Monthly Archives: April 2017

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Carbon Tax Impact

Category : Articles

A carbon tax would involve the government identifying which sources of carbon pollution will be included and who would be liable to pay tax on that carbon pollution. For example, a coal mines, mining industries, burning coal, vehicle industries, Transportation. The government of Australia has introduced the ???carbon tax??? on carbon producing sector from July 2012 to minimize carbon emissions in three to five years time from its introduction (Gillard, 2010). The government has also planned to reduce carbon emissions to 5% by 2020 as the voluntary target in the absence of a coherent international agreement on the level of carbon emission reduction. This cost will initially be set at $23 per tonne of Co2 equivalent, and increase gradually until 2015. However, the government will shift to a trading scheme that will let the market set the cost. This is widely thought of as the most effective and least costly mechanism to reduce carbon output and reduce the level of climate change. Though, the policy to cut emissions is regressive and the tax burden will be unequally distributed among different household groups with low-income households carrying a relatively higher burden.
If Australia does not make a global effort to fight climate change, there are significant risks to the Australian economy if not take steps towards pricing carbon (Birmingham, 2013). For example, the risks facing by Qantas, who paid carbon tax penalty of 15% on its carbon emissions for any flights it makes into or out of Europe. The reason for its imposition is specifically because Australia does not have carbon price in place.
There are further economic reasons behind acting to implement a price on carbon, aside from the risk of foreign sanctions. The fact is that renewable energy technology will be the next huge growth industry. The Chinese have been quick to recognise this and have the highest level of investment in this sector, accounting for almost 25% of worldwide investment in renewable last year for a total of $50 billion USD (www.carbontax.net.au). If Australia does not incentivise investment in the sector, Australia would simply be left behind. Therefore Australia has introduced a new energy sources which is called clean energy future. The minister of climate change and energy efficiency stated that, there are four component of clean energy future. Firstly, establishment of carbon price on carbon tax, secondly supports for renewable energy, thirdly to support improvements of energy efficiency and last one is storing carbon through changed land use practices. A price on carbon is the most environmentally effective and economically efficient way to reduce pollution. This means our economy can continue to prosper without our pollution continuing to grow.
Effect and impact of carbon tax in Australia:
The carbon tax induces production changes throughout the economy and all employment groups are bearing burden with negative effects. There are not only positive or benefit of this policy there are lot of negative aspects after the carbon tax implemented in Australian especially for big and medium industries as well as households. There are so many example of recently affected from the carbon tax. For instant, over the last 12 months, 10,632 Australian companies have gone belly up, a number that is ???more than 12 % higher than during the global financial crisis,??? (The New American News Reports). The tax has already hiked the cost of electricity to the average family by 10 percent. For businesses, which use much more energy, it??™s even worse.

Grant King, head of Origin Energy said that ???up to 30 % of small and medium sized enterprises would affect from the electricity bills goes up from carbon pricing and other green schemes???. The treasurer for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Mike Baird, told to News Limited that ???there is no doubt the carbon tax is driving higher electricity prices for businesses across the state???. NSW Treasury analysis for this financial year shows that NSW electricity customers including small businesses and households will be hit with a bill worth an estimated $580 million due to higher power prices as a direct result of this disastrous tax.
Furthermore, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry chief economist Greg Evans blamed ???intentional policy actions of government designed to increase the cost of doing business for the rash of insolvencies and rapidly rising energy prices caused by the carbon tax and other green programs are taking their toll on many Australian businesses???. He also added to News Limited. ???In energy-reliant industries it is already showing up in job losses, deferred investment and in the worst cases, business closure and it will lower our standard of living and be harmful to national productivity
Grain Products Australia (GPA), for example, was liquidated last year after being socked with additional costs of $500,000 a year owing to the carbon tax and other environmental levies. About half of the company??™s 68 employees will lose their jobs as a result. The firm??™s former managing director, Rob Lowndes, told News Limited that the carbon tax was not the ???primary factor??? in GPA??™s insolvency, but it was ??????certainly an added cost??™ which was making it hard for manufacturing in Australia???.
Manufacturing isn??™t the only sector that??™s suffering because of the tax; tourism is also taking a huge hit. Peter Macks, head of Macks Advisory, a consulting firm for insolvent companies, told News Limited that ???the carbon tax was ???quite debilitating??™ for a number of hotel operators who he said had been ???struggling for a long time. It is very tough operating at a profit,??? he added.

