and diabetes .Such publicity can have a big damage to the company in international and growing markets notably with the increasing of consumer awareness of the health problems . In fact, Nowadays we are witnessing enormous changes in attitudes, behavior and societal concerns, people are becoming more aware about health problem and more concerned with a healthy lifestyle.
The consumer awareness of health and obesity problems are considered to be a serious threat to the carbonated drinks company and a big challenge to Coca Cola China industry .A large category of people are shifting their consumption to healthy products and preferring more low-calorie carbonates drink, sports drink, bottled water ,juice and tea .
• Pepsi competition :
Coca cola main competitor is Pepsi Co, both company represent the most heated enemies in the beverage business. There is others competitors , but none of them have successfully accessed the market like Coca Cola and Pepsi .The challenge for the two brand consist on the creation of new products of carbonated drinks and non-carbonated drink and the increase of revenue .Both of the two brand have similar strengths and weaknesses, but the problem is that Coca Cola focuses almost completely on beverage product while PepsiCo handle other branch and don’t concentrate all its resources on one specific product which gives to pepsi more chances to takes sales advantages and to increase its market share. .


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According to Grossman and Valiga

Category : Articles

According to Grossman and Valiga (2017), leadership is the ability to make the right decisions which aim at bringing success. Leadership can be mirrored in the outlooks and traits of those who are giving directions at work or in the society at large. Management becomes evident in firms when people accept duties which are sometimes challenging. Leaders continuously fix the principles for moral conduct and obligation to the company’s mission and values using their actions and words. Long-term achievement necessitates entrepreneurs to concentrate on the specifics that can be economical to enterprises.
Leader behavior is determined by the scope in which a firm’s employees and clients are contented with the level of service delivery inside and outside the business premises. It is through certain characters that people define whether an enterprise is ethical or unethical. According to Ward (2016), rulers who possess coarse traits might bring failures to businesses. Therefore, the behaviors of leaders can be defined by the visions which they have set up in places where they are ruling. The ruling goes hand in hand with establishing visions and then sharing with others concerning the same dream (Grossman, & Valiga, 2017). Managers have a character of inspiring their employees to work harder towards the attainment of the organizational goals.
Similarly, motivation is among the aspects used to assess leaders. Rulers should develop a trend of making their juniors enthusiastic by stirring them. Moreover, inspiring other employees is one of the primary duties of leaders. When there is motivation, the likelihood of establishing mutual co-existence in a firm becomes high (Ward, 2016). Additionally, serving is another concept which is used to define behaviors that rulers possess. The idea of service becomes efficacious when there are all tools needed to manage an enterprise. Also, influential individuals unveil their traits when they show the emotional intelligence to others. Emotional intelligence is often defined by the empathy which the top employees exercise on the ruled.
Over the years, various leadership styles have been used to manage small and big businesses. The first style of leadership is known as democratic governance style (Grossman, & Valiga, 2017). A democratic ruler is the one who embraces diversity in values, capabilities, and knowledge of his or her juniors (Moore, 2016). These people often come up with an informed decision that aims at benefiting a larger group. There is always an active collaboration between the rulers and the ruled in the society. However, popular style of governing is not appropriate in situations where decisions are required within a short period.
There is also the visionary leadership style in which rulers depend entirely on the non-figurative concept while making crucial decisions. In this style, a person can envisage possibilities which numerous people might not realize soon. Rulers tend to be obsessive, unprejudiced, and active during the inspiration of the forward impetus (Bolman & Deal, 2017). A company is in a position of developing fresh concepts and philosophies after adopting a visionary leadership style. Nevertheless, policies that are brought up are accomplished by the junior staff which is not good at envisioning ideas. An example of an exemplary visionary leader is Steve Jobs (Bolman & Deal, 2017). He is recognized for his immense philosophies and knacks for innovation and possession of the ability to foresee a future that is yet to happen, as perceived in his groundbreaking know-how.
Furthermore, there is a coaching style of leadership in which an organization forms groups which are then drilled with necessary aptitudes. Those who are being drilled show their optimism, beliefs, dreams, and morals to their rulers. In this form of leadership, leaders often control their juniors grounded on what stimulates their earnest longings. Besides, they purposely work to nurture a positive environment in which reassurance and communication can be conducted spontaneously (Bolman & Deal, 2017). Moreover, there is the affiliative type of leadership in which rulers motivate junior employees when they feel demoralized. A compliment is very essential in an affiliative setting, but then again it is crucial that affiliative rulers should not observe poor performances go unattended. They at times face the jeopardy of assuming matters so that they can please others.
While dealing with power change, creativity, and credibility image style leader, any change should be aligned with the general aims and objectives of an organization. The management must support initiatives which aim at bringing prosperity to the firm. Additionally, any change should offer an exceptional competitive advantage in a company (Grossman, & Valiga, 2017). Therefore, a new practice should act as a game changer rather than being an obstacle to the success of a business. Moreover, the change should be accountable by its spear headers. Accountability should be however be accompanied with transparency for the change in management to be meaningful. Similarly, leaders should initiate measure changes in cooperation. They should be hence easy to be used by employees and customers of good or services.
The first characteristic which is critical to effective leadership is that good rulers share their visions with those people they rule. Visionary rulers know what they want to accomplish during their tenure. Working towards an organization’s vision with diligence and zeal motivates others to follow the same course of commitment (Moore, 2016). The second characteristic which is fundamental to effective leadership is the concept of leading by an example. The best method of enhancing trustworthiness as leaders are to act as a role model. It is encouraged to show traits which other people might want to follow. Bring into line words and deeds assist in creating confidence between the rulers and the ruled.
The other characteristic which is crucial to effective governance involves showing integrity while associating with others. They must be able to differentiate between the right and wrong actions. Also, evident communication ability is efficacious to good leadership. The aptitude for communicating succinctly, and discreetly is a crucial leadership talent (Bolman ; Deal, 2017). Good communication entails more than just paying keenness to other people and also answering effectively. However, it as well covers sharing facts, inquiring brainy queries, and illustrating mistakes. The final characteristic of good governance entails identifying achievements (Grossman, ; Valiga, 2017). Employees become motivated when they are applauded for their excellent work.
In conclusion, leaders should enhance constructive undertakings rather than taking part in indecisive characters. The prosperity of an enterprise relies on how the management is structured. Both internal and external operations of any organization should be done with openness to both workers and customers. All in all, leaders must be equipped with styles which can enable them to manage operations at their respective agencies.

