CACHE Level 3 Certificate in Supporting Teaching and Learning in School
TDA 3.2 Schools as Organisations
1. The Structure of education from early years to post compulsory education.
1.1 Summarise the entitlement and provision for early years education.
Early year education is an entitlement for all 3 and 4 year olds in England. This was introduced as part of the Every Child Matters agenda and the Childcare Act 2006.
The entitlement is for up to 12.5 hours per week for 38 weeks of the year. Local authorities are funded by the government to ensure that every child receives up to two years of free education before school age. There is no parental financial contribution towards this unless any additional hours are received.
Early years education is based on the learning through play idea and is about supporting very young children, rather than a more formal school setting. This idea has shown to be a valuable tool towards a child??™s early learning.
1.2 Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to education stage(s) and school governance.
The different types of State schools (which are all funded by local authorities) known as maintained schools are:
Community Schools – Ran and owned by the local authority, which also support the school by developing links with the community and offering many support services. In community school the local authority will almost always finalise the admissions policy.
The local authority will also help any outside groups within the community to have access
to the schools facilities for classes such as sports/exercise or adult education classes.
Foundation and trust schools – Foundation schools are ran by their own governing body, which will set out their own admissions criteria, with consultation with the local authority. The governing body or a charitable trust will own the school, land and any other buildings. Trust schools, whilst also a type of foundation school, will have formed a formed a charitable trust with an outside partner, quite often a business. Any support services a Trust school requires will have to be bought in. The governing body along with the parents, can make the decision to become a trust school.
Voluntary schools are divided into two types
voluntary aided schools
voluntary controlled schools
Voluntary Aided Schools, whilst premarily being religious or faith school, are ran by their own governing body just like a foundation school, and anyone can apply for a place. The buildings and and are usually owned by a religious organisation or charity. Funding will come from the governing body, the charity and the local authority. The local authority will also provide support services.
Voluntary Controlled Schools are run and funded by the local authority, who will also employ the staff and provide support services. A charity, often a religious organisation will own the land and buildings.
Independent schools – These are funded by fees paid by the parents, with income also coming from investments, gifts and charitable endowments. This means most will have a charitable status and that they can claim tax exemption. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum and the Head Teacher and the governors decide on the admissions criteria and policy. They are also obliged to register with the Department for Education so that they can be monitored on a regular basis.
Academies have usually been set up by sponsors from businesses. During 2010 the government gave communities more opportunities to be involved in ginving schools academy status. Academies have more freedom than state schools, although they do have close links with the local authority
1.3 Explain the post -16 options for young people and adults.
Traditionally the opportunities for pupils over 16 years have been to leave school and gain employment or to continue with their education. Whilst most over 16??™s do follow one of these paths, an increase in government funding and focus, for the education of 14 – 19 yr olds means that more opportunities will be made available.
The ???September Guarantee??? was implemented in 2007 nationally by the last Labour government. The government guarantees that by the end of September of the year that each young person leaves compulsory education they will have a place in further learning available to them. This was later extended so that 17 yr olds who have completed a short course or who have chosen to leave the activity they selected on completing school, will have the opportunity to extend their learning.
The guarantee under the last Labour government stated:
Full or part-time education in school, college, independent learning provider or further education (FE) college
an apprenticeship or programme led apprenticeship which must include a training element and job or work placement
entry to employment (E2E)
employment with training to NVQ Level 2
These requirements are in place so that by 2013 all pupils will be required to continue in training/education to at least 17 years old. They do not have to stay at school but should continue on one of the options listed.
2. Understand how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities.
2.1 Explain the strategic purpose of:
Schools Governors – These are a team made up of a variety of people, usually with links to the school and/or community. They have the responsibility of running the school.
The governors are made up of parent governors, staff governors, the Head Teacher, support staff governors, local authority governors (appointed by the LA), and local community governors. All governors work closely with the Head Teacher and Senior Management team. Most will have their own jobs outside of the school, meaning they are not always around the school during the day.
Within the governing body there are many different sub committees for example premises, finance and health and safety and the governors will be based on different ones. These committees will have their own separate meetings and then report back the full governing body.
Governors main duties include:
setting aims and objectives for the school
adopting new policies and procedures for achieving the aims and objectives
setting targets for the achievement of aims and objectives.
Senior Management Teams are usually made up of more experienced staff and will work very closely with the Head Teacher.
SMT??™s (in a primary setting) will include the deputy head, special needs co-ordinator (SENCO) and a foundation stage leader. The SMT would probably meet once a week to discuss any issues which may have arisen and to make any decisions with the running of the school.
Other statutory roles within schools apart from the Head and deputy head are SENCO??™s and in primary schools, a foundation stage manager.
