Category Archives: Articles

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Though oppression through racism is quite common especially in older novels sexism is another underlying piece of oppression that is hidden to some and wide open to others

Category : Articles

Though oppression through racism is quite common especially in older novels sexism is another underlying piece of oppression that is hidden to some and wide open to others. All sorts of stories and writings contain sexism as a form of oppression most stories written in a common form for example is to have a main character who is a female but push upon her an over bearing or even abusive strong male character who manipulates her into doing things she might not normally do or even ever want to do. The book series twilight and fifty shades of gray are excellent examples of this. Both tell stories about shy easy to manipulate females who are sought after by a creepy and controlling man in the case of twilight and an abusive one in the case of fifty shades.


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“A Raisin in the Sun”

Category : Articles

“A Raisin in the Sun”, written by Lorraine Hansberry, was first published by Random House in 1959. On March 11th, 1959, it first premiered on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre then later released as a movie on May 29th, 1961, directed by Daniel Petrie.
Both the movie and the play focus around the Younger Family, living in a two bedroom apartment on the Southside of Chicago. When Mama (Lena Younger) receives a life insurance check for $10,000 the younger family faces difficulty deciding how to spend it. Walter Younger plans to invest in a liquor store to help the family’s debt, but Mama wants to purchase a new house in a better, predominantly white neighborhood.
In Act One, Scene 2, in the play and the film it’s Saturday morning, and the Youngers are in the process of cleaning the house. In the film, lighting and costumes are added. The plot of both the play and the film is when Mama Younger receives an insurance check for $10,000. The film has some music added that’s not included in the play. Most of the dialogue is kept the same, aside from a few deletions in the film from the original text, and dialogue added, too.


