Monthly Archives: April 2017

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Foreign Relations Amid New Settlers

Category : Articles

Foreign Relations: Amid New Settlers

It was inevitable that the Indians lives would change dramatically once Columbus step foot on the island he proclaimed “San Salvador” [Holy Savior] believing a westward route to Asia was finally unveiled. Settlements of the French were generally in present day Quebec and Ontario as well as along the Mississippi River. An influx of English people started to migrate to the eastern and southern side of North America. Hence, Native Americans were surrounded by foreigners who were ambitious to start a new life in North America, obtain new land to profit from and have freedom to follow their own religion without having fear of being persecuted. Prior to 1750 the British religiously had no intention of converting Native Americans to Christianity. Economically the British refused to commence any trading with the Indians whatsoever, and performed atrocious acts towards the Indians culturally. Economically the Spanish removed Indians from their land. Culturally the Spanish were accepting of their culture, and religiously tried to alter their beliefs.

Culturally, the Indians and English were amazed with each others objects. Though this peace did not last a considerable long time. The English in fact seized every opportunity to take advantage of the Indians, whenever the opportunity arose. Once the Native Americans and Indians began to trade their goods, the English would trick the Indians into giving them more than what they were offering the Indians. Soon enough when the Indians realized they were being deceived, wars commenced. As a result the English would continuously raid innocent Indians villages and take anything they saw worth of value. There was a temporal peace between the Indians and the English, when Pocahontas married John Rolfe. This marriage temporarily disabled apprehension between the Indians and the colonists. Religiously Puritans believed the Native Americans were followers of Satan due to the fact the Indians lived in the forest and cherished more than one god. They also thought the Native Americans were unworthy of being Christianized. Unlike the Spanish or French, the English failed to excessively attempt to convert them to Christianity. Economically, Southern colonies perceived Indians as an intrusion detaining them from expanding westward to create new colonies. Colonists who were greedy for land often invaded Indian villages, they did so by decimating Indians. Quakers on the contrary bought land from the Indians in an attempt to ease the tension between the colonists and Indians.

Religiously the Spanish continuously tried to convert the Indians to Christianity, exclusively mission churches in the southeast were created by local Indians. The friars baptized the Indians and taught them the foundation of Catholicism. Culturally, activities such as those threatened the Native Americans way of life, the friars who followed their task paid no mind to their lifestyle. Economically, the Spanish stole the Indians resources and established settlements in North America essentially to find gold and silver. The Native Americans were obligated to work in the mines in search of gold and silver. Eventually the Indians became rebellious and fought for freedom , though their attempts failed.

Both the British and Spanish mistreated the Indians in one method or another. Religiously, the Spanish tried to convert the Indians while the British had no intent of making new congregations. Puritans perceived Indians as savages and followers of Satan, who were unworthy of becoming Christian. Spanish missionaries forced basic teachings of Catholicism upon them. Economically, the British and Spanish stole the Native Americans land and resources. Culturally, the Spanish did not treat the Indians as maliciously as the English had.

The British were not as to kind to the Indians, because their greed for new land blinded them ambition. Economically and culturally the British oppressed the Indians, by stealing their resources and deceiving then in terms of trading. They did not have as much fervor to convert new parishioners as the Spanish. Religiously the Spanish tried excessively to convert the Native Americans, even though economically they abused their naiveness. Though the Spanish treated them differently in terms of culture, both ethnicities intermixed, while the British did not intermix with the Native Americans.


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Caravaggio and Bill Henson

Category : Articles

Caravaggios Amor Vincit Omnia and Untitled #8 by controversial photographer Bill Henson can be compared in many different ways, their subject matter is very alike in the way they have both used a young naked male and similar elements. One of the most obvious elements used is lighting, Henson has used very specific lighting to suggest vulnerability, the body is in a dark light with the face slightly more brighter, whereas the young male painted as the Roman Cupid in Caravaggios painting is spotlit against a dark background which gives us the feeling that this is a joyful painting. Henson has used Chiaroscuro to create heavy shadows on the subject which increases the sense of drama in the photo. To add to the sense of drama, Henson has used the body to reinforce that dramatic look, the photo is shot from behind with the subject looking over their shoulder. This reinforces the suggestion of vulnerability as we are un aware of what is behind them, what theyre looking at over their shoulder and what caused them to look.

The subject looks frail and skinny, whereas in Caravaggios painting, the boy has muscles and his body does not give us a sense of weakness. He looks as though he is care free and just wanting to have fun in the way that he has one leg up and that cheeky grin on his face as his eyes look straight at us. At the boys feet are various objects, violin and lute, armour, coronet, square and compasses, pen and manuscript, bay leaves, and an astral globe. These all symbolise human activities such as music, learning, literature, astronomy and war. Henson has contrasted symbolism with lighting and his use of the body to enhance the vulnerability and cluelessness within the photo. We are unsure of the sex of the subject, unlike the boy in Amor Vincit Omnia, the young figures eyes arent directed at us, we are unaware of the figures thoughts, the nothingness in the background, Henson has used these to symbolise the anonymousness of the figure.

Amor Vincit Omnia was painted on an oil canvas, Caravaggio painted straight onto the canvas without drawing using the technique Alla prima,also known as ???direct painting??? or ???wet on wet??? oil painting this technique requires the artist to complete entire paintings in one session or two without waiting for the paint layers to dry completely. Caravaggio includes symbols that are meant to hint us as to whats going on, such as in the painting Bacchus c. 1597, by Caravaggio. Were presented with a middle aged male wearing a robe yet showing one side of his torso. The male is surrounded by fruit, also holding a large glass of wine with the bottle next to him. The fruit, robe and the full bottle of wine symbolise wealth, so were aware that this male must have been high class or even royalty. Whereas Hensons Untitled #8, Type C photograph leaves it entirely up to us to think of a story, leaving the background dark and blank forcing us to look at body language as a symbol. Both Henson and Caravaggio have used a technique called “chiaroscuro” which contrasts the light and dark to make their subjects look three dimensional. Henson has also used this technique to enhance the lighting in the image, making it stronger and more dramatic. Unlike Caravaggio, Henson has photographed the figure in Untitled #8 using a long exposure to create a well focused, sharp image. He sets up the photograph, placing the figure in such a way that the viewer has to create their own story as the subject remains anonymous, as he has done with his image Untitled #25 which depicts a girl emerging from a dark background, in a soft light. She looks worried but we are unaware of whats happened and who she is. Henson also creates large images which take a great deal of thoroughness, carefulness and time when it comes to producing in the dark room.