SENCO??™s are responsible for managing and monitoring the special educational needs provisions in the school and to monitor and review the provision for pupils with special educational needs. This can include liasing with parents and any relevant professionals in respect of any child with special needs, advice and support to other professionals within the setting and making sure the if required individual education plans are in place.
A foundation stage manager is responsible for the meeting of statutory requirements within the Early Years Foundation Stage and all nursery and reception classes. They must maintain records, observations, assessments and training and that these are kept upto date.
Teachers have many responsibilities ranging from planning and preparing lessons to communication with parents. They must teach pupils according to their individual educational needs. Within primary schools they will usually teach all subjects of the National Curriculum as well as managing a certain area eg music or sports. They also have to assess, record and report on development, progress and attainment levels for each pupil.
Communication and co-operation with parents and persons / bodies outside of the school is paramount to their role.
There is a wide range of support staff within the school setting, and the number has risen dramatically over the last few years. Types of support can can include:
lunchtime supervisors and school cook
cleaning and groundsperson
special needs support staff
and in many smaller schools willing parent volunteers.
2.2 Explain the roles of external professionals who may work with a school eg educational psychologist.
There are many different external professionals within the school setting and roles include:
An educational psychologist which would be appointed by the Special Education Needs department. They will support the relevant SENCo with any pupils with special needs.
Speech/language therapists (SLTs) would work with children with speech, communication or language problems. Most will cover many schools and settings.
Specialist teachers may also come into school to help with a wide range of needs including behaviour, autism and children who don??™t speak English well.
Welfare officers are based within the local authority and would be assigned to support pupils with high absenteeism or pupils who have been excluded. They would work alongside the Head Teacher and the parents.
3. School ethos, mission, aims and values.
3.1 The Ethos, mission, aims and values should be reflected in a schools day to day practice.
This can start by having a positive attitude and atmosphere. This can be by pupils and staff showing respect and pride in their surroundings and by how learning takes place.
Every child should be aware of how important they are, how much they contribute to the school and they should be praised and rewarded in many different ways.
Pupils and staff should also be able to work together effectively and to help form relationships with others.
In my setting we are part of a small schools consortium often joining together for external activities eg sports and religious events.
All pupils should also be aware of the positivity of being different and having equal opportunities regardless of difference.
3.2 Evaluate methods of communicating a school??™s ethos, mission, aims and values.
A school??™s ethos, mission, aims and values can be communicated via the school prospectus, website and also in school. Home/school agreements are also a good way of communicating this to parents.
See attached home/school agreement and prospectus.
4 Legislation affecting schools.
4.1 All school are obliged to operate under current legislation, these include:
The Data Protection Act 1998 – Under this act, schools need to keep and use any information only for the purpose it is intended. It must be kept securely, by locked filing cabinet or password protected computers and kept onsite. If you are required to update any pupil information you must do it on the school premises and must not take the information off site. All pupil information is confidential and musts not be shared without parental consent.
The UN Convention of Rights of the Child 1989 – This act was drawn up in 1989 and ratified by the UK in 1991. It contains 54 articles, 7 of which apply to school – see attached sheet.
The Education Act 2002 – Whilst there have been many educational acts and these will continue to be updated, the 2002 act brought changes to several areas. These include school regulations, staffing and governance. It was amended in 2006 to include a duty of schools to promote community cohesion.
Children Act 2004 and Childcare Act 2006 – The Children Act 2004 was introduced along with the Every Child Matters framework. Since its introduction it has had a huge impact on schools and how they deal with care issues, welfare and discipline. There are five basic outcomes of children and young people under Every Child Matters – see attached sheet.
Under the Childcare Act 2006 more responsibility was placed on Local Authorities to
Improve well-being and reduce inequalities
Ensure adequate provision for childcare to enable parents to work
Supply relevant childcare information for parents
Guarantee all childcare providers are trained
Introduce the Early Years Foundation Stage to all under 5??™s
Provide two new registers of childcare providers which are ran by OFSTED
Freedom of Information Act 2000 – This was introduced in January 2000 to simplify and make this information easier to access. Although anyone can request information held by a school, it must be done in writing and schools have a duty to provide advice and assistance, whilst ensuring protection of confidentiality.
Human Rights Act 1998 – Articles which have a direct link with schools are
Article 2 of Part II – the right to education
Article 8 – the right to respect for private and family life
Article 10 – the right to freedom of expression
Restraint of pupils is permitted under the Act, to prevent the rights of others or to prevent crime or injury, but the school and/or local authority will have their own policy relating to this.
The Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice 2001 and Disability Discrimination Act 1995/2005 – Under this act all parent and SEN children have greater rights to mainstream education. This has had an impact on the number of SEN being Included in mainstream schools and the number of individual support assistants.
The Disability Discrimination Act and subsequent legislation with regard to access for all meant that any school built from this date have had to make provisions for disabled pupils including ramps, toilets and if required lifts. Schools built before the act have not had to alter their buildings unless they have had any modifications or extensions built.