A study commissioned by Tourism Accommodation Australia found that the carbon tax will pile an additional $115 million a year onto the operating costs of hotels and motels, reducing their profits by 12 percent. The carbon tax is also discouraging foreign investment, Campbell Jaski, a partner at PPB Advisory, another insolvency consulting firm, told to the News.

Benefits of carbon tax:
Problems of Carbon tax:
Production may shift to countries with no or lower carbon taxes (so called pollution havens). The cost of administrating the tax may be quite expensive reducing its efficiency. It is difficult to know the level of external cost and how much the tax should be. There will be possibility of tax avoidance. Higher taxes may encourage firms to hide carbon emissions. In the short term, firms may not feel they have many alternatives. Though other time, demand will become more elastic as more alternatives are generated.

Consumers dislike new taxes and often don??™t believe that they will be revenue neutral, this is not an economic argument, but it is a political reality and explains why it is often difficult to implement. A global carbon tax may curtail economic activity in the poor developing world because they can??™t afford the small increase in energy costs, but the developed world may simply be able to pay there may be need for a carbon tax to reflect different abilities to pay.

Corporate example of affected industries in Australia:
One of the Australian leading world famous aluminium industries QUEENSLAND Alumina Ltd (QAL) has shed 200 jobs since the introduction of the carbon tax. The chief executive of Rusal group Mr. Oleg Deripaska said to The Australian news that the carbon tax would have a significant long term impact on operations at QAL, based in Gladstone.? The Rusal owns a 20% stake in QAL. He added, as a consequence of rising costs, including energy and a carbon tax of about $23 million a year and rising, coupled with a renewable energy charge.
Federal Member for Flynn Ken ODowd highlighted the comments as evidence the carbon tax was threatening the viability of one of Gladstones core industrial facilities. He added that the carbon tax has had, and will continue to have, a negative impact on our aluminium industry here in Gladstone, and these comments are simply more proof of that.
QAL is a facility that operates to a greater level of efficiency than many of its rivals all over the world. Despite that, the company is being punished, whilst the Gillard Government has rewarded other, less efficient facilities in the south with bailouts. As the construction phase of the LNG projects will wind down in the coming years and will rely very heavily on new and traditional core industries, including QAL, to maintain growth and prosperity in the wider Gladstone region. Mr? Deripaska said there had been a big decline in Australias competitive position since Rusal purchased 20% of QAL in 2005.
Further he added that the key issues have been the large increase in the exchange rate and the continuing erosion of Australias competitive advantages. The mining boom has pushed up the exchange rate and tightened the market for the skills necessary to maintain value-adding industries in regional Australia. The independent obligation of the carbon tax directly harms the manufacturing and processing industries in Australia. He also said the rapid expansion of the onshore liquefied natural gas industry had also been poorly managed. The price and availability of gas to domestic consumers and industry has been impacted because the owners of the LNG plants presently have an insufficient level of gas to meet the rate of exports approved by the government. His main concern about the carbon tax was that it was designed to shift facilities such as QAL to a higher-cost energy source such as gas, where there was no long-term certainty on supply. This could lead to local processing and jobs moving overseas.
The Rusals targets are going to increase the efficiency of operations and move further down the cost curve through replacing outdated capacities with new low-cost ones. As he mentioned the company could move overseas, their plan to reduce output by 300,000 tonnes of aluminium and keep it at this level for about three years and at the same time, they will also launch the first phase of energy efficient and economically efficient, Boguchansky smelter in Eastern Siberia.

Conclusion and recommendation
The Government of Australia required to be well informed about the possible effects of environmental policies such as carbon tax, which will have far reaching implications. In Australia through a carbon tax is achievable without major disruptions to the Australian economy. In particular, the government??™s target of reducing Australia??™s emissions to 5 % below 2000 levels by 2020 seems reasonable with a $23 tax with minimum adjustments.
The tax would result in an inflationary effect to the consumer prices. The research shows that the 26% increase in the price of electricity. This is not surprising as Australia??™s electricity generation is heavily dependent on carbon intensive black and brown coal, which attracts a large amount of carbon tax burden. Electricity generating sectors will be negatively affected, especially those which are heavy fossil fuel users. Due to substantial emissions by black and brown coal generators, these two sources of electricity will become fairly expensive with a carbon tax in place and will face a significant decrease in demand.
The Australian government should not subsidise its industries. However, it should support efforts to improve its competitive position. The government should encourage initiatives that improve national productivity such as more flexible labour laws and sound investments in infrastructure and training, while removing artificial energy costs such as the carbon tax, levies on renewable and red tape, which limits coal and gas developments. Without these changes Australia risks the type of processing that is conducted at QAL being forced offshore. This will result in an increased risk of losing a key competence of Australias technically sophisticated minerals processing industry.
It is my personal opinion that Australian government should aware and conduct the rule strictly for global warming and carbon emission. However, the government also need to think long term alternative sources in international competitive price to support and survive to the industries, which plays the significant role for Australian economy and international business.


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Black Elk Speaks

Category : Articles

Review of the novel “Black Elk Speaks” from the perspective of Christianity with an emphasis on the influence Christianity has had on the Lakota Sioux.
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Forest Gump

Category : Articles

Forest Gump ???Run Forest, Run???!
By Ryan Mulawka
Eng. 225
Dr. Dwight Paulson
September 25, 2011