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Compassion

Category : Articles

Compassion: A Concept Analysis
Theory has remained the framework that guides the nursing practice. Streubert & Carpenter (as cited in McEwen, 2019), described theory as a systematic explanation of an event in which constructs and concepts are identified, relationships are proposed and predictions are made. Concepts are the basic building blocks in theory construction; the concept ought to be solid and strong to uphold the structure of the theory (Walker & Avant, 2011). To enhance the nursing profession and empower the discipline, concept analysis has been utilized to strengthen theories that supports the concept. Additionally, concept analysis has been utilized in effectively defining problems that previously may have been viewed as common sense. A solid and strong concept must be clearly named, defined structure, and its uses identified function for optimal understanding of the concept within the theory that is being described, explained and predicted (Walker & Avant, 2011).
Compassion is the concept selected for analysis. The purpose of this concept analysis is to understand the meaning of compassion, develop an effective definition for compassion and integrate compassion as a vital part of patient care. This paper will provide the reader with the definition of compassion and its criticality to nursing, literature review/use of concept, defining attributes, antecedents and consequences, model, borderline and contrary cases, two related concepts, an operational definition, conceptual definition and conclusion to the concept analysis.
Compassion is Critical to Nursing Practice/Profession
Compassion has always been regarded as core part of humanity. In the nursing profession, compassion has also remained an essential part of the nursing practice. The importance of compassion is recognized in many sectors of the society. Most of the world’s religious traditions upholds compassion at the center of their belief systems. Per McNeill, Morrison ; Nouwen (as cited in Kret, 2011), the word compassion “is derived from the Latin words pati and cum, which together means, to suffer with” (p. 29). Compassion is sympathetic consciousness of one’s distress coupled with the desire to alleviate it.
Compassion is a fundamental part of the nursing profession. Von Dietze & Orb (as cited in Schantz, 2007), viewed compassion as a potential deterrent to making professional decisions. Florence Nightingale (as cited in Papadopoulos & Ali, 2016), viewed compassion as a moral virtue and an indispensable trait that every good nurse should possess. A good nurse ought to deliver compassionate care to patients needing care. To deliver compassionate care, the nurse ought to display empathy. Empathy begins with gaining an insight into the patient’s concerns, feelings and sources of distress; in turn, this produces compassion. A better understanding of the patient must be reached for the nurse to care for the patient in an effective, meaningful way. Compassionately rendering care to patients has extensive benefits which includes enhanced clinical outcomes, increased patient satisfaction with care, and enhanced quality of data obtained from patients (Strauss et al., 2016).
Compassion is also evident in Virginia Henderson’s human needs theory. In Virginia Henderson’s human needs theory (as cited in Wills, 2019), nurses were described as compassionately rendering care to individuals, sick or well, in the performance of activities that will contribute to health or its recovery, that the individual would perform unassisted if the strength, will and knowledge were there or present. Virginia Henderson (as cited in Nicely ; DeLario, 2011), further described nurses as “temporarily the consciousness of the unconscious, the love of life of the suicidal, the leg of the amputee, the eyes of the newly blind, a means of locomotion for the newborn, knowledge and confidence for the young mother, a voice for those too weak to speak” (p. 72). This quote demonstrated display of compassion by nurses when delivering care to individuals unable to perform self-care. Hence, compassionate holistic care is critical to good patient outcomes and vital in the nursing practice.
Definitions/Use of Concept in the Literature
Compassion is defined as “a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the suffering” (Compassion, 2018). This author urged three healthcare providers and three lay people to define compassion without using the dictionary. Compassion was respectively defined as followed:
• “Providing respectful care and empathy for others especially those in need” (O. Campbell, RN, personal communication, October 6, 2018).
• “Showing empathy with someone’s tragic situation” (M. Ndingwan, RN, personal communication, October 4, 2018).
• “Empathic heart in action” (A. Jones, RN, personal communication, October 6, 2018).
• “Feeling sorry and showing concern for others” (N. Osuigwe, personal communication, October 1, 2018).
• “Being sympathetic and understanding of ones suffering” (A. Dawn, personal communication, October 6, 2018).
• “Strong feeling and display of empathy, kindness and mercy towards the plight of someone” (K. Onukwugha, personal communication, October 6, 2018).
A literature search was conducted to offer further definitions of compassion. Feldman ; Kuyken (as cited in Gilbert, 2014), asserted that “compassion is a multitextured response to pain, sorrow, and anguish. Compassion comprises of kindness, empathy, generosity, and acceptance. Compassion is the capacity to be open to the reality of suffering and to aspire to its healing” (p. 98). Compassion is more than simply conveying understanding of one’s suffering, but involves insight, thoughtfulness and the ability to communicate these to a suffering person in such a way as to alleviate some of the suffering (Von Dietze & Orb, 2000). Strauss et al. (2016), defined compassion as:
A cognitive, affective, and behavioral process consisting of five elements that refer to both self-compassion and other compassion: 1) recognizing suffering; 2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience; 3) feeling empathy for the person suffering and connecting with the distress emotional resonance; 4) tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused in response to the suffering person i.e. distress, anger, fear so remaining open to and accepting of the person suffering; and 5) Motivation to act/acting to alleviate suffering. (p. 19).