4.2 Explain how Legislation affects how schools work.
Legislation affects the way school work, as the school needs to fully comply with all the relevant legal requirements . As these laws and codes of practice change frequently schools may need to seek advice and support which would be via the governing body.
4.3 Explain the roles of regulatory bodies relevant to the education sector which exist to monitor and enforce the legislative framework, including:
general bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive
School specific regulatory bodies
Regulatory bodies relevant to the Education Sector which exist to monitor and enforce the Legislative framework include:
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) – The HSE provides guidance and reviews the legislative framework within all organisations. Schools are required to comply with the H&S Act 1974. There are many ways in which they have to comply, and the employer is responsible for the health and safety procedures and these will vary depending of the type of school, but they are required to
Carry out risk assessments and suitable procedures for any new situation which may increase the risks for example when on a school trip
Comply with, complete and allow access to any appropriate paperwork which could be requested during an inspection under the Act.
Provide a school health and safety policy and ensure that all staff are aware and understand it.
Other regulatory bodies specific to school also include:
OFSTED – The Office for Standards in Education, Children??™s Services and Skills was introduced to regulate and monitor the provision and education of children and young people. They also report their finding direct to Parliment and all school inspection reports are accessible through their website.
GTC – General Teaching Council – All registered teachers in England are required to be members of the GTC. Its functions are that of a regulatory role of the teaching profession. It has a Code of Conduct and Practices which all teachers are required to adhere to.
5 The purpose of school policies and procedures.
5.1 Explain why schools have policies and procedures.
Schools have policies and procedures to ensure that all people involved with the running of the school are able to form a comprehensible set of guidelines. There will be a large number of policies and these should be made available easily. Whilst each schools lists of policies may vary in title, each will have to state its purpose and aim and all staff responsibilities.
5.2 Summarise the policies and procedures schools may have relating to:
teaching and learning
equality, diversity and inclusion
School will have policies and procedures relating to:
Staff – This would include pay, illness/sickness, grievance and performance policies.
Pupil Welfare- This would include H & S, safeguarding, behaviour and anti-bullying policies.
Teaching and Learning – Early years, curriculum, planning, assessment and marking policies.
Equality, diversity and inclusion – Equal opportunities, special education needs, gifted and talented, disability and access policies and financial inclusion policy.
Parental engagement – Attendance, homework and home/school agreement policies.
5.3 How school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated.
Whilst schools have to ensure that policies are in place, they also have to ensure that they are updated on a regular basis. Most policies will have been dated and will also have a revision date. Template policies are available through all local education authorities as well as being available on the internet, to help schools to compile their own. All policies will be checked by all other members of staff and then will need to be agreed and/or ratified by the governing body before they can come into force.
All staff should know where to find the schools policies and each individual should read and understand their personal responsibilities especially regarding safeguarding, H & S and behaviour policies. Depending on which specific areas you regularly work within eg sports, literacy these policies should also be read.
6 The wider context in which schools operate.
6.1 Summarise the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice.
Within National government the role of the DfE (Department of Education) is to be responsible for education and children??™s services. The are not only responsible for drawing up the education policy eg setting the National Curriculum, but also to discover new ways to develop the quality of services available to children under the five outcomes of Every Child Matters. They have also set up and maintained the schools league tables.
Within Local government education departments services are provided to schools in the form of advice and support.
They are responsible for providing accessible local services for:
Special education needs
National Curriculum and Early Years
development of school policies
Local authorities will also have documentation which will outline their visions and plans for the development of government-based initiatives. As with school policies, local authorities will also have policies which will relate to wider issues for example, guidance on the use of medicines.
The local authority will also employ specialist teachers/advisors who would cover different curriculum areas. They also have specifically trained teachers who would provide support to pupils who have behaviour of specific learning needs.
Any changes to the education policy which all schools need to be informed about, would be passed on by the local authority and they would offer any relevant training to staff.
6.2 Explain the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families.
All schools need to know about and show that they are working from the national policies that relate to children, young people and families. The Every Child Matters framework is an example of this, having had a large impact of the provision for children and young people nationally.
Due to this, schools have been able to develop their role within local communities via the extended school programme. Schools should develop their own policies in line with national requirements, whilst following local education authority guidelines.
6.3 Explain the roles of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools.
The roles of other organisations working with children and young people are vast, and it makes sense that they should liaise with each other when necessary, they include
Social Services – They will link with schools in cases where it is necessary for them to share information or to prepare for court hearings. They could also liaise with a school??™s family worker or have meetings with teachers.
Childrens Services – These are linked to the five outcomes of Every Child Matters, but can range from providers including education, health, early years and childcare.
NHS – A vast majority of professionals coming into schools may be employed by the NHS and Primary Care Trusts, including speech therapists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists.