The disease that was chosen of the project is cardiomyopathy. The following will introduce cardiomyopathy.
The cardiovascular system is where cardiomyopathy occurs. The cardiovascular system permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones.
Cardiomyopathy affects the heart muscle. The heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. In some cases, the muscle tissue will be replaced by tissue as it worsens. As cardiomyopathy worsens the heart gets weaker, less blood is pumped and cannot maintain the electrical rhythm. This can also lead the heart to develop heart failure. Other symptoms associated with cardiomyopathy include fluid buildup in lungs, ankles, feet, legs and abdomen.
There are five different types of cardiomyopathy. They are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and unclassified cardiomyopathy.
One type of cardiomyopathy is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is the most common type of cardiomyopathy. It enlarges and thickens the heart muscle without obvious cause. It thickens the ventricles and the septum. Blockages develop in the ventricles and make it hard for the heart to pump blood.
Another type of cardiomyopathy is called dilated cardiomyopathy. It causes the ventricles to enlarge and thicken. This cardiomyopathy starts on the left and goes to the right. It causes the heart to pump the blood harder. This can cause heart failure, irregular heart beat and blood clots in the heart.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is another type of cardiomyopathy. In this cardiomyopathy the ventricles become stiff, rigid but do not thicken. Another issue it causes is that it does not let the ventricles relax or fill with their normal blood volume. This causes the heart muscle to weaken and can lead to heart failure.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. This type of cardiomyopathy causes the muscle tissue in the right ventricle to be replaced by fatty fibrous tissue. This causes the electrical signals to be disrupted and causes arrhythmias. One symptom is sudden cardiac arrest in young teens and especially young athletes.
The last type of cardiomyopathy is unclassified cardiomyopathy. One type is left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy which happens when the left ventricles has trabeculations, which are projections of muscle inside the ventricle. Another type is Taketsubo, which is also known as broken heart syndrome. This causes extreme stress and leads to heart muscle failure. This type of cardiomyopathy usually happens to post-menopausal women.
Cardiomyopathy affects 1 in 500 adults. It affects both males and females of all ages. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most inherited kind of cardiomyopathy. The survival rate is usually low for cardiomyopathy. Fifty percent of patients die within 2 years and 25 % survive longer than 5 years. Sudden death is present in 3-5% of adults and 6% of young adults and children.
CARDIOMYOPATHY: CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, TREATMENTS
The exact cause of cardiomyopathy is unknown, but it can be acquired, or it can be inherited. The following will point out how cardiomyopathy affects the system from its normal function. It will also provide information on what therapies or medications are available.
Aside from acquiring it or inheriting it, cardiomyopathy has many different causes. Long term high blood pressure, tissue damage from heart attack, heavy consumption of alcohol, drug use, obesity, and diabetes are causes that can lead to cardiomyopathy.
Cardiomyopathy can affect the heart in many ways. The disease will enlarge, thicken and make the heart muscle more rigid. In some cases, scar tissue can replace muscle tissue. The main issue with this is that it will make the less likely to be able to pump blood. This can lead to many serious issue such as heart failure, abnormal heart rhythms, and sudden cardiac arrest.
Some people live their lives without showing symptoms of cardiomyopathy. While there is no cure for cardiomyopathy, there are ways to stop or prevent the symptoms associated with the disease. Some of the ways to do this are living heart healthy lifestyles, medicines and both surgical and non-surgical remedies. The main goal is to control signs and symptoms, manage the condition, and reduce any complications that can cause sudden cardiac arrest.
One of the ways to prevent or control cardiomyopathy is to change eating habits. One of the ways to do this is to eat more fruits and vegetables. Leaner choices of meats, fish and poultry can be added. Another way to also greatly reduce the amount of sodium in one’s diet. Sugars should also be limited due to causing diabetes which can lead to cardiomyopathy.
Another way to control the symptoms of cardiomyopathy to aim for a healthy weight. A healthy weight is BMI (Body Mass Index) that is between 18.5-24.9.
Reducing stress can help lessening the symptoms of cardiomyopathy. Practicing meditation, using relaxation therapy, seeing a qualified mental healthcare provider can greatly reduce the symptoms. Something as simple as talking with friends and family can also help controlling the disease.