This paper is about a boy that would just not quit and that would be the movie Forest Gump and I will explain the very well established scene which many people know of till this day and I will show the insight of one of the most popular scenes from this highly acclaimed film, which is none other than the legendary Forrest Gump. This film is one that is joked about and will go down in history as one of the most memorable films of all time. This particular special scene that made the movie so powerful was named, ???Run, Forrest, Run!??? and many people have heard this quote, if not at a football game then maybe as a joke when someone is running from something like a bee. Sorry, this was a past experience of mine. This particular scene had a plot consisting of the two main characters Forrest & Jenny just meeting and soon after becoming friends that would hold a bond throughout life. At this time forest had just began schooling and had a pair of braces supporting his legs so he could walk. This was something that held him back from his true potential. At the end of this powerful scene he and jenny were being chased by some boys, which led to the backstory into his later life. When forest was being chased by these boys, this was when he gained the courage to do the impossible, he ran with the braces on, kind of wobbling, intill Forest ran so fast his braces came unattached and fell to the ground. This was when Jenny said the most famous quote of movie history, ???Run Forest, Run???. Those words gave Forest the power to overcome all odds and do the one thing that he couldn??™t do, which was run. Jenny gave him the strength. Every single element of the scene laid the foundation perfectly for the rest of the plot that came to follow.
The setting was back in the younger days of Forest??™s life, which was in the early 1950??™s, the setting sets the foundation for this boy??™s overall life because it shows how these old fashioned braces were holding him back, and if you pay close attention you can see the old style bikes that the boys were riding to chase him down. Everything from the hair styles all the way to the way that they talked, were all symbols of the early 50??™s. The clothes were also a special addition to the setting, the director and crew really had a keen eye for detail when it came to making a setting of the early 1950??™s. They had old cars, older style buildings, it really showed what Forest was raised around during his younger life. There was also a part where Forest ran past some convicts on the side of the road where they were doing old style punishment, ???breaking rocks???; this also helped to set the setting for the story. The overall setting sets the mood for the rest of the story because it shows what forest overcame to become what he was when he was an older man. The setting of the scene helps you understand the characters because it shows where they came from and what they overcame; this was the main part of the movie, where Forest gained the power to just fight back and run untill his legs couldn??™t move anymore, which was not likely to happen, if you happened to watch the full movie.
The costumes that were used in this scene were from the early days along with the hair style, the girl had a real girlish look while Forest had that clean cut hair style, this helped set some of the setting for the rest of the plot mainly because it showed that he wasn??™t dressed as some tough guy, or a preppy boy for that matter, he was dressed as if he just wanted to be a boy and enjoy life and well as his friend Jenny which had a real girlish dress on that just screamed baby doll at you. The story further down the road showed that Forest never changed; he was still that country boy that just loved to live life. The hair style can help tell this story because it shows what kind of people these two children were, they were clean and harmless, as were their hairdos. I think the hair is what explains a person, their hair helps signify what they are and how they think, someone with glamour hair, usually acts like a beauty queen as does a military haircut signifies a man of honor and courage. Hair can tell a lot about a person, or character for that matter.
Lighting played a big role in this scene, it helped put emphasize on the main characters and also the main objects that needed to have significance for the scene. When Forest took off running down the road, the light turned to his braces which began to crumble off of his legs, the light reflects off of each metal piece that hit the ground, this helped put great significance on this great feat that just took place before everyone??™s eyes. Another part that used lighting for their advantage was the time where the boys couldn??™t catch Forest running so they stopped, and the light lit Forest??™s smoke trail from him running so swiftly. The crew really knew how to put great emphasize on things using lighting to their advantage, one more part from the scene that used light for their advantage was when Jenny said the quote ???Run Forest, Run???!, the light lit her face up when those words came out of her mouth.
The two main actors in this particular scene went by the names of Michael Conner Humphreys, he played as the younger Forrest Gump and his costar was Hanna Hall, who played younger Jenny Curran. I think that they did a wonderful job of playing their roles to the furthest of their potential; they really brought the light to the show that laid the parameters of the rest of the plot. The director of the film was Robert Zemeckis. This man won many awards for this movie, and he will be remembered as a great director from this great feat that he showed to the world. Don Burgees was the Photography director, which consisted of taking the best shots possible of the scene which was not only limited to lighting but also the location of the shots. Leslie McDonald was the art director and was in charge of making sure costumes and everything fit just right into the setting that they were trying to portray in the plot. (Palmer,2009)
This scene uses mise-en-scene in so many ways; it has put many factors all into one. One of the first examples would have to be, the two main actors who portrayed two younger characters which fit this particular scene just right which embedded nicely into the main plot, mainly because it was at the main character??™s time of youth. One more point that I would like to share would be how important the fact that the director went above and beyond to add the special effects to add an over whelming amount of emotion into this whole scene, most significantly the main point of the movie itself, the triumph. I think something else that came to interest was how the scene??™s initial mood was very relaxed which came into came to the interest of the total mood change at the end of scene, this was great because the two main characters were just enjoying one another??™s company, which led to the friendship and also them just having a good time. Then the mood changes to a victory type mood, because Forrest overcame the braces that were holding him back from having fun and playing outside like regular kids. This is what put such emphasize on the main plot. He showed courage and determination that many kids his age could never imagine showing. Ultimately I think the director and his crew went above and beyond their wildest dreams on this movie and the scene itself. I think he was pleased with the end result mainly because of the attention that his and his crew??™s efforts brought to the scene itself. I don??™t think he could of ever imagined this scene getting this much attention. It just comes to show you that, when efforts are put into something, there can always be a great type of satisfaction to follow in its wake.

References
Goodykoontz, B., & Jacobs, C. P. (2011). Film: From Watching to Seeing. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. https://content.ashford.edu
Movie Clip (Run forest, run) http://movieclips.com/eyji-forrest-gump-movie-run-forrest-run (Retrieved September 20, 2011)
Palmer, William J. (2009). “The New Historicist Films”. The Films of the Nineties: The Decade of Spin. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 26??“31


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Stress & Anxiety

Category : Articles

This paper exmines stress and anxiety looking at definitions, types, positive & negative stress, causes, effects and treatment.
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Carbon Footprint