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Foreign Lit (Attendance Monitoring)

Category : Articles

Chapter 2

Review and Related Literature

2.1 Review of Related Literature

2.1.1 Foreign Literature

2.1.1.1 Fingerprint SDK
It is a Software Development Kit (SDK) that provides a flexible platform for the development and programming of biometric fingerprint recognition into any application. This is one of the best biometric SDK components for authorization systems, transaction systems, time and attendance, point-of-sale identification, physical access control, and any other application that can benefit with the convenience of biometric identification. The goal of our SDK is to allow companies to customize their own existing applications to incorporate biometrics as a means of authentication without having to buy new software or change existing infrastructure.
Fingerprint SDK is designed for applications on stand-alone PCs, networked PCs, client-server based web applications, and any other computer scenarios. Our SDK includes the support for over 50 different fingerprint readers, and we continue to add support for new fingerprint readers as they are released. This product supports dozens of programming languages; can be run on Windows, Linux, MAC OS,and Android operating systems, and comes with a fully developed demo application and easy to use source code samples.

2.1.1.2 ActiveX Control

It is a software framework created by Microsoft that adapts its earlier Component Object Model (COM) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies for content downloaded from a network, particularly in the context of the World Wide Web. It was introduced in 1996 and is commonly used in its Windows operating system. In principle it is not dependent on Microsoft Windows, but in practice, most ActiveX controls require either Microsoft Windows or a Windows emulator. Most also require the client to be running on Intel x86 hardware, because they contain compiled code.
Many Microsoft Windows applications ??” including many of those from Microsoft itself, such as Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Visual Studio, and Windows Media Player ??” use ActiveX controls to build their feature-set and also encapsulate their own functionality as ActiveX controls which can then be embedded into other applications. Internet Explorer also allows the embedding of ActiveX controls in web pages.
However, ActiveX will not work on all internet platforms, so using ActiveX controls to implement essential functionality of a web page restricts its usefulness.
(www.wikipedia.org)
2.1.1.3 Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System? (IAFIS)
It is a national? automated fingerprint identification? and criminal history system maintained by the? Federal Bureau of Investigation? (FBI). IAFIS provides automated? fingerprint? search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. IAFIS is the largest biometric database in the world, housing the fingerprints and criminal histories of 70 million subjects in the criminal master file, 31 million civil prints and fingerprints from 73,000 known and suspected terrorists processed by the U.S. or by international law enforcement agencies.
Employment background checks and legitimate firearms purchases cause citizens to be permanently recorded in the system. For instance, the State of Washington mandates that all applicants seeking employment in an inpatient setting that houses vulnerable minors (such as children who are mentally challenged, physically or emotionally ill) are fingerprinted and entered into IAFIS as part of their background check in order to determine if the applicant has any record of criminal behavior.
Fingerprints are voluntarily submitted to the FBI by local,? state, and? federal? law enforcement? agencies. These agencies acquire the fingerprints through criminal arrests or from non-criminal sources, such as employment? background checks? and the? US-VISIT? program. The FBI then catalogs the fingerprints along with any criminal history linked with the subject.
Law enforcement agencies can then request a search in IAFIS to identify crime scene (latent) fingerprints obtained during criminal investigations. Civil searches are also performed, but the FBI charges a small fee and the response time is slower.
(www.wikipedia.org)
2.1.1.4 BioTime Edu
It is real-time information, that is accurate and reliable, and time saving by eliminating manual data entry.? It provides centralised record keeping. Stores a range of data such as CAS, BRP, Passport and VISA as required by the UKBA. Also stores comprehensive students details. BioTime Edu also has automated alerts that provides centralised record keeping. It Stores a range of data such as CAS, BRP, Passport and VISA as required by the UKBA. Also stores comprehensive students details. The reports includes:
??? Location of students
??? Non-attendance
??? Fire Alarm
??? End of Sponsorship
??? Attendance %
??? Students Attendance Report
??? Custom Reports
(www.m3biometrics.co)
2.1.1.5

2.1.2 Local Literature
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2
2.1.2.3
2.1.2.4
2.1.2.5
2.2 Review of Related Studies

2.2.1 Foreign Related Studies

2.2.1.1 Student Attendance Monitoring System (SAMS)
International (i.e non-EEA) students are subject to immigration constraints laid down by the UK Government and implemented by the UK Border Agency (UKBA). The University has ???Highly Trusted Sponsor??? (HTS) status with the UKBA. This means that the researchers are able to recruit and teach international students. Under the terms of this licence, the University is legally required to monitor the attendance of international students.
A Student Attendance Monitoring System (SAMS) is being developed to provide a reliable, secure, and efficient method of recording student attendance. The project involves two phases of IT development. The first part involves the development of SAMS within SAP Student Lifecycle Management (SLcM) and integration with Syllabus Plus and a scanning solution. It also includes the development of an on-line student absence notice form with document management and appropriate workflow for approval and updating of attendance record. SAP Business Warehouse will be used to produce reports of absence including incorporation of records available in other systems (e-Portfolio and Blackboard) to enable comprehensive reporting of attendance.
(http://www.ncl.ac.uk)
2.2.1.2 Smart Card and Biometric time and attendance, visitor monitoring and access control system
P. Tensor, 1995
A system that analyze staff attendance and flexi-time automatically, Smart Card and Biometric Time and Attendance, Visitor Monitoring and Access Control System is featured with a top quality time and attendance system to replace manual clock cards. Biometric technologies provide its security for home or business. Access control readers are located out of sight – so unlike swipe card or bar code systems there is no need to remove your smart card from wallet or purse to use it. CCTV surveillance camera and recording systems are available, enabling you to further enhance security on your premises. In addition, a state-of-the-art automatic number plate recognition system efficiently restricts vehicular access to site.
The former is mainly similar with the proposed system in terms of functionality. Both offer the integrated components and modules of an access control system and an attendance verification system. The greatest difference is with their use of non-contact smartcards, in which there is no swipe or barcode scan with the proponents have used (magnetic card technology). Non-contact smart cards contain a chip that communicates with the card reader through RFID induction technology (at data rates of 106 to 848 Kbit/s). These cards require only close proximity to an antenna to complete transaction. They are often used when transactions must be processed quickly or hands-free, such as on mass transit systems, where smart cards can be used without even removing them from wallet.
2.2.1.3 Time Office Biometric Time & Attendance