Compassion is characterized with feelings of warmth, concern and care for another, together with a strong motivation to improve an individual’s wellbeing (Singer ; Klimecki, 2014). Only compassion impels and empowers people to not only acknowledge, but also act toward alleviating or removing another’s suffering or pain (Schantz, 2007). Other uses of the concept include:
• Self-compassion
• Compassion to humankind and animal
• Compassionate care
• Compassion fatigue
• Compassionate drug use: Medication restricted for people that meet certain criteria Medication for treatment of a seriously ill patient using a new/unapproved drug when other treatments are unavailable.
• Compassion International: A Christian child sponsorship ministry.
Defining Attributes
Walker & Avant (2011), described defining attributes as the characteristics of the concept that appear repeatedly. For this concept analysis, three defining attributes of compassion were identified:
• Empathy: “The ability to relate to another person’s pain vicariously, as if one has experienced that pain themselves” (Empathy, 2018).
• Plight: “An unfortunate, difficult, or precarious situation” (Plight, 2018).
• Desire: “A usually formal request or petition for some action; A conscious impulse toward something” (Desire, 2018).
For one to show compassion to another, these three defining attributes must be present.
Conceptual Definition
Compassion is having empathy towards the plight of another and the desire to act to relieve the situation.
Model Case
Per Walker & Avant (2011), a model case demonstrates all the defining attributes of the concept. In another word, the model case is the pure case of the concept.
Mrs. Williams, a grocery store owner in her community was driving home one evening and saw her neighbor (Angela) at a traffic light stop begging for money. Mrs. Williams pulled over to the side of the road to talk to Angela. Mrs. Williams had a conversation with Angela (who is a single mom with two kids). Mrs. Williams realized during their conversation that Angela was laid off from her job, evicted from her apartment, and currently lives in the shelter with her two young kids. Mrs. Williams had empathy towards Angela’s plight. She had the desire to act and help Angela alleviate her situation. Mrs. Williams gave Angela some money; she offered Angela a position in her grocery store and offered the basement of her house to Angela and her kids. Mrs. Williams encouraged Angela to live in her basement with her kids until she attains financial stability to rent an apartment or house of her own. Angela and her kids were overwhelmed with joy and greatly appreciated Mrs. Williams for showing them compassion and transforming their lives.
In this model case, Mrs. Williams had empathy towards Angela’s plight. She had the desire and acted to alleviate Angela’s situation resulting in her current life status.
Borderline Case
Per Walker & Avant, a borderline case consists of some of the defining attributes of the concept; not all of the attributes are present.
Mrs. Williams, a grocery store owner in her community was driving home one evening with her friend (Mary) and saw her neighbor (Angela) at a traffic light stop begging for money. Mrs. Williams had empathy towards Angela’s plight. She told Mary (her friend whom she was riding with) that Angela should have devoted this time that she is using in soliciting for money towards applying for jobs at the unemployment center that will evidently help in alleviating her situation.
In this borderline case, Mrs. Williams had empathy towards Angela’s plight but did not have any desire to act and alleviate her situation.
Two Related Concepts
Per Walker & Avant (2011), related cases are related to the concept being analyzed but do not contain all the defining attributes. In other words, related cases are similar or connected to the concept but not the same as the main concept. The related concepts identified are:
Sympathy: “The fact or power of sharing the feelings of another, especially in sorrow or trouble; fellow feeling, compassion, or commiseration.” (Sympathy, 2018).
A. Compare
• Both concepts exhibit emotion or feelings of concern towards another person’s plight or difficult situation.
B. Contrast
• Compassion encompasses sympathy. The desire to act or acting to alleviate suffering is a core feature that differentiates compassion from sympathy.
Pity: “A strong feeling of sadness or sympathy for someone or something” (Pity, 2018a). “To feel pity for someone or something: to feel sorry for someone or something” (Pity, 2018b).
A. Compare
• Both concepts exhibit emotion or feelings of concern towards another person’s plight or difficult situation.
B. Contrast
• Compassion implies pity coupled with an urgent desire to aid or to spare.
• Pity can be tinged with contempt. Compassion comprises of love/mercy and is therefore free from negative feelings.
Contrary Case

Antecedents
Per Walker & Avant (2011), antecedents are events that must occur before the occurrence of the concept. This author identified four antecedents:
• Sorrow: “A cause or occasion of grief or regret, as an affliction, a misfortune, or trouble” (Sorrow, 2018).
• Suffering: “Pain that is caused by injury, illness, loss, etc.: physical, mental, or emotional pain” (Suffering, 2018).
• Vulnerable: “Capable of being physically or emotionally wounded or hurt” (Vulnerable, 2018).
• Understanding: “The knowledge and ability to judge a particular situation or subject” (Understanding, 2018).
One or more of these antecedents must occur before one can show compassion to another. In other words, these antecedents will be a driving force for compassion to occur. The environment must support a feeling of empathy and understanding of one’s suffering, problems, vulnerability, needs, sorrow and/or pain.
Consequences
Per Walker & Avant (2011), consequences are events that occur following the occurrence of the concept. The ideal consequences of compassion would be a positive change in one’s state following occurrence of compassion. However, consequences of compassion could be negative. The positive consequences of compassion include but not limited to contentment, relief, coping, recovery, happiness, love, hope, and feeling of being care for. Negative consequences of compassion include but not limited to compassion fatigue, helplessness, guilt, stress, sadness, anger, fear and anxiety.
Operational Definition
Conclusion


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This paper illustrates the historical issues underlining the current relationship between Azerbaijan and Armenia

Category : Articles

This paper illustrates the historical issues underlining the current relationship between Azerbaijan and Armenia, briefly pointing at the impact of geography upon the history, roots of Armenian-Azerbaijani enmity and the impact of Soviet and Russian national policies. Aiming to examine the basic reasons behind this conflict, the paper is presenting the different interpretation of history. Following essential topics about the evolution of the Armenia-Azerbaijan dispute guiding a reader to discover this conflict’s regional dynamics and exploring the factors, presented by scholars and officials. To illustrate the development of the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict, the paper is emphasizing on perspectives and interests of external powers. As an essential point, this paper also illustrates the significant impact of the energy resources of Azerbaijan and policies of several countries who desire to influence the outcome of the Karabakh conflict. The conclusion of this paper draws a framework for the efforts involved in solving this conflict, trying to find the possible solution, and briefly states the latest state of Karabakh conflict.
The Karabakh dispute is uncured wound; this conflict is desperation for peace, in addition, it is a struggle for freedom of both nations, for Azerbaijan and Armenia. Unfortunately, external efforts and powers cannot solve this dispute, as in this issue, only the two nations can come to the solution, which can be the result of willingness for unity and peace. Everyone needs peace and freedom, so do these two nations-Azerbaijan and Armenia. The dispute between Azerbaijan and Armenia has reached its worse culmination since past 20 years. According to Gerard Chaliand, “efforts of the past twenty years to mediate an end to the Karabakh conflict are trying to withdraw military forces from Karabakh,” assuming that this act would stop the conflict. (Gerard Chaliand, p.43) The same efforts are predicting that this could help to return the refugees and war will end. From point of view, this cannot be a solution as countries are not willing to negotiate; the victory of one country is a defeat of another. This notion is deeply flawed; true peace must not be confused with peaceful coexistence, which is what a political settlement perhaps essentially aims to achieve.
Historical Issues Underlining the Current Relationship between Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia started in the late 19th century when the Russian Empire used its forces and power to enslave all poor nations. By the time countries of Caucasus, such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia were in the middle of czarist “volcano’, where is the division of ethics and cultures were the primary aims of Russian Empire. The main aim of Russian Empire was to weaken already weakened ethics, so the last ones would live and “prosper” for the sake Russian Empire. Because the Armenian nation existed since hundreds of years before Azerbaijan become a nation, “Armenia had higher social and economic position.”(Andrew Bell, p.143) At that time, “Azerbaijan had no recognition, nor a stable economy; therefore, the majority of Azerbaijanis lived under the Armenian rich society.”(Bell, p143)
However, this was true thousands of years ago and it is true now, that we desire freedom more than anything else that life can give us. Therefore, in Czarist regime, Azerbaijan was living under the oppression of rich Armenians, while Armenia was living under the pressure of Russian Empire. However, Azerbaijan became a slave of Armenia. “These factors created enmity between the two ethnic groups.”(Bell, 143) The czarist regime of “divide-and-rule” sought to promote jealousy and division among these neighboring ethnic groups in order to ensure, once again, the monarchy’s grip on power. According to Christopher Walker, “When central authority decreased during the Russian Revolution of 1905, the tensions built between the Azerbaijanis and Armenians exploded into violence throughout the Caucasus region.” (Walker Christopher, p.3) However, the two nations always have their own reasoning for such an issue. Both Azerbaijanis and Armenians, have right to believe what they think is the right fact behind this hatred. The two nation never come to “golden middle’ when things come to explain historical backgrounds and causes of this dispute. From Armenian perspectives, this conflict rooted in Ottoman and the Russian Empires, “reinforcing the Armenian’s sense of solidarity.” (Walker, p-vii) Armenians claim that they have sustained themselves for millennia on the feeling that they were unique every nation is unique, despite being subject to the disruptive effects of their geographical surroundings. However, Armenians forgetting the fact that after the collapse of Czarist regime, all Caucasus nations, including Georgia, Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Dagestan, Chechnya, etc., had been united and lived in peace, as fine neighbors. Moreover, after the WWI these nations displayed willingness for peace and solidarity between each other.
On another hand, Azerbaijani perspectives believe that, regardless of Ottoman and Russian empires’ influence, the enmity is not just a subject of a geopolitical surrounding, but a struggle over the power in this region. Some may wonder, “Why would two neighbors struggle for power?” It could be obvious that the main aim of Russian Empire brainwashed these nations and lighted the fire of enmity between them, so the small ethnic groups would have no solidarity, which was the potential weapon against Czarist regime. However, as this enmity already has entered into the brain cells of both nations, Azerbaijanis believe that this issue has its roots only within the two ethnicities, excluding the influence of Russian and Ottoman empires.
Development of the Armenia-Azerbaijan Dispute
For many years, since the Russian Revolution, the two nations continued to be the subject of “divide-and-rule”. At the time of USSR, like many of the USSR republics, Azerbaijan and Armenia were potential “dangers” to the Soviet authorities. The diverse ethnic population of entire Caucasus region was a “bone in a throat” of the Soviet government. Therefore, the Soviet government made an effort to destroy a good relationship between two ethnics by ‘awakening” enmity between Azerbaijan and Armenia, almost constantly giving Karabakh lands to Armenia and after some time vice-versa. This double game, of course, awakened old issues between the two nations and grow into violence. Soviets wanted to destroy cultural diversity and have one and only culture- the Russian culture. As a fact, Soviets forced to change the last names of all members of 15 Republics (excluding the members of Russian culture) in order to have one nation. For example, an Azerbaijani last name “Gara” (ethnically belong only to Azerbaijan) have changed to Garayeva, believing that this act would create one Russian Culture.
However, changing people’s names or last names did not create “one and only Russian culture”, but Russian government kept trying to achieve this goal; dividing ethnics and creating diversity. After many years of “give-and-take”, it was Gorbachev’s turn to use this issue as a political “toy”. Besides, Armenians trusted Gorbachev, hoping he will assign Karabakh lands to Armenia. However, “Those Armenians were completely disillusioned and for them, it was the end of the ‘Gorbachev myth’.”(Gerard, p125-126) Some people believe that USSR had always sided with Azerbaijan during this time. In contrary, Gorbachev assigned Karabakh to Armenia “in the form of additional aid to appease the parties.” (Andrew, Bell, p.29) With the breakup of the USSR in 1989 and the declaration of independence by Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1991, these issues were quickly brought to light. By mean, having Karabakh as separate “additional aid”(Bell) appeared to be not efficient for the Armenian Republic, as Armenia wanted this land to be officially under the rule of Armenian government and not as the independent Karabakh Republic. Initially, Armenia’s official position on Karabakh was to neither to claim sovereignty nor recognize Karabakh’s independence.
However, this issue has had its controversial views over the Post-Soviet period. In the Post-Soviet phase, Armenia and Azerbaijan emerged from the shadows of the Soviet empire as independent states on the international stage for the first time in more than seven decades. According to Walker, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, there were no longer any barriers to pent-up ethnic tensions; the dispute over Karabakh started a new phase. The Soviet Union abandoned significant amounts of military equipment in the region, which were used by both sides in the escalating conflict. The surrounding countries- Russia, Iran, and Turkey were deeply concerned by the new military activity and by the potentially destabilizing effect on the region. (Walker, p 121)