Physical activity can also slow or prevent the symptoms of cardiomyopathy. People should be doing about 2.5 hours of moderate aerobic activity per week. Something as a brisk walk can also benefit. It is advised to consult with a doctor before starting any exercise program.
Smoking is can increase the risk for coronary heart disease. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk. There are many ways to quit smoking such as medicines, and support groups.
Medicines are also a part of a regimen to treat cardiomyopathy. One is to balance the electrolytes in the body. Abnormal levels can cause dehydration, heart failure, and high blood pressure. Aldosterone blocker are using to control the electrolyte levels. Lowering blood pressure is also a goal in treating cardiomyopathy. To do this ACE inhibitors and beta blockers are used to lower blood pressure. Another way to reduce cardiomyopathy is to reduce the inflammation by using corticosteroids.
Surgery is also a way to treat cardiomyopathy. Septal myectomy (open heart) surgery is used to tread severe symptoms. This type of surgery is used on younger adults and on patients not responding well to medicines. In the procedure the doctor removes part of the thickened septum that’s bulging into the left ventricle. This improves the blood flow throughout the heart and body. Septal myectomy, when successful can make the patient return to normal life with no symptoms. Surgically implanted devices can also help with the disease. The most popular being the pacemaker. It is usually placed under the skin of the chest or abdomen to help control arrhythmias. The device uses electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal rate. The last resort where patients who don’t respond to medicines or therapies is a heart transplant. This comes when patients have end stage heart failure.
A non-surgical procedure called alcohol septal ablation is used to treat cardiomyopathy. The procedure involves the doctor injecting ethanol through a tube into the small arteries the supply blood to the thickened area of the heart muscle. The alcohol kills cells and the thickened tissue shrinks to a normal size. This allows the blood to flow freely through the ventricle which makes the system work better.
The following has shown the causes, symptoms, and treatment of cardiomyopathy.
TREATMENTS FOR CARDIOMYOPATHY
There are treatments and new drugs that can help in the treatment of cardiomyopathy. The following will discuss treatments and drugs that can help with cardiomyopathy.
There is study found in clinicaltrial.gov that can be used to treat cardiomyopathy. The name of the study is “Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: functional recovery and reverse remodeling.” In the study the rationale was to use bone marrow cell therapy to produce reverse remodeling in large animal models of ischemic cardiomyopathy. The objective of the study was to use patients with left ventricular dysfunction to test the hypothesis that bone marrow progenitor cell injection causes functional recovery of scarred myocardium and reverse remodeling. For the study itself eight patients received transendocardial intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells in the LV (left ventricular) scar and border zone. The patients in the study were able to tolerate the procedure with serious adverse reactions. The patients were checked a year later to monitor progress. The study showed a trend in decreased end systolic volume, end diastolic volume, and decreased infarct size. Another result was that changes in regional function were evident at 3 months and changes in dimension were not noticeable until 6 months. In the conclusion of the study the researchers suggested the bone marrow progenitor cells improved the regional contractility of the myocardial scar. The changes show possible reverse remodeling. The study also supports the potential benefits of the new treatment strategy.
There are experimental drugs that are being tested to treat dilated cardiomyopathy. The company that is making the drug is a biopharmaceutical company called MyoKardia. The study involves using the drug on healthy volunteers. The drug that is being used is called MYK-491. It contains an allosteric modulator of myosin designed to increase cardiac contractility for people with dilated cardiomyopathy. The drug is supposed to treat the underlying biomechanical defects of the heart muscle. Through preclinical research it has shown the potential for controlled increases in the hearts contractility with minimal impact on diastole or relaxation.
There are ways to raise awareness about cardiomyopathy. A way to do this is to promote a healthy lifestyle. They are ways to accomplish the healthy lifestyle. One way is to increase physical activities. This can be done by walking, running, or even sports. Physical activity has been shown to strengthen the heart. Another way eats healthier for a better heart. Cutting out fast food and foods that have high fat content have helped decrease the effects of cardiomyopathy.
Overall cardiomyopathy is a disease with many different types. It is a disease that can be controlled through a variety of ways including drugs, physical activities, and lifestyle changes. Experimental drugs and therapies have shown promise in combating the effects of cardiomyopathy.