Time Office Biometric Time & Attendance is computer software that allows users easy and efficient control of attendance and punctuality of all employees. An employee would just clock in and out using the computers keyboard, scanner for maximum security, and track employee hours and overtime automatically. Employees no longer need terminals, badges, or time cards; they can easily clock-in or out at their own computer or a specific PC.

Furthermore, component of proposed system used the biometric technology in time keeping system. With this, the uses of the common Bundy clock as well as time card are no longer needed. Definitely, there in an ease in monitoring the attendance that can save time instead of releasing the Daily Time Record.

(http://www.timeofficesoftware.com)
2.2.1.4 JC Software Development

This software developed by JC Software Development. This program is available from the system tray and allows one to step up multiple password-protected databases, each with multiple categories to organize passwords. One can add, edit, and delete categories from a drop-down pick list. Each entry includes fields for ID, password, date, expiration date, two Web addresses, e-mail address, and personal notes. One can launch Web sites in the default browser and even generate new passwords as needed. A variety of options enables an individual you to determine the appearance and security behaviour of the program. Other features include logging support, custom reports, search support, custom backgrounds, and automatic database maintenance. Version 2.0 adds grouping and sub grouping, auto-start-up, a choice of user-interfaces, and an expiring-passwords window.

The proposed system also offered this important function wherein users of the system have been allotted an individual username and password for the protection of files for unauthorized users. In this kind of system, security is highly monitored because there is money involved, this eliminate anomalies that might occur in the computation.

(http://www.download .com
2.2.1.5 MyKidSecure
It is a new biometric identification system for monitoring student attendance and activity through schools, which uses palm vein scanning technology from? Fujitsu. It was released on September 4, 2013.
???The information collected by MyKidSecure has uses far beyond simple time of arrival and/or departure,??? Paul Labow, president and CEO, ePortation said. ???For example, if there is an emergency requiring school evacuation, the mobile MyKidSecure units can be used to rapidly muster children and staff, providing first responders with real-time information about who has been evacuated and, more importantly, who has not.???
Specifically, MyKidSecure uses Fujitsu??™s PalmSecure infrared vein scanning technology.
Also, integrated into the new system is a provision for bust transportation that shows schools and bus operators with real-time data on students boarding and disembarking from school buses. Through this function, parents can also be notified via SMS that their child has arrived safely.
(http://www.biometricupdate.com)

2.2.2 Local Related Studies

2.2.2.1 AN EMPLOYEE ATTENDANCE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH PAYROLL USING BARCODE

This system makes easy to the employer to keep a track and check on the human resources department just by a click of the mouse thus making the work extremely easy for people having offices.

2.2.2.2 Attendance Monitoring System Using Biometrics for Security Staff
It is a computerized attendance-monitoring system using biometrics. It serves as a timed log-in/ log-out system that is set up as a computerized database. This system maintains a daily record of a persons arrival and departure time from work. Aside from the records of time and date, our system features the name, position and the assigned number of each staff. So it also serves as an identification profile system. The system also protects the employees by providing the exact number of hours they worked, making it much more difficult for employers to cheat them out of their wages. This thesis features all important facts about our system as well as its importance.
2.2.2.3
2.3 Synthesis

REFERENCES

Textbooks

P. Tensor, 1995. Smart Card and Biometric time and attendance, visitor monitoring and access control system

Consumo, Karen Mae M., Mamangun, Mary Ann M. (2011) AN EMPLOYEE ATTENDANCE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH PAYROLL USING BARCODE. A proposal presented to St. Nicolas College of Business and Technology
2nd floor, MELVI Bldg. Olongapo – Road City of San Fernando, Pampanga

Online References

Waterfall model from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model

Data flow diagram from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_flow_diagram

Database from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database

Requirement Gathering and Analysis or System Planning from http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Systems_Analysis_and_Design/Introduction#Planning

Time Office Biometric and Attendance from http://www.timeofficesoftware.com

JC Software Development from http://www.download .com/Password-Administrator

MyKidSecure from http://www.biometricupdate.com/201309/eportation-launches-biometric-attendance-system-for-schools-uses-fujitsu-tech

Student Attendance Monitoring System (SAMS) from http://www.ncl.ac.uk/quilt/assets/documents/com-rep-cfltsec-13mar-docF.pdf

Attendance Monitoring System Using Biometrics for Security Staff from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Attendance-Monitoring-System-Using-Biometrics-For-732262.html

ActiveX from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ActiveX

Fingerprint SDK from http://www.griaulebiometrics.com/en-us/fingerprint_sdk

Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System? (IAFIS) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_Automated_Fingerprint_Identification_System