Russia as with the former USSR has a desire to maintain influence in the region, both as a buffer to Western influence as much as to benefit from the potential trade and energy, (both oil and gas) that can be exploited. The energy resources of Azerbaijan are considerable. These resources have played an important role throughout this conflict. It is important to note that up until the dissolution of the USSR had always sided with Azerbaijan, when it became apparent that Azerbaijan was looking to develop these resources with a consortium of primarily Western companies, Russia began to support Armenia with arms and funds, which had a significant impact on the outcome of the war. In addition to this, Russia attempted to block the validity of this contract stating, “… Azerbaijan had no legal right to exploit the oilfields on the Caspian shelf without consulting other legal states” (Herzig, Edmund. p.116)
On another hand, Iran also has desires to increase its influence in the Caucuses, while also fearing of the reemergence of Turkey as a power broker. Iran sought to become the hub of energy resources in the region and threatened by the optional energy routes, which could be developed. In addition, Iran has traditionally sided with Russia as seen with their support of Russia in the attempt to dissolve the energy contract fearing the impact of additional western influence in the region.
However, Turkey has had and continues to this day to have strong ties to Azerbaijan. Turkey has close ethnic ties with the primarily Turkic population of Azerbaijan and supports the Azeri position of territorial integrity. With the breakup of the USSR Turkey saw this as an opportunity to increase its political presence in the region. In addition, Turkey is fearful of the impact of instability in the regions and the potential impact that this could pose both with its trading partners and with ethnically diverse regions within Turkey itself.
Consequently, one might conclude that Karabakh land and its issue have awakened “appetites” for something bigger than just a land; watching closely the development of this conflict and having a “standby” position is likely for mentioned countries and each has their still unrevealed ambitions beyond their interested on Karabakh.
Directions of the Conflict
It is interesting that almost all civil wars or ethnic disputes have somehow attached to the “oil” issue. Therefore, this conflict seems like circling around Azerbaijan’s oil reserves. Nevertheless, what do ordinary citizen would know about true ambitions of war and its compromises? Reading history and watching TV news cannot be enough to discover the truth. When things come to the Karabakh issue, oil factors mostly are hidden behind “forbidden” signs of Azerbaijan authorities and its supporters. The only information one can collect is by general knowledge of some scholars, economics, experts, etc. Nevertheless, how much of truth do they know? Even in this essay, it is almost impossible to cover facts and reality, as it still general, even cited or quoted from scholars. One has to “deep” himself into this issue from the very beginning of the dispute more than 100 years ago, so every fact and told story will be based on history. Who says that history is always true and right?
As for Azerbaijan and Armenia’s Karabakh “game”, the oil factor is the part of history and present day.Azerbaijan’s oil revenues and steady economic growth have reduced any inclination for compromise with Armenia. Azerbaijan has exponentially increased its military spending, to which Armenia has responded with its own build-up. Let not forget that the people of both countries were in economic crisis and millions were living on “salt and bread” rules. Perhaps the fact that human nature needs constant competition brought US and Russia, Azerbaijan under one umbrella. However, US-Russian competition over the flow of Caspian oil is a contributing factor to the possible resolution of Karabakh conflict. Consequently, in 1990’s, Azerbaijan was not able to have a direct relationship with the US, as Russia always stood between the two.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan rejected Russian new policy over Caucasus region; therefore, Russia favored the Armenian position. In 1992-1993, the new Armenian army utilized its superior training and organization to drive the Azerbaijanis out of Karabakh, as well as capturing large territories to the south and west of the Karabakh. A massive Azeri counteroffensive was initiated in winter 1993, but with marginal territorial gains. Several international scholars believe that the President of Azerbaijan H.Aliyev made explicit use of the promising and untapped oil fields on Azerbaijani territory to acquire an advantage in the Nagorno-Karabakh war. The underlying principle was straightforward: if Azerbaijan could get powerful countries to invest in its oil sector, the support of the same countries could be utilized for securing a favorable diplomatic victory in Nagorno-Karabakh. Unfortunately, the victory escaped Azerbaijan, leaving its territories occupied.
Between 1988 and 1994, the conflict followed a pattern of interrupted escalation against continuous efforts to negotiate a cease-fire on the part of a range of mediators. However, in May 1994, the sides agreed to a cease-fire brokered by Russia, and in July of the same year, Armenia and Azerbaijan committed to maintaining the cease-fire and seeking a negotiated settlement. When the ceasefire was finally agreed upon, in May 1994, the Armenian army effectively occupied 20% of Azerbaijan. (The Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the Kingdom of Belgium. Facts)
Conclusion: Efforts, Prospects, Current Status
It is ironic that how much we are going back and forward to the history in order to find what we have missed in past and what was our mistake. This essay illustrated causes and effects of the Karabakh war, unfortunately leaving behind what called a “human sense”. It occurs, maybe because this war has nothing to do with millions of people; their lives, their struggle, and their sorrows. This war was and still about a group of people trying to sell and buy the Karabakh lands not for its recourses, nor for its geographical location, but for Azerbaijan’s oil reserves. “Since its violent resurgence, the dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan has brought untold destruction and hardship to the region.” (Herzig, p.129) Both nations, displaced from their homes, have worsened the conflict and the drain on their economy. Indeed, the Karabakh conflict has amplified substantially, the negative effects of the Soviet breakup in both republics. More importantly, it has struck at the heart of both people’s sense of identity and statehood.
Today, in Azerbaijan, most opposition parties advocate a tougher stance than that of President Ilham Aliyev; some are convinced that time and oil revenue are so clearly on Azerbaijan’s side, that is better to wait for the balance to shift in order to secure a more favorable outcome or to exercise the military option. In addition, International peacekeepers have attempted to resolve this conflict. The OSCE is committed to providing a support once the sides have agreed on force separation and repatriation, but an agreement has still not been reached, and its parties face each other at short range along the cease-fire line. (The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Permanent Council. N°761) The United Nations and the international community have supported the OSCE efforts.
Nevertheless, while Armenia and Azerbaijan have found it difficult to make meaningful compromises on the path to a peace settlement, perhaps it should not be regarded as an impossibility that an agreement would be signed in the near future. The bloodshed that has stained the region for the past 22 years has blinded most Armenians and Azerbaijanis to the fact that, before being subjected to Russian rule and czarist policies aimed at promoting division among ethnic groups, their peoples lived together in peace for hundreds of years prior to the 20th century. Although collective memories of recent brutalities will not be “undone” easily, the reunion should be regarded as an attainable goal.
Unfortunately, there is little indication of a change in attitudes in Azerbaijan or Armenia. Indeed, if there is anything on which the government and opposition in both countries agree, it is on where to draw the line vis-à-vis Karabakh. With so many unsolved problems and with so much enmity between the two nations, there might be no solution for this issue. This issue is as deep as the black plague that perhaps would need a political and moral doctor in order to be cured.
As latest news points it out “Delays in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict create a dangerous situation and there is a risk that it could lead to great wars” (Mubariz Gurbanli, NAP News, 12 March 2010), people of Armenia and Azerbaijan have a long way to a peace settlement. Every other day of this peace delay is a path to a new war. Crossing fingers for peace in both countries.