References
Bolman, L. G., ; Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley ; Sons.
Grossman, S., ; Valiga, T. M. (2017). The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing. 5th Edition. FA Davis.
Moore, J. F. (2016). The death of competition: leadership and strategy in the age of business ecosystems. HarperCollins.
Ward, J. (2016). Keeping the family business healthy: How to plan for continuing growth, profitability, and family leadership. Springer.


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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Category : Articles

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Ab aut, dolor dolorum eaque eligendi ex fuga, harum id, magnam maiores natus officiis perferendis perspiciatis qui recusandae reprehenderit veniam? Facilis, incidunt.


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As for the actual structure of the play usually the performance would begin with one or two of the characters the chorus then would enter singing and dancing

Category : Articles

As for the actual structure of the play usually the performance would begin with one or two of the characters the chorus then would enter singing and dancing, then there would be dialogue. This would usually just continue alternating until the end of the play, the chorus exits singing a song which generally offers words of knowledge connected to the deeds and consequences of the play. This is almost identical to what we call modern day musicals. Usually they begin with a character having a self observation or some sort of small monologue that introduces us to the show then they begin to sing.
Quite a big difference between modern day and ancient Greek theatre is that back then they only had 3 actors no matter the requirement for the performance and the chorus. Very unlike today’s drams which has usually a 10+ cast. One of the largest cats ever in a film is probably in the film ‘Ghandi’ which had over 300 000 extras in the funeral scene. Another large cast production is ‘Lord of the Rings: return of the king’ had around 20 000 extras participating in the battle scenes. Another dissimilarity between modern and ancient is that the Greeks only had Male actors, whereas today the entertainment industry has men and women. However it is more common for the men to be working behind the scenes e.g. directors, stage crew, paparazzi. 77% of Oscar winners are male which is saying something that it is still not equal.
The three genres of drama were comedy, satyr plays, and most important of all, tragedy.


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The first continent had a biggest effect because of the Christopher Columbus’s voyages is Americas

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The first continent had a biggest effect because of the Christopher Columbus’s voyages is Americas. Columbus was known as the person who “discovered” Americas, but that is not really true. On his way toward to Asia, he suddenly found the U.S and he did not even know that land was not in the map. On that land, there were already had people had lived there when Columbus came and he did not the first person found America either since before him, had some people had landed their voyages on there. According to John H. Parry, “Columbus did not discover a new world. He established contact between two worlds, both already old.” However, his journey made a big step in change the technology, the population, and also some diseases of Americas. As for the affect for American natives; the Columbia Exchange made an advantage in the technology as improved their weapon (knives, guns, etc…). New equipment in farming as plow was also changed Americas really well. Furthermore, the population of Americas had a huge change also. Follow Columbus’s voyage, Europeans and Spain people began move to live in Americas more and more. From the coming of Columbus, by his lead, indigenous people were murdered because Columbus wanted to build a new land. The indigenous people were devastated by diseases too. The natives had no immunity against the European diseases and a huge numbers of them died because of these diseases. As we see, the coming of Columbus brought both positive and negative to the native Americas people. Although they got more improvement in technology, but they lost their own land and met some problems in diseases.
Connecting the U.S to the world opened a big change to Europe. From Columbus discover, he reminded the Europeans about the continent that they had forgotten and created a bridge for Europe connect to Americas. When the gate of trading were opened, there were both good and bad things come also. The Europeans got some biological exchange from Americas. They had corn, potatoes, tomatoes and many of products from their continent. We can say that the plants they got from America changed their diet. For example, because soil in the Europe was really weak, so potato plant they got from America became a perfect plant to grow in their soil and that became main food for lower class in the Europe. Another instance can be mentioned is the maize. Like potato plant, maize was transported to Europe and became supplement for almost their meals.