BioTime Edu from http://www.m3biometrics.co.uk/BioTimeEDU.aspx


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Car Wash

Category : Articles

Car Spa
This research paper lays out a proposed plan for a small business in the form of a sole proprietorship. The proposed business idea is for a Car Spa. A Car Spa is essentially a car wash business that offers quick washing and detailing of automobiles. The proposed business is specific to the concept of ???hand washing??? because there is a certain clientele that requires this type of service. This paper elaborates on certain facets of this business like; advantages/disadvantages of the business model, financial statements, tax implications, and a rationale for this specific business choice.
Advantages/Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship
A sole proprietorship has certain advantages such as possessing complete decision-making and control over the business. This type of business model also offers the proprietor the option to sell or transfer the said business at his or her discretion. Other advantages include not paying corporate taxes, and legal costs are at a minimum. The last advantage of this business model is that it requires very few if any formal business requirements (All Business.com, 2007).
Some of the disadvantages associated with a sole proprietorship are, liability of debt and liability of obligations to the business. These are personal liabilities that come with this business model and the burden lies with the sole proprietor. The sole proprietor is liable for any incurred liabilities arising from acts committed by his or her employees. A sole proprietorship is subject to strong scrutiny by outside investors, and business decisions and responsibilities are the sole discretionary burden to the sole proprietor. Business financing for sole proprietorships come in the form of personal assets and business loans. Given the current state of today??™s economy, the latter may prove to be a potential challenge or set-back (All Business.com, 2007).

Advantages/Disadvantages of a Partnership
According to Kieso, Kimmel, and Weygandt (2003),??? a partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners of a business for profit.??? Some advantages associated with a partnership type of organization are, costs are significantly lower when conducting business with participating clients. Partnerships create a steady stream of business with fewer clients, and allow dedication to resources. Partnerships bring added knowledge to the business and combining the skill of the partners serves as a valuable information resource (Boughton, 2002).
Disadvantages of a partnership type organization range from liability to creditors to having the assets not reverting legally to the original contributor in a case such as dissolution. Net income or net loss is shared equally by partners. Other disadvantages associated with partnerships are, unlimited liability, limited life, and mutual agency (Kieso, Kimmel, and Weygandt, (2003).
Types of Financial Statements
The types of financial statements associated with partnerships and sole proprietorship are, income statement (shows the profit and loss of the business), balance sheet (statement of capital balances of each partner), and partner??™s capital statement (explains the changes in partner??™s capital account throughout the year) Basic Partnership Accounting, (2011).
Tax Implications (Sole Proprietorship)
Sole proprietorship offers the tax advantage of avoiding double taxation however there are higher income taxes. Sole proprietors can deduct business losses to the extent of total income from sources, including interest, dividends, and gains from the sale of nonbusiness property. As a sole proprietor, deductions for health and life insurance are null and void based on an updated Internal Revenue Code implemented in 1994 (“Doing Business As A Sole Proprietor,” 2011).
Tax Implications (Partnership)
Partnerships formed as a business model are subject to certain tax implications; general partnerships expose partners to joint and unlimited liability. For example a partnership with three partners binds parties to the terms and conditions even if one partner does not consent to the contract terms. Operating losses yield immediate tax benefits to a partner with sufficient basis. Losses incurred in a partnership are deductible only to the extent of that partners at-risk amount. Distributions of cash or property in partnerships are generally tax-free up to the specified basis, however; if distributions are of a disproportionate measure; applicable taxes apply (Gesiko, 2008).
Legal Implications (Partnership)
Some legal Implications with partnerships and vary from state to state. Some states specify gender laws in that same sex and opposite sex couples may register as a domestic partnership. Gender specific discrimination issues could have legal ramifications if a partner receives unfair treatment in the partnership based on gender, and title VII violations could carry serious legal consequences, (Presser, 1991). Another legal implication consideration in a partnership is Fiduciary duty. This duty implies that partners must act in good faith and not manipulate other partner affairs. Breach of this duty in a partnership could expose a partner to legal action (Breach of Fiduciary Duty, 2000).
Legal Implications (Sole Proprietorship)
Legal implications for a sole proprietorship involve financial and legally liability for debts and legal actions against the business. Both personal and business assets of a sole proprietor are subject to creditor claims. Lawsuits from creditors are filed directly against the sole proprietor, and if successful, the sole proprietor has to pay any fines from his or her own finances (“The Basics of Sole Proprietorships,” 2005).
Accounting Implications (Partnership)
In a partnership, each partner must maintain a capital account to track and record any change in their financial position, Partners also must take into consideration the likelihood of a partner withdrawing from the partnership. If this happens accommodation is given to the difference between the sale price and the worth of shares. If this occurs, capital accounts will receive debit or credit actions accordingly (Bhansali, 2007).
Accounting Implications (Sole Proprietorship)
An accounting implication for a sole proprietorship is the issue of time consumption. A sole proprietor that handles his or her own accounting expends a large amount of time in keeping accurate records of transactions. Another implication is the payment of local, federal, and state taxes. This is in addition to self-employment taxes, as of 2011, the self-employment tax rate was 13.3% on a sole proprietors??™ first $106,800 in income (Howell, 2011).
Unique Service Provided
The unique service(s) provided at the Car Spa is interior car washing, detailing service, and exterior hand wash. These services are augmented by superior customer service at a reasonable rate. The target market target for this unique service is individual car owners, car dealerships, and local businesses. The Car Spa will offer satisfaction guarantees or cash refunds to existing customers.

Choice of Business Organization/Rationale
The choice of business organization for the Car Spa is the partnership business model. Based on the aforementioned concepts, the partnership business model outweighs the sole proprietorship business model in terms of benefits, advantages, and disadvantages. The rationale behind this decision is, forming a partnership affords the business outside knowledge, reduced start-up costs, allows outside investors, and limits liability. These particular benefits are not afforded under the sole proprietorship model. Unlike sole proprietorships, partnerships invest less time in preparing financial documents and have a lower tax burden.
Conclusion
The principles mentioned in this business plan for the Car Spa examine both business models (Partnership/Sole Proprietorship) and the different facets associated with each. Careful examination and analysis is applied to the principles of financial statements, tax implications, accounting implications, and legal implications of both models. After careful consideration of the data, the partnership type business model is preferable for this type of service offered. Given the research, analysis, and results of the plan, the Car Spa is currently positioned for a successful launch as a partnership organization.