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In the third chapter

Category : Articles

In the third chapter, Loewens has described the false notion that has been conveyed by the American textbooks. Loewens in this chapter has said that America did not settle in 1620 as what the majority thinks. The American natives had been residing there for centuries before the English pilgrims entered in North America. Loewen suggests that Thanksgiving is just a myth. The students, however, are taught about how the kind Americans have helped out a minority i.e. the native Indians. But the pilgrims did not introduce the natives to the festivities; in fact, the natives had been celebrating autumn harvest for centuries.
Moreover, the textbook authors have altogether excluded the truth that the Europeans brought diseases to the continent. Due to this, a large number of native people died when they got into contact with those diseases. This decrease in Native Americans population has greatly helped the pilgrims to take over the lands of natives without any resistance. Many historians are of the view that the population reduction and the massacres have originated the Thanksgiving celebrations. After reading the content of this chapter, I would say that by omitting these facts from the textbooks, the authors have tried to hide the atrocities and genocide being done in America.


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Clostridium Difficile

Category : Articles

Clostridium Difficile:
Research Critique and PICOT Statement
Quantifying research has been done on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) in antibiotic-associated-diarrhea patients. Clinical practice guidelines are available for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of C. diff, however the rate of C. diff is continuously increasing and even surpassing other health care-associated infections. By reducing unnecessary antibiotic use, occurrence and recurrence of C. diff could be avoided. By using potentially quicker and discriminatory testing, C. diff infected patients could be identified earlier. These two thought processes are analyzed in a research critique of a quantitative and qualitative research articles, with the overarching theme of C. diff reduction.
Qualitative Study
Problem statement. “Despite scientific advances in typing of C. diff strains very little is known about how hospital staff use typing results during periods of increased incidence (PIIs)” (Szczepura, Manzoor, & Hardy, 2012). Although it is common knowledge that early detection of C. diff infection can prevent an outbreak, the need for a more rapid and discriminatory test should improve how quickly the C. diff infection is identified. “Patients undergoing general surgery, oncology patients, and those with chronic renal disease are at particular risk of becoming infected during a hospital stay” (Szczepura, Manzoor, & Hardy, 2012). A C. diff infection can turn into a life-threatening event, especially for the elderly population.
Purpose and research questions. In the article, How do hospital professionals involved in a randomized controlled trial perceive the value of genotyping vs. PCR-ribotyping for control of hospital acquired C. difficile infections?, a qualitative study was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial to measure the difference between hospital C. diff infection rates of MLVA verses standard PCR-ribotyping. If C. diff can be identified earlier, would infection control measures change? Would staff behavior change? Would hospital organizational factors be affected? Studying how quickly C. diff can be diagnosed in patients would appear to make the article a quantitative research article, yet this article is presented as a qualitative article.
Literature Review. However, the research article is done in a very qualitative style, with the voice of the researcher included throughout the article. No other qualitative research articles are referenced in the article.
Conceptual/Theoretical Framework. The author of the research article never voices a personal opinion concerning the research topic. The researcher created a short questionnaire and requested information from 16 different hospitals. That questionnaire laid the groundwork for the research article, questioning if any infection control actions were initiated, or whether any actions had been stopped.
Quantitative Study
Protection of human participants. “Under FDA regulations, an Institutional Review Board constituted group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subject. In accordance with FDA regulations, an IRB has the authority to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove research” (FDA, 2016). The chosen research article never mentions approval by IRB and the disclaimer at the end states that the views expressed in the article do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. government. No patient names were ever divulged in this study and any information linked to specific health care organizations, such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, were generalized statistics. Due to the anonymous and quantitative nature of this article there is no concern for the ethical considerations of the patients in the study used.
Data collection. The research article identifies unnecessary antibiotic use as the independent variable, while the risk for developing C. diff is the dependent variable. “A recent study found that 77% of patients with C. diff infection received at least one dose of an unnecessary antimicrobial and 26% received exclusively unnecessary antibiotics. Recurrence of C. diff infection was higher in those who received any unnecessary antibiotic compared to no unnecessary antibiotics” (Evans & Safdar, 2016). In the article, a survey of 183 hospitals in 10 states found that C. diff accounted for 12.1% of health care associated infections (HAIs). After Evans and Safdar’s survey was completed, it was compared to other such surveys previously done on the topic, quoting a survey done on the Department of Vetrans Affairs. Although the research article never clearly states the span of time the study was conducted over or lists the sequence of data collection clearly beyond stating statistical results of the survey.
Data management and analysis. Data management consisted of a preliminary survey followed by the results laid out in tables throughout the research article. “Data analysis reduces, organizes, and gives meaning to the data” (Burns, Grove, ; Gray, 2011). This study uses the analysis technique, inferential analysis – drawing the inferred conclusion that specific antibiotics: clindamycin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones have the highest correlation to C. diff infections. Beyond stating the results of the survey, the authors do not describe the rigors of the process it was to receive the information, create a database, or run it through statistical software. Although two researchers were involved with the collection of data and writing the article, no measures were stated in the article that would prevent the authors’ biases.
Findings/interpretation of findings. The article addresses the fact that the biggest risk factor associated with C. diff was hospitalization, stating “94% of all C. diff cases were associated with a health care exposure” (Evans & Safdar, 2016). An article by the CDC seems to prove the quantitative research article on C. diff true, stating “one type of HAI – caused by the germ C. difficile – was estimated to cause almost half a million infections in the United States in 2011, and 29,000 died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis. Those most at risk are people, especially older adults, who take antibiotics and also get medical care” (CDC, 2016). The article states that the costs related to C. diff are hard to compare due to the difference in perspective, the choice of which costs to include, and how the costs are clearly “attributed to C. diff infections.” Consider another point the article makes – C. diff infections occur mainly in older individuals with comorbid illnesses. “These limitations notwithstanding, it is likely that the costs of C. diff infections are underestimated, and these are projected to increase given the rising incidence and severity of C. diff infections” (Evans & Safdar, 2016). The article, Current Trends in the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile, consists of the topics: burden of C. diff infection and epidemiologic onset, risk factors, morbidity and mortality, and costs of C. diff infection, which flowed well and had supporting tables inserted for data reference. This research article points to health care workers in general as responsible for spreading C. diff. Nurses make up the largest body of health care, having physical contact with their patients multiple times throughout the day. Practicing nurses must adhere to The Joint Commission and the evidence-based practices they implement to prevent multidrug-resistant organism infections, part of the 2011 National Prevention Safety Goal. “Nurses are critical to the successful implementation of this goal, and to the proper management and care of patients diagnosed with C. diff infections” (McComas, 2011). The findings from the research article call nurses into account for the administration or unnecessary antibiotics. Administration should promote a team-based approach between physicians and nurses for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of C. diff.
Conclusion
Primary and secondary prevention for C. diff includes a team approach by physicians and nurses alike, limiting patients to the exposure of unnecessary antibiotics. Also, a need for better nurse education concerning hospital acquired infections and evidence-based practices to prevent the spread of these infections. The chosen qualitative research article addresses the potential need for faster identification of C. diff infections, while the quantitative research article addresses the correlation between antibiotic use and C. diff infection rate. Despite the research invested into the topic, C. diff remains a significant health care associated issue.
PICOT Statement
In health care-acquired C. diff infected patients (P), what is the effect of limiting unnecessary antibiotic use (I) compared to unregulated antibiotic use (C) on decreasing the rate of C. diff infections (O) within the course of a year (T)?

References
Burns, N., Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. (2011). Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice (6th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier/Saunders.
CDC. (2016). Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved December 04, 2016, from https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/cdiff/Cdiff_infect.html
Evans, C., & Safdar, N. (2016). Current Trends in the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/suppl_2/S66.full.pdf?cited- by=yes&legid=cid;60/suppl_2/S66
McComas, P. (2011, December 15). Clostridium Difficile Infection: What Nurses Need to Know. Retrieved November 27, 2016, from http://magazine.nursing.jhu.edu/2011/12/clostridium-difficile-infection-what-nurses- need-to-know/
Szczepura, A., Manzoor, S., Hardy, K., Stallard, N., Parsons, H., Gossain, S., & Hawkey, P. (2012, December 5). How do hospital professionals involved in a randomized controlled trial perceive the value of genotyping vs. PCR-ribotyping for control of hospital acquired C. difficile infections? Retrieved November 20, 2016, from http://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-14-154


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The first thing we need to know about the subsidy intentions and examples

Category : Articles

The first thing we need to know about the subsidy intentions and examples. Subsidies mean the benefits the government provides to a group or individual usually in the form of cash payments or tax deductions
The United States government has implement few instruments to support Boeing. Massive defense contracts paid via tax dollars
The U.S. military provided Boeing with tax breaks, infrastructure support and other incentives totaling billions of dollars show how dependent Boeing is with the U.S Government. The U.S government also involved gave Boeing in huge amount which is reported more than $23. The $23 billion subsidized from indirect government such as Pentagon and NASA for Research & Development purposes and new technology and knowledge acquired.
Besides than, the European also has a case at the WTO (World Trade Organization) regarding Boeing’s relation with Japanese business partners, Boeing entered an alliance with japan Mitsubishi, Kawasaki and Fuji to build the 787 Dreamliner. They also provided more than $1.5 billion in soft loans, repayable only if the air-craft is a commercial success. The cooperation with Japanese firms can advocate technology and management skills transfer