Category : Articles

Running Head: CARBON FOOTPRINT

Carbon Footprint

March 31, 2013

Whether we realize it or not, we all personally affect the environments that we live in. Things we do that can affect our environment range from the amount of energy we use in our homes, to what we drive and even what we eat. Everyone must be mindful of this ???carbon footprint??? that we are all leaving on our Earth. Working to reduce our personal footprints can greatly affect the world around us.
A carbon footprint is ???the amount of carbon dioxide or other carbon compounds emitted into the atmosphere by the activities of an individual, company or country??? (Dictionary.com). Typically a carbon footprint is measured over a specific amount of time such as one year. There are so many things that we all do on a daily basis that have an effect on our environment. For example, the energy we use in our homes. How many lights and electronic devices we have plugged in and running at once, our home thermostat and our laundry habits create our carbon footprints.
Outside our homes, the way we travel is related to our carbon footprints also. The number can vary for you depending on how you use transportation. For example, do you drive a car that consumes a large amount of fuel or do you use public transportation Shopping is also a factor. What we buy and who we buy it from are also factors used in your carbon footprint. For example, do you drive to a grocery store daily for produce, or do you buy local, or even grow your own
There are many easy fixes we can incorporate into our lives to help reduce our personal carbon footprints and in turn help the environment. First, let??™s look at our homes. Some things we can easily to include turning off lights when we don??™t need them, turn off the computer or DVD player when these things are not in use. Watch the thermostat in your home also. Try reducing the temperature by as little as one degree and you can see a big difference in your heating bill by about 8% (Carbon Footprint, n.d.). We can travel less, for example, planning all shopping trips in one day. We can carpool to work instead of being single drivers also.
Carbon footprints should be taken seriously by everyone. We must remember that we all effect our environment which in turn affects everyone. By making simple changes to our routines we can help to reduce our carbon footprints. It??™s not only our world, but everyone??™s world and the responsibility falls on each and every one of us to keep our planet healthy.

References
Carbon Footprint (n.d.) Carbon footprint reduction. Retrieved March 31, 2013 from: http://www.carbonfootprint.com/minimisecfp.html

Dictionary.com (n.d.) Carbon footprint. Retrieved March 31, 2013 from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon+footprints=t


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Teacher Attrition in the U.S.

Category : Articles

Examines the reasons behind the high numbers of teachers who leave the profession within the first years of practice.
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Desert of the Heart

Category : Articles

Analyzes the main character in “Desert of the Heart” and the theme of self-discovery played out by this character.
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Carbohydrates

Category : Articles

What are carbohydrates
Our bodies use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Most carbohydrates come from plant sources. Your body either uses the carbohydrates right away, or converts it to fat to use later. There are three different types of carbohydrates-sugars and starches which we can digest and fiber which we don??™t digest.
Chemical Structure and Composition
All carbohydrates are made up of the same basic components, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The dietary carbohydrates are found in three main types monosaccharide??™s, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharide
The simplest form of carbohydrate, otherwise known as a monosaccharide, is made up of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogens and six oxygens. The three monosaccharides important in nutrition all have the same numbers and kinds of atoms, but in different arrangements.
Glucose is commonly known as blood sugar and serves as an essential energy source for all the body??™s activities.
* Essentially the base of every other kind of carbohydrate.
Fructose is the sweetest of the sugars and occurs naturally in fruit and honey. It is also used commercially in soft drinks, breakfast cereals and desserts.
Galactose rarely occurs naturally as a single sugar and has the same number and kinds of atoms as glucose and fructose, but in a different arrangement.
Disaccharides
Disaccharides are pairs of the three monosaccharides listed above. Glucose occurs in all three and the second member of the pair is either fructose, galactose or an additional glucose.
Maltose consists of two glucose atoms. Maltose is produced whenever starch breaks down. Maltose is only a minor component of a few foods and is most notably found in barley.
Sucrose is made up of fructose and glucose. Due to the fructose sucrose tastes sweet. When refined from the juices of sugarcane and sugar beets and after being granulated, sucrose forms table sugar.
Lactose is the combination of glucose and galactose and is the principal carbohydrate of milk. It is also known as milk sugar and, depending on the milk??™s fat content, can contribute 30 to 50 percent of milk??™s energy.
Here are two examples of two simple sugars in their basic form. Fructose being a monosaccharide and sucrose a disaccharide. While they look the same and have the same number of calories, a simple change to their genetic makeup has made fructose noticeably sweeter.