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Foreign Language

Category : Articles

Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. The difficulties commonly encountered by language learners are pronunciation, gripping the meanings of vocabularies correctly, and learning a different culture for enhancing reading comprehension.
The experience of learning Portuguese was a challenge. I was exposed to different languages in my life at different ages. I was always eager to know different languages and to be able to practice them. The idea of learning Portuguese was very familiar to me but I was worried of how much information I could memorize of the only three lessons that I got the chance to attend during my TESOL program.
Attending the first class was an experience itself. Seeing Mrs. A, who I already knew her, she was not speaking English at all. She only spoke Portuguese to the class. I was trying to understand what she was saying, but it wasn??™t easy. Some words seem familiar to the French background that I have and some are just completely new. Then I concentrated on the teacher??™s gestopedia to understand what she was trying to tell us. She was asking: ???Qual o sey nome??™ meaning ???what??™s your name??™ and I had to answer ???Meu nome e Mireille??™ meaning ???my name is Mireille.??™ Then I had to understand and answer questions like how are you , where are you from and how old are you Simple questions but very useful to start a short conversation in Portuguese with a new friend. To make sure to understand all, I was writing each sentence in Portuguese and in English translation and pronunciation. I was asking the teacher for more clarification using gesture, facial expression and little Portuguese words that I??™ve learned in the class. At the last part of the class, Mrs. A taught us little about the Brazilian culture and cities, she showed us a short movie on the Brazilian cities and the touristic areas of the country. Then we had to imagine ourselves in one of these cities and we had to make colourful drawing about the scene. Overall, it was a nice start to learn a new language. The class was full of different types of activities to simplify the understanding of Portuguese. I was very happy and confident of what I??™ve learned and couldn??™t wait to start the next lesson.
At the beginning of the next lesson, Mrs. A introduced us to the Portuguese Alphabet by eliciting answers from the whole class. Since the script of the alphabet is the same as the English or French one, it was easy to guess the phonics of the letters. Most of them sound the same as the French phonics except some, for example ???j??™ will be ???/zota/??™ and ???r??™ will be ???/eh?/??™. Then each of us spelled his or her name to the teacher to practice the alphabet. Also I had to write couple of sentences in Portuguese and then to introduce myself to my colleagues by reading it out loud in front of the class. The hardest issue is to differentiate between the genders of the words. The ending of the word would change according to the gender, if it??™s a feminine person speaking she would say ???obrigada??™ and if it is a masculine person speaking it would be ???obrigado??™ meaning ???thank you??™. We also had to work in pairs to find all the verbs and colours in the lyrics of a song while listening and watching its video clip in the class.
Learning a lot of the two classes, it was sad to come to an end. Our third and last lecture was half in Portuguese and half in English. We were allowed to communicate in English and the teacher also could answer in English. It was for sure an easier way to quickly find answers to our questions, but it wasn??™t as interesting as before when the teacher would only use the targeted language ???Portuguese??™ to explain to us . While speaking only in Portuguese to clarify any misunderstood words, Mrs. A would have introduced new vocabulary and maybe a new grammar rule.
It was a very nice time to learn Portuguese and I really wished to complete the learning of the language having Mrs. A as a teacher. She??™s a very active person, always smiling and she uses a lot of activities to explain her ideas. Her classes were nothing similar to ordinary boring language classes where the instructor would start by teaching the alphabet and then the classroom items, etc. Mrs. A??™s class were not boring at all. They were all well organized and the teacher was eliciting a lot of answers of the students. She taught us in less than 9 hours, a lot of the important items of a new language and the culture of a new country.
At the end of this experience, I could say that I had the chance to be in the place of my future students. I experienced the feeling of anxiety, confusion and then enthusiasm and confidence. I understood that I ???as a future teacher??™ have to be very careful about the level of the students??™ knowledge of the language. I believe that the success of the learner is a result of the teacher??™s input and the wiliness of the students to learn.


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Car Sharing

Category : Articles

Sandrine Hoffmann
Jones International University
BBA304
Dr. Ina-Ann Freeman
10/20/2012
Daimler/BMW ??“ A New Breed of Driver

Car sharing

The vehicles of a car-sharing organization are usually distributed on fixed leased parking in a city or large town. The locations are often located at intersections of public transport where they are easily accessible by the members. The vehicles are usually used in order to get from this particular location to another location. In contrast to rental cars, these cars can be used on an hourly basis. Car sharing is effective only in a well-developed public transport and with “combined mobility”. It cannot and will not replace public transport that serves as a feeder to the parking lots. For commuters who are able to commute by car, it is usually not a viable alternative; the more appropriately alternative would be carpools and rides. The concept is intended more for irregular tours or transport.
1. Discuss environmental factors related to population that are changing the way certain people approach car buying and are thus creating new market segments.
The social environment is changing and car ownerships have been declining and are expected to decline within the next 15 years. Many people are ready to participate in programs as car-sharing. After completion of two pilot projects, car2go is in the implementation phase since 2012. It consists of two-seater, powered by electricity or internal combustion engine of the small car brand smart fortwo. (Cengagebrain, 2012)
Social and cultural factors
Mobility is ubiquitous around the world and has always been a basic need of people. We meet every day – on the way to work, on holiday or at play. Mobility is in todays society an important indicator of progress and development.

The urge to be more independent and flexible, has mainly developed rapidly in recent centuries. As major urban centers become more crowded, car ownerships decline.
Political and environmental factors
Although the car ownership in Germany has declined since 2004 by about 4 percent, the population growth results an increase in car ownerships, which gives the German transport policy new challenges. In Vienna alone, costs of congestion fall within
2.4 billion euros per year. An average of 208 hours per year, a person in Vienna is stuck in traffic. In the relation to environmental vehicle traffic caused, the city loses of 275 million EUR per year. For all this, a mobility concept is to be found that protect the environment and the roads.
Technological factors
One of the newest and most innovative car-sharing concepts is car2go, which was developed by Daimler AG in 2008, implemented in Ulm (Germany) for the first time. The Pilot phase launched a year later, in Austin (Texas) (Carina Dorn, 2012, p.15). The aim of car2go is to ensure a more flexible use of mobility. This is so far implemented, as well as one-way trips are possible that means vehicles must not be returned to the pick- up location but to a personal target within the city. A transparent pricing system, a flexible availability of the CS-and environment-friendly vehicles, it, it should allow a future-oriented driving.