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There are many different perspectives of what healthy development looks like

Category : Articles

There are many different perspectives of what healthy development looks like, and there are many different theories to describe those perspectives. There are situations where these theories are accurate in their prediction or perception of how an individual’s development will unfold, but there are also situations where individuals will defy these theories despite every reason for them to continue the theoretic path. One of those individuals is Michael Oher, who had every reason to continue down a negative path due to his situational circumstances, however he was one of the anomalies that defied these theories and developed into a strong and successful individual – with the help of some along the way of course. We will discuss the development of NFL Football player Michael Oher and his character from The Blind Side (2009), and we will consider some of these theories in implicating his developmental trajectory
Erik Erikson proposed a theory called the Theory of Psychosocial Development, and in this theory, it explains that there are certain requirements that we as human beings need, so that we can progress in our development. They outline some of our basic needs, and that these basic needs being met are what allow us to progress socially and develop in a healthy way throughout our lifespan – it involves learning specific skills and abilities in each stage to determine moving into the next stage. The basic underlying idea of this theory is that there are challenges that must be overcome, and the successful completion of those challenges is what allows us to progress. For example, the first stage of his theory is Trust vs. Mistrust (age 0-1), where as an infant, we learn to either trust others, or not trust others – if our basic needs are met – such as food and water, affection when needed, etc. – we will learn that those around us can be trusted, but if our needs are not met however, we learn that others cannot be trusted. This theory has a total of eight stages, and this theory accounts for development across the lifespan.
An interesting part about this theory regarding Michael Oher, the main character in The Blind Side is that in this theory, he does not fit the most basic premise and criteria for it. He, however much a phenomenon he may be, defies the basic premises of the stages – and how to move through those stages. The first stage as mentioned above is Trust vs. Mistrust, and in the first year of his life he was not given any opportunities to gain trust for the world because of his surroundings in this early and fundamental beginning. In this theory, Michael Oher would have needed to gain this basic trust with others to continue to progress to the next stages, however, we see that he has progressed throughout some of the stages despite his difficult and challenging upbringing – in fact one of the other characters in the movie explicitly states that Michael does not trust men, as he has learned not to trust them since they “pretend to care about you until they disappear”. We see very early on that in the film he has gained moral reasoning – which is the skill gained in the third stage: Initiative vs. Guilt – a skill that he should not have had the ability to gain because he was not able to achieve skills in the first two stages beforehand.
This learned skill of moral reasoning relates to another theory – Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning, which we can consider when looking at how Michael may have been able to learn this skill over his childhood into adolescence. Kohlberg suggested that there are different motivations that we consider when deciding whether we should behave in a certain way, when deciding what is right and what is wrong. He also suggests that there are different levels of this reasoning. The first stage is the preconventional level, where the individual considers punishments or rewards and decides whether the consequences are worth it – if the rewards outweigh the punishments – this level is a very egoistic level in that the individual does what is best for themselves, and tends to not consider others at this level of reasoning. The second stage is the conventional level, which is characterized by those whom are close to the individual and their own personal views on right or wrong, it depends on the approval of others and whether they would approve of certain behaviour or not, and it also depends on societies laws and regulations. This level has a lot to do with individual’s desire to have a place in society and for the approval of peers. The third stage is the post-conventional level, which is characterized by more advanced moral reasoning and only about 10-15% of people will reach this level. It is concerned with individual rights and justice, these individuals will consider their own personal self-chosen principles – these principles can be universal or personal, and examples include that of equality, human rights, etc. and may not fit into the laws and regulations of society.
For having a lack of educational background and the abundance of parental leniency, especially in terms of these where Michael was not taught right or wrong – he had to discover this for himself – he has a very high level of moral reasoning. This, would not have been expected by Kohlberg based on his stage theory, as Michael based on his educational level and especially considering his environmental circumstances (foster care, poor, crime-stricken neighborhood, etc.) should probably still be in the preconventional level of moral reasoning. There were many pressures that in the eyes of many theorists and researchers, would have led him to participate in criminal and/or delinquent behaviour, such as theft or vandalism. Even when there were extra pressures such as the will to survive, even that did not influence Michael to resort to delinquency. For Michael his environment also did not show him that delinquent behavior is wrong as it was very apparent and prevalent in his community – therefore it is surprising at how well-mannered and well-behaved he was – the numerous pressures of his environment did not influence him to become a delinquent and/or participate in antisocial behaviour. Considering other theories and research, such as Hay et al. (2007) who found that there is an increased level of adolescent delinquency of those living in poverty, but more specifically in those who are from a poor family whom also live in a poverty-stricken neighborhood. They found that the incidence of delinquency nearly doubles when the level of poverty of a family matches or is below the community poverty line, and when the community is two standard deviations above the mean for poverty the incidence nearly quadruples (Hay et al., 2007). Other studies conducted by Kelly et al. (2012) and Banachowski (1997) revealed that peer pressure has a significant impact on an individual’s decision to engage in delinquent behaviour. According to Banachowski (1997) adolescents who associate with orthodox friends, who experience a high level of support from their parents, whom get good grades and expect to continue receiving good grades, and whom have high educational goals will be less likely to engage in these antisocial behaviours. However, Banachowski (1997) also suggests that those whom do not have high educational aspirations, do not receive good grades in school and whom are not expecting that to change, who receive a low-level of parental support, and whom associate with many delinquent friends will be more likely to engage in the delinquent behaviours. Even in the movie it was stated, or at least they had the perception, that most kids from difficult backgrounds become excited at the prospect of violence – particularly from a context of athletics in this case – but we notice that Michael does not have that, he does not want to be violent nor really understand how to take on a persona of violence even for the sake of athletics, and in this case, football. Michael was extremely poor, and lived in a community that was extremely poor, with lots of criminal activity. He did not receive good grades at any point, had little-to-no support from a parental figure, and was associated with an entire community filled with delinquent individuals. These circumstances re-iterate the notion that Michael should have grown up to be a delinquent, anti-social individual, however he was extremely resilient to these pressures and overcame them.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development also provides insights into an individual’s development and how the different systems that they are a part of, or surrounded by, interact with one another to have a significant impact on the development of that individual. Bronfenbrenner’s theory is a theory of environmental systems that influence development, it has five systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem, where each interact with one another and influence each other in different ways. The microsystem consists of the closest relationships such as family, peers, school, neighborhood, religious affiliations, etc. The microsystem is viewed as the most influential because of the closeness of the relationships, that it has the most direct impact on the individual. The mesosystem is where the components of the microsystem interact with one another and do not function independently but as interconnected systems. The exosystem is where the individual is not an active participant in the system, but the system still affects them, it consists of things such as neighbors, mass media, friends of family, and government and legal services, etc. The exosystem is where many decision-making processes happen that impact the individual, but where the individual has no control over the decisions. The macrosystem consists of the culture that the individual lives in, it is the attitudes and ideologies of the society – these could be religious, political, or economic etc. The final system is the chronosystem, consisting of sociohistorical events in the individual’s life and important events that have occurred.
In terms of this theory regarding Michael Oher, there was a transition in his adolescence that cannot be ignored – specifically regarding his ecological environments. There was a significant shift in all of the systems around him – his microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem, exosystem, all of them were significantly impacted at various times throughout the film. In my opinion, Michael’s chronosystem probably has had the most significant impact on his development (although not completely directly, more of an indirect impact) in the sense that the chronosystem has been implicated at various points throughout his life, and he never really had anything stable, and therefore the chronosystem is what dictated the rest of his systems – that is why I believe that it has had the most significant impact. Where Michael never experienced a stable childhood always being taken from place to place in foster care, his other environments were always changing: i.e. his friends, his home, neighborhood, school, and just about every other aspect of his life. His sociohistorical conditions are plentiful, therefore leading to an instability in parenting practices from having so many different foster parents, instability of peer relationships, but very importantly very consistently being housed in neighborhoods with crime and poverty where an abundance of opportunities were not present for him. These sociohistorical conditions caused Michael to fall very behind in any education that was sought for him as well as have a serious impact on his cognitive development. His schooling was much less than ideal, and so his abilities such as reading did not have the adequate amount of practice and skill building, ultimately leading to him not being able to read at the age of 17 – further impacting his studies when he finally was able to get into a good school system. The chronosystem had larger influences, as it – in itself – influenced the other systems (which directly influence him) in Michaels ecology, such as his microsystem – which consists of his peers, family, neighborhood, school, etc. These have been significantly impacted for reasons stated above, and thank goodness for Michael, only got better with time – got a more stable family environment, better school, friends not involved in delinquent behaviours, etc. The other systems in his ecological environment were also influenced by the chronosystem.
In conclusion, we can see many different theories that provide evidence for the ways in which we should develop, but we also see that there are people who defy those theories, such as Michael Oher, who, if many of the theorists discussed were alive today, would find his case to be very interesting. Michael surprised many with his mannerisms, his personality, and his actions, as they were as prosocial as they could come. The likely outcomes for someone with the background such as Michael are much different than his reality, and his resilience truly is fascinating to say the least. Michael did not fit into many of the constructs of the theories presented, and did not meet many of the basic premises of the theories, such as Erikson’s theory, as Michael did not need to gain every skill in order to progress through to the next stages of development. Michael Oher is a case in which these theories have exceptions, and potentially could use his case to study phenomena in relation to their theories.