Polysaccharides
Complex carbohydrates contain many glucose units and, in some cases, a few other monosaccharides strung together to form polysaccharides. Three types of polysaccharides are important in nutrition: glycogen, starches and fibers.
Glycogen molecules contain hundreds of glucose in long, highly branched chains. It is found in small amounts in meat and not found at all in plants. The main important role the glycogen plays is how the human body stores much of its glucose as glycogen. It is stored in muscles and liver.
Starch molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains or unbranched chains. In our bodies glucose is stored as glycogen, while plants store it as starch.
Fibers are another type of polysaccharide but they differ from starches because they cannot be digested by our digestive system.
Functions
Glucose is the carbohydrate molecule that is used to fuel the body cells. Digestion of disaccharides and polysaccharides can also yield fructose and galactose but these monosaccharides are converted to glucose by the liver before they can be used. Once in the blood, the monosaccharides are either used for energy, stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, or if there is an excess of energy it is converted to fat. Even though fiber isn??™t used as fuel it still plays an important role in assisting digestion.
The body is able to make glucose from extra dietary protein and fats you may eat, but it is recommended that half of your daily calories come from carbohydrates. The body needs a certain amount of carbohydrates in order to properly function. Without carbohydrates the body may experience fatigue, muscle cramps and poor mental function.
Carbohydrates have other uses including:
The body stores glycogen in the muscles and the liver and uses it later for muscle developement.
Store energy in the form of starch (photosynthesis in plants) or glycogen (in animals and humans).
Provide energy through metabolism pathways and cycles.
Supply carbon for synthesis of other compounds.
Form structural components in cells and tissues.

Interrelationships with other nutrients
In nature, carbohydrates don??™t exist in isolation. They are usually found in a form that is a combination of all the macronutrients, including protein and fat and often contain vitamins and minerals as well. For example a banana contains one percent fat, ninety one percent carbohydrate, eight percent protein as well as calcium and potassium. It??™s also a good source of dietary fiber.
Whereas sugar is one hundred percent carbohydrate. This is why it is a far more preferable for us to obtain carbohydrates from a natural sources rather than concentrated manufactured sources. Also, carbohydrates found in fruits and vegetables are complex carbohydrates, meaning they take longer to digest and keep us feeling full for longer.
Food sources
Food sources of complex carbohydrates are more natural sources like milk, fruits and vegetables and a very small amount in meat. Sugars come from fruits, sugar cane, sugar beets, honey and milk. The polysaccharide starch is found in grains, legumes and root vegetables. More processed carbohydrates are found in manufactured foods such as carbonated drinks, lollies, ice-cream, pudding, pastries, pasta and bread.
Recommended daily allowance
The recommended daily intake of carbohydrates is 125-175g or 55-60% of the total caloric intake of one day. Carbohydrates are a vital source of fuel for the bodies of every human being. Carbohydrates can be of particular importance to athletes as they are regularly pushing their bodies to perform and using up energy. Carb loading is a change to training and nutrition designed to maximize the amount of muscle glycogen stores prior to endurance competition.
Diabetics must be more aware of the types of carbohydrates they consume. Simple sugars or refined grains can cause their blood sugar to rise rapidly. Natural sources of carbohydrate such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains are slower to break down and less likely to cause problems.
Current thinking on the role that this nutrient plays in a healthy lifestyle and diet.
The Australian guide of healthy eating promotes the consumption of plenty of carbohydrates. Vegetables and legumes, fruits and bread, cereals, rice, pasta and noodles make up about two thirds of what is believed to be the healthy daily intake of food and all of these foods are a good source of both complex and simple carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are essential to a functional, healthy body and without them people wouldn??™t have the energy to exercise and keep themselves healthy. They are the fuel that keeps the body going and without carbohydrates we wouldn??™t have the ability to perform even the simplest of day to day tasks.


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Ancient Minoan Crete Art

Category : Articles

Emphasizes paintings in context of Minoan civilization & Minoan impact on Ancient Greek culture.
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International Business Management

Category : Articles

A look at the changing role of organizational culture in business management.
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