2. Describe the values held by this emerging group of drivers that incline them toward car sharing programs.
The benefits and opportunities also face negative aspects. Particularly in terms of the vehicles, different weaknesses, such as the vehicle size and the location constraint can be identified. On the positive side is to note the ease of use and ease of CS, and the possibility of combination with other transportations. The basic requirement is the possession of a car driving license. But are also characteristics and personal preferences of car- sharing members to be considered. On one hand, a high cost affinity and the other observed a strong sense of environmental awareness. ???Automakers are hoping to reach this emerging target market in major urban areas??”young, well-educated drivers, roughly age 18 to mid-30s, with good salaries, who are actively concerned about sustainability, pollution, and traffic congestion issues. (Cengage, 2012)
Strength
* Environmental friendly
* Cost transparent
* Flexible
* Users do not have to take care of gas and other costs
Weakness
* Bound to location
* Reservation is needed
* Mostly two-seater

Opportunity
* Combination with other transportation
* High potential because of less competition
Threats
* Car- ownership
* Availability
3. How are automakers using car-sharing programs to cater to customers??™ component lifestyles
* Tourists- due to the flexible use and easy applicability is particularly CS
popular with tourists visiting the city.
* Low mileage- car sharing is mainly for people, which drive less than 12,000 km / year to cover costs associated with benefits.
* Students- factors such as low net household income, a high level of education, an increased environmental awareness and openness to new forms of mobility speak for this group of people as users of car- sharing
* Families- since families have a high need of a second vehicle most of the times, car- sharing can be used as an replacement.
Since the transit cuts in Seattle and fewer busses are driving, car- sharing would be a great replacement/ extension for commuters. Since a membership can be obtained it would be very cost effective for commuters.

References
Cengagebrain. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://college.cengage.com/coursemate/marketing/lamb_9781111964252/student/chapter_cases/mktg6_onlinecase_ch04_se.pdf

Dorn, Carina. (2012). Car2go. Retrieved from
http://epub.wu.ac.at/2992/1/Dorn.pdf


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Foreign Language

Category : Articles

One skill that I think many people do not have but could benefit from mastering is learning a foreign language. Business, political and educational leaders are realizing that the whole world does not speak English. In fact, many of those people who have learned English as a second language prefer to converse and negotiate business in their own native language. Knowing a second language is now a very important part for an immense number of careers. Not only can it help with getting a job, but it can also take part in helping them get a promotion or a raise. Sometimes, knowing or not knowing a second language can even be the deciding factor in whether or not an employer hires them.

Not only can learning a foreign language help you find a job, but what about traveling abroad It is a common desire amongst Americans to travel abroad. A few generations ago, people rarely traveled outside of their home states, but today the number of people traveling abroad has increased greatly. People travel to North and South American countries, and to Europe, and even to Asia and Africa, not only for pleasure but for work as well. Of course it is possible to travel to foreign countries and not speak their language, it would be impossible to learn the language of every country you went to visit. However, if you were to visit a foreign country already knowing the countrys language as well as their history, you will have a more pleasant experience and a better understanding of the country and their culture.

Learning a foreign language can also help improve cultural understanding and mutual communications. International businesses have multiplied. It is often difficult to achieve mutual understanding and communication between nations, and learning foreign languages can help to achieve this goal, simply because studying a foreign language is the most effective tool to break down the barrier of a single language and a single culture. It also enables people to achieve a better understanding of their own.

Studying or knowing a foreign language does not guarantee understanding or empathy for the native speakers of the language; furthermore, it does help to avoid misconceptions and often brings forth gratitude and sympathy in the native speakers of the language. I once read a book where a Caucasian man traveled to Bombay, India. Upon arriving, he was treated with much animosity and hostility. However, once he lived there for a while and learned not only the culture but the language as well, the natives of Bombay grew quite fond of him and even total strangers would take a liking to him for the simple fact that he had made an effort to learn their language.

Learning a foreign language can also benefit you academically. One report said ???some studies show that children who learn a foreign language score statistically higher on standardized college entrance exams.??? The College Entrance Examination Board reported that, ???students who had averaged four or more years of foreign language study scored higher on the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) than those who had studied four or more years of any other subject.??? Knowing a foreign language can contribute to academic achievement. In studies, high school students that were involved in advanced foreign language programs were more likely to perform better academically in college and were less likely to drop out.

Learning a foreign language can definitely be beneficial. When deciding to learn a foreign language, ask yourself why you are learning it. Whats in it for you Consider the social benefits of learning a foreign language. The chance to meet new people and make new friends can be huge motivators for people in life. These exact same reasons can be motivators to learn a foreign language. Making new friends who speak a different language can encourage you to develop your language skills even further.

Next, consider the financial benefits of learning a foreign language. Special recognitions and promotions at work, or even being hired for a new job can be results of learning a foreign language. Knowing another language can open up a huge number of doors for the growth of your career.

Finally, consider the cultural, travel, and other life changing experiences learning a foreign language can bring to you. Just knowing a few short words or phrases can make you more approachable to the natives of the language when they realize you are making an effort to learn their native tongue, especially in the smaller, more rural locations. This can often lead to many cultural exchanges, experiencing local culture, and memories of travel adventures that will last a lifetime.