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Mood disorders These disorders

Category : Articles

Mood disorders
These disorders, also called affective disorders, involve persistent feelings of sadness or periods of feeling overly happy, or fluctuations from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. The most common mood disorders are depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
Personality disorders
People with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause problems in work, school, or social relationships. In addition, the person’s patterns of thinking and behaviour significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person’s normal functioning. Examples include antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and paranoid personality disorder.
Anxiety disorders
People with anxiety disorders respond to certain objects or situations with fear and dread, as well as with physical signs of anxiety or panic, such as a rapid heartbeat and sweating. An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the person’s response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias.
Psychotic disorders
Psychotic disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations — the experience of images or sounds that are not real, such as hearing voices — and delusions, which are false fixed beliefs that the ill person accepts as true, despite evidence to the contrary. Schizophrenia is an example of a psychotic disorder.


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Smartphone addiction is a real problem

Category : Articles

Smartphone addiction is a real problem.

In today’s society many people are addicted to their smartphones. We are surrounded by people who use them everyday. It all started in the 2000s, Smartphones became more popular across the globe. The amount of people using smartphones are heavily increasing.
A smartphone is a mobile device that allows you to communicate and use the internet. We can use it wherever we are. But now the problem began that a lot of people are using it way too much. Which can result in an addiction and less attention to the real world around them.

I think smartphone addiction is a real problem because people get distracted and have less attention to the people surrounding them. You have less human interaction and this is important especially for children because they need human interaction to develop emotionally.
Smartphones can also interrupt our sleeping patterns.

A few symptoms of being addicted to a smartphone:
• Feeling a phone buzz in your pants even though it didn’t buzz.
• A full battery that never lasts long.
• Feeling anxious when u are low on battery.
• Having a brief moment of panic when u can’t find/feel your phone.

Why did I choose this statement?
As a daily smartphone user I feel related to this because I also have a few of these symptoms.

Arguments:

Smartphones are not a problem because it helps us with a lot like finding our way or finding answers to our questions very fast via the internet.

Smartphones are a problem because it disturbs our sleeping patterns and makes us less social.