?The Galic War
caesar campaigned in gaul from 58 – 50 BC.
he was highly successful and his reputation and popularity amongst the roman people was greatly enhanced. this was aided by his letter writing campaign highlighting his success.
during the gallic wars caesar fought in more than 30 pitched battles. captured more than 1000, 000 men and 800 towns and killed over 1, 192, 000 people.
Political Developments in Rome 58-49 BC.
during the 50s rome descended into a type of anarchy. violence, bribery and corruption were rife.
gang warfare broke out in rome between the anti-pompey mob led by publius clodius pulcher (a supporter of ceasar) and the pro-pompey gang led by titus annius milo.
in 53BC the fighting was so bad no counsular elections were held. clodius was murdered by milos gang. he was cremated in the senate house which was then burned down.
the triumvirate was beginning to unravel.
the demise of crassus.
further blows to the stability of the triumvirate came with the death of julis in 54BC.
crassus was the killed fighting the parthians in 54BC.
rome was being divided between the supporters of ceasar and the supporters of pompey.
Crassus was not without military experience. he had earlier quelled a rebellion involving 70, 000 slaves and a troublesome individual called spartacus.
Pompey the Saviour!
to curb the violence the senate passed a senatus consultum ulrimum and elected pompey as sole sonsul.
during this time, the relationship between caesar and pompey cooled. pompey withdrew 2 legions he had loaned caesar and began to side more with the senate.
in 50 BC pompey was given control of all the forces in italy and asked by the optimates and senate to save the republic.
caesar tried to copromise but his offers were rejected and he was declared a public enemy of rome.
The civil war.
in 49BC the civil war broke out when caesar crossed the rubicon river, the border between his province and italy. by doing so he committed treason.
the civil war between pompey and caesar raged for 4 years.
finally at the battle of pharsalus the forces of caesar were victorius. pompey fled to egypt where he was murdered.
The Dictatorship of caesar.
in 44BC caesar was elected dictator for life.
durring the time he also held the position of:-
II.pontifex maximus from 63BC.
III.Augur from 67BC.
IV.Praefectura morum (power of a censor) 46BC.
V.Made sacrosanct in 44BC.
the most important honours were:-
I.named parens patriae (father of the country)
II.Quinctilus renamed IuIius
III.statues put in temples
IV.head on roman coins
V.birthday celebrated by public sacrifices
VI.given the title imperator
VII.granted a gold chair and a cloak once worn by kings
The Assasination Of Caesar 44BC
The evidence suggests there were a variety of motives for caesars assination ranging frfom private grudges to the genuine fear he was destroying the republic.
on the ides of march 44BC caesar was stabbed to death by the conspirators at a senate meeting. ironically he fell mortally wounded at the foot of pompeys statue.
one of the chief conspirators was brutus, caesars best friend!
copy table 9.1 on page 199 of chronicles II
Area Of Reform
Description Of Reform
Caesar implemented a huge program of colonization, much of it overseas for the roman proletariat, and his veterans. Important colonies included hispalis, corduba, urso, carthage, apameia and Corinth.
he enlarged the senate??™s numbers from 600 to 900, thus widening its base.
he extended citizenship to transpadane Gaul, thus bringing it into line with the rest of the Italian peninsula. See figure 9.7 he also granted citizenship to a legion he had raised in narbonese Gaul and to certain provincial cities, as well as providing citizenship in the future for doctors and teachers in Rome.
he cancelled all interest due since the start of the civil war, which wiped out one-quarter of all debts owing.
he required that at least one-third of cattlemen employed by land owners had to be free men.
He reduced the number on the corn dole from 320 000 to 150 000
Abolition Of Collegia
He abolished all Collegia (political, social and trade unions), except for genuine trade guilds and Jewish religious gatherings.
Public Buildings and Works
These included new roads, a new harbor at Ostia, and a plan to drain the pomptine marshes; and work began on a new building the basilica Julia, as well as another forum, called after himself.
He reformed the roman calendar that was inaccurate replaced it with the one, slightly modified, that is used today.
Document Study B: the power of the consuls
In response to stimulus technical skill, evidence!!! Quotes ( ??? … ??? ) don??™t paraphrase don??™t summarize what they said and change to your own words.
Polybius: question 1.
1) Lead out legions
2) exercise supreme authority over all public affairs
3) all other magistrates, exceptions tribunes and subordinate to obey them
4) refer urgent business to the senate for discussion entirely responsible for implementing decisions
5) supervise affairs of state are administered by people
6) summon meetings of popular assembly
7) introduce measures and execute the decrees of the people
8) war and general conduct power is almost absolute
9) make whatever demands they consider appropriate upon allies, military tribunes, enroll soldiers, select those for service.
10) inflict punishment when on active service upon anyone
11) spend any sum of money from public funds.
3) Polybius talks about the imperium
Pomponius introduces information in his text regarding the consuls power that Polybius does not.
when examining the sources by this dude and the other dude
preventing them for inflicting capital punishment
the can use torture to get a confession
can imprison people in the name of the state it talks about the limitations and the first talks about the free hold they have.
5) sources are compatible, put statues in place.
Read page 195 & complete ???formulate hypothesis???
I don??™t believe that Cicero could remain neutral, because if he stayed neutral both sides would want to kill him in fear of Cicero making a new group. Also he would constantly be afraid & on the run
Read primary sources page 195 ??“ 6 complete ???educate the evidence???.
Cicero seems to be the most even handed. They want to be kings and they need to get rid of each other to do this.
Vellius is convincing. He states that although Caesar tried everything to keep the peace, he was not accepted. Caesar was the only one who could attempt to save citizens.