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Car or Cow

Category : Articles

From my point of view, living in the city is not as terrifying as mentioned in the article ???City Living???. Over the past century, countries all around the world have developed countless numbers of cities for its citizens to work and live in. As a result, urban living has become a norm for almost all citizens of first-world countries. Since we have chosen the path of modernization, why should we look backwards and head for the hills
I do agree that living among massive sky-scrapers and eating fast food does have some negative impact on us. As city dwellers live very close to each other, and face a lot of stress, they tend to have conflicts between themselves more often. However, most of the time, they will express their unhappiness in a peaceful demonstration as they are all educated beings.
In addition to being cramped up in a small bird-cage-like city apartment, leading an urban life exhausts a lot of our Earth??™s natural resources. This is mainly due to the fact that city dwellers tend to consume more electrical energy, when they enjoy the fruits of technological advancement. This in turn results in the burning of more coal at power stations, which means that more greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. Studies have shown that the Earth??™s average temperature has risen over the past 50 years and countries are experiencing natural disasters such as hurricanes more often. These are the effects of environmental pollution, which residents in the cities are guilty of.
Also, compared to the slow and steady life in the country side, people who live in the cities often have to get into traffic jams to get to work. Life is also uncertain in the city, as people live in a competitive environment. Whatever it may be, driving a car is always better than driving a bull around the fields.
Contrary to the above points, city living is not as unpleasant as it sounds. The air in the city is still acceptable to the fact that we do not have wear a mask in order to breathe. Urban residents swim in the sea and drink water that is from the local reservoir. As for the traffic congestion problem, it only occurs on major highways during the peak hours. Otherwise the city roads would be as clear as the green pastures of the country, when everyone is working in their offices. Airplanes fly into the city??™s airport without difficulty, which simply proves that visibility is clear and there is no huge trace of extreme environmental contamination in the cities.
Furthermore, in my 15 years of living in a city, I have never witnessed a crime taking place, except for those on the news. People are less likely to get robbed on the streets, or have their houses broken into. Besides, one can even walk on the streets in the wee hours. This suggests that residents get to enjoy a vibrant night life in the city, without having to worry about their personal safety. This is simply because there are fewer dark alleys in the city and police forces are more active in the cities. Crime rates are in fact decreasing each year, as police forces around the world tighten security measures and learn from previous crimes. Therefore I am quite confident that the city is just as safe as locking oneself up in a cottage with several hound dogs at night.
The city is still the best place to live. Residents living in modernized cities get to visit the countryside once in a while for a holiday, and have direct excess to all parts of the country and the world. I think that villagers should come and experience the wonders of the city before making any judgments and recognize the improvements that mankind has created for itself over the past century. Whether you like to drive a vehicle or a bull, it??™s up to you.? 


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Foreign Investment

Category : Articles

Foreign Investment
Althea Brown
AIU
Introduction to International Business
MGMT220-1101B
Unit 4 Individual Project
July 3, 2011

Abstract
In this paper I will attempt to show the purpose for foreign investment regulations as well as list and explain the foreign investment regulations. I will also attempt to show tow issues that concern management when screening potential markets and sites. Last I will go over the steps in the screening process.

Foreign investment is a necessary factor for counties the entire world to maintain economic growth. Therefore there have to be regulations put into place to safeguard investors as well as the countries that they are investing in.
There are many factors that foreign investors should consider such as exchange rates and how they are determined, what type of strategy to use in other to obtain the goals and outcome that they desire. They also need to do research in whatever international business venture or market that they are interested in. Research must be made in what location to set up in, the business environment. (Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material)

The purpose for foreign investment regulation is to control the flow of foreign investments in certain sectors. The aim of the regulations is to maintain a balance between domestic and foreign investments. These regulations also are put into place to address concerns for national security. (India Business Directory, 1999-2010)

Foreign investments are put into place to put foreign capital to work. These regulations include the promotion of local productivity; and technological development, the encouragement of local participation and the minimization of foreign competition in areas that are economically served by the local businesses. (Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material)
These regulations are implemented by requiring the foreign investors to register with the government and to also receive approval form that government for their particular market proposals. How the approval process is handle varies by county. (Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material)

The manger??™s role is to determine what countries to invest in. Factors that the manger should consider when making their determination are economic, political, technology, and developmental factor that are in their country of origin.
??? Economic- The ability for the investor be it a company or a country be able to meet its financial obligations. That is whether or not the company or country will be able to return a profit on its investment and if there will be a change in the policy of the country origin in the area of taxes and any thing that would affect the outcome of doing business in a foreign country.
??? Political- Changes in the government policy that would adversely affect the profits, such as put policies in place that would force foreign investors to turn over a huge amount of their profits or that would limit them on how much they can produce or the demand that they can only use the foreign government??™s ideas and technology.
??? Technology- Some countries are underdeveloped in such technology as highways or roads, cell phone towers, and electricity.
??? Legal Issues- The wise manger consults with the legal departments both at home and abroad to make sure are of the host country regulations are adhered to. (Deresky, 2007)
There are two main issues that concern management when screening potential markers and sites: keeping the research cost at a minimum and checking out each location and potential markets. (Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material)

??? Identifying basic appeal- knowing what the consumer needs and desires, the behavior of the buyer.
??? Accessing the national business environment.- knowing the culture practices; politics; the economy and regulations and knowing who your competitors are
??? Measure market or site potential ??“ developing a market strategy, getting to know the behavior and mindset of the potential buyer.
??? Selecting the right market or site- knowing the employment status and wage rate in the desired location. Anticipating the market trends and shifts, keeping abreast of any changes in the present regulations, evaluating the market size, distribution and logistics. (Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material)
Foreign investment regulations are very important to have in place. It protects the investor as well the desired country that is to be invested in. Without out these regulations foreign countries could come in and cause havoc on the country??™s economy by bushing out the local businesses. It creates a stable balance between foreign investments and local business.
It is essential that managers do the proper research before launching into foreign countries. They need to do their homework and look at the market and site, develop a strategy for marketing, know the buyers attitude and needs and desires. They need to be up to date on the changes in the potential country??™s regulations. Do the proper research can be the difference between launching a successful and profitable business to having the business fail.

References

Deresky, H. (2007). International Management: managing across borders and cultures Your expected profit . Prince Hall.
India Business Directory. (1999-2010). Retrieved April 15, 2011, from Regulations for Foreign Company Investment: http://business.mapsofindia.com/fdi-india/regulations-foreign-company-investments.html
Unit 4 Multimedia Course Material. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2011, from https://mycampus.aiu-online.com/Classroom/Pages/multimediacoursetext.aspxclassid=308912&tid=195&uid=191915&HeaderText=Course Materials: MGMT220-1101B-06 : Introduction to International Business


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Capulet and Juliet vs Portia and Her Father

Category : Articles

Conflict in the play is highlighted in many ways due to Shakespeare??™s portrayal of life in the Elizabethan era. This is demonstrated within the relationships between the daughters and their fathers in both plays. The Patriarchal Society played a huge part in both plays as the fathers were the dominant characters that ordered their daughters around and laid down the laws in their families.

In Shakespeare??™s play ???Merchant of Venice??™, Shakespeare demonstrates conflict within families and characters. The relationship between Portia and her father is proven to be good because even after her father dies, Portia respects her fathers wishes to choose a suitor for her. During this time era, fathers would typically choose who his daughter would marry because women were subservient to men and it was considered wrong for a woman to run away with a man whom was not chosen by their father. Therefore, by Portia agreeing to let her father choose whom she marries even after he has passed, it is seen as the right thing to do.

However, in Romeo and Juliet, Juliet and Capulet??™s relationship starts well 0999Capulet wanting to disown Juliet from their family. In Act 1 Scene 2, Capulet shows his care for Juliet as he tries to convince Paris that she is too young for marriage. ??? My child is yet a stranger to the world??™ implies that Capulet would rather Paris waited for Juliet as she is only young and has not yet explored/the world. The word ???stranger??™ gives the impression that Juliet does not know her place in the world and that it would be unfair to marry her off at this early stage of her life. Capulet later goes on to say, ???But woo her, gentle Paris, get her heart??™ and this is evidence to say that Capulet is concerned for his daughter??™s welfare and would only agree to this marriage if Juliet were also happy with the decision.

In Act 3 Scene 4, after Tybalt??™s sudden death, Capulet decides that he will arrange the marriage between Juliet and Paris because he assumes it will cheer her up. Shakespeare demonstrates dramatic irony here, as the audience already know that Juliet was recently married to Romeo. Even as Capulet plans Juliet??™s marriage, she is eagerly awaiting her husband Romeo in her bedroom. It indicates conflict because the audience know a dispute will follow shortly after Capulet discovers the truth. The quote ???Acquaint her here of my son Paris??™ love??™ is spoken during Capulet??™s speech and the word ???son??™ particularly stands out because Capulet already sees Paris as a son-in-law. It suggests he is pleased with himself after making his decision and giving consent to the marriage between his daughter Juliet and Paris. Capulet also has no doubts that Juliet will do as he says because she had previously stated that she would do anything to be the perfect daughter. This demonstrates conflict because the audience know that Juliet will not be happy to learn she is due to be married, and this will cause an argument between her and her father, which means that she is then faced with the decision on whether to run away from her family or not. Tension is built because the audience do not know how Capulet will react to the news that his daughter has disregarded the Patriarchal society and wed a member of his sworn enemy- the Montagues. ??? I think she will be ruled, in all respects by me; nay more, I doubt it not??™- is an example of Capulet being certain that Juliet will obey him. Shakespeare often wrote about fathers who wished to dominate their daughters??™ lives.

This could be compared to Jessica and Shylock??™s relationship because the audience also knew that Jessica was planning to run away, and she was not just rejecting her fathers but was leaving with Lorenzo, a Christian boy-therefore a sworn enemy of Shylocks. This also meant that Jessica was rejecting her religion.

When Capulet discovers that Juliet has no intention of marrying Paris, he is furious and threatens to disown her from the family. When Shylock find that Jessica has ran away, he wishes her dead. This implies that both Capulet and Shylock feel not only betrayed but humiliated at the fact that their daughters have disobeyed them. Juliet, Jessica and Portia all feel the constraints of their fathers in the plays and Shakespeare chose soliloquies to highlight their discontent. ???Deny thy father and refuse thy name??™- spoken by Juliet links to the patriarchal society because she knows that what she has done is wrong and against what is expected of an Elizabethan daughter.

The strained relationship between Shylock and Jessica, and the relationship between Portia and her deceased father, further illustrates the demanding and unwavering standards set by the patriarchal society of Shakespeare??™s time. However, the strict ruling does not control some daughters, as proven in Shylock and Jessica??™s relationship. Despite his attempts to control her, Jessica will not be kept from the man she loves, and she vows to Lorenzo to “end this strife, [and] become a Christian and [his] loving wife.??™- meaning that she does not care that she is disregarding everything a girl in this time era should follow, and this highlights conflict because both Capulet and Shylock have brought their daughters up to obey them and instead they have ignored their demands and gone behind their fathers backs. In both plays, Capulet, Shylock and Portia??™s father, have all chosen a suitor for their daughter but overall, only Portia accepted the decision and let her destiny be solely ruled by men.

The quote ???there is some ill a ??“brewing towards my rest??™ is used to build dramatic tension in the scene and dramatic irony is used because the audience knows more than Shylock, e.g. that Jessica has already planned to run away. It highlights conflict between Shylock and Jessica because Shylock has a feeling that she is about to leave and is concerned for Jessica, whereas she plans to run away with a Christian boy, therefore rejecting her religion.

Shylock??™s ???ill-feeling??™ in act 2 scene 5 is justified as a result of previous events with Jessica wanting to be with Lorenzo. Jessica previously describes her home as ???hell??™ and Shylock can clearly see that she is not happy but chooses to ignore it. The ???ill-feeling??™ could also be because of the fact that Shylock has just made a deal with Antonio about ???repaying??™ the loan Shylock lent him and knows that if he does not get the money back he will have to kill someone, and even though Shylock and Antonio are not friends, this worries him further.
In particular, the word ???brewing??™ stands out in the sentence as it suggests that Shylock feels something is going to be wrong instead of him KNOWING that something bad has already happened. It shows conflict because it proves Shylock does not trust Jessica and feels she is going to go behind his back.