Monthly Archives: April 2017

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Forever21 Marketing Analysis

Category : Articles

Forever21 Marketing Analysis


Today??™s market is characterised by highly competitive organisations which are all vying for consumer??™s loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: firm growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth. There are also internal factors, components working within the organisation which shape the direction of the firm.
The firm??™s marketing environment influences the business organisation directly. This includes the suppliers that deal directly or indirectly to the people within the business organisation, the consumers and customers who demand for the products or services offered by the firm, and other local stakeholders who influence the decision-making process or affected by the business decisions made by the business firm. In addition, this also includes the competitors of the firm. As such, the marketing environment of a particular firm describes the relationship between firms and the driving forces that control and affect their market performance. In this report, competitors of Forever21 will be considered.


A considerable number of companies have developed into an essential part of the period of global competition, increasing development, improved business paradigms, and corporate reorganization. The continuing transformation from the traditional industrial framework with its hierarchical companies to a worldwide, knowledge-founded financial system and intelligent corporations necessitates business management to realign and relocate its strategies (Mcmenamin, 1999). Along with the intense marketing nowadays, firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth (Karp & Schlessinger, 2002).
Competition is an important factor to consider before entering a business. Firms should have successful competitive strategies to be able attract, retain and grow customers. However, before the firm can plan and execute these strategies, it should be able to pinpoint its sources of competitive advantage which can be differentiated through products, services, channels, people and image (Kotler & Armstrong, 2001). Today??™s market is characterised by highly competitive organisations which are all vying for consumer??™s loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: firm growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth.
At present, most firms find that it not plausible to create any kind of sustainable competitive advantage based on product alone. The traditional way of viewing firm operations as an interplay between the product, the market and the organisation is completely insufficient in a world of ever-hardening competition. For an effective marketing, a competition strategy should be created. For the key to superior performance, the competition strategy must encompass an analyse of the target market (the group of people whom the organisation wants to reach) and a marketing mix (the conjunction of product, price, place and promotion) that will satisfy those customers in the target market (Smith, Grimm & Gannon 1992). Once the competition strategy of a firm is determined the whole business should be designed around the target customers` needs. It is common knowledge that every one of the successful firms sought and found a precise understanding of how it could create a customer-centered competitive advantage.
Among the largest apparel manufacturers in the world, includes Giordano, which Esprit, Bossini, G2000/U2 and Zara and others such as Marks&Spencers and other local and international retailers and franchisers which are characterized with relatively stronger local market share compared with the foreign brands in the same price range like Benetton and Mango (Cheong, 2004).
According to Cheong (2004) female executives in the late 20s to mid 40s generally buy local brands such as G2000, Bossini, Giordano Ladies, Jessica, Esprit, Moiselle, Cour Carre, Gay Giano, Episode, Color 18, Michel Rene, Daniel Hechter or foreign labels like Mango, Susuza, Benetton, Indivi, A/T, French Connection, Polo Jeans, Ralph Lauren Polo, Tommy Hilfiger, Agnes B, Kookai, DKNY, MaxMara, Prada, Nicole Farhi, Gucci, Armani Exchange, Emporio Armani and Giorgio Armani. Unlike their male counterparts, very few female executives buy tailored work wear. Moreover, specific apparel products like (a) women??™s or girl??™s overcoats, car coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks (including ski-jackets), wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles; (b) women??™s or girl??™s suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (other than swimwear); and (c) women??™s or girl??™s blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses are among the best business highlights and prospects for the female population (Cheong, 2004).
In this age of globalization and information technology, deciding which brand to choose can be a problem. Competition is evident and intense, and the marketing and management divisions of corporations are surely giving everything they can to establish their brands. Competition forces certain brand names to become stronger than others because of product loyalty and name recognition. As such, all types of communication became more involved in marketing communications, including literature, training, advertising, mail, telephone, product promotions and other contact relevant to marketing communication (Goldberg & McCalley, 1992).


Cheong, S 2004, International Market Research ??“Apparel, US Department of Commerce (STAT-USA/Internet), viewed 23 August 2006, .
Goldberg, R & McCalley, R 1992, Marketing Channel Development and Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Karp, RS & Schlessinger, BS 2002, The Basic Business Library: Core Resources, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

Kotler, P & Armstrong, G 2001, Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall, London.

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Carbon Tax

Category : Articles

Warming Up to a Carbon Tax
With a Growing National Debt, Heightened Concern about Global Warming and Continual Debate over Federal Tax Reform, might a Carbon Tax Lie in Our Future

Herere benefits and disadvantages of a carbon tax, what it would look like, and what design questions have yet to be addressed by the Congress.
Reports made by the United Nations and other groups over the past year have concluded that global warming is a certainty (United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Pew Center on Global Climate Change and others). Greenhouse gases (GHG) trap heat in the atmosphere that slowly warms the earth. The primary greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) generated from the burning of fossil fuels, such as oil, coal and natural gas.
The U.S. is the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (November 2007 report (PDF) from the Climate Change Science Program). Increased world attention to climate change will likely put pressure on the U.S. to reduce its GHG emissions. In addition, many state and local governments have taken actions to address global warming. They will also push for national remedies.
In January 2007, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held a hearing on a proposed cap and trade system (a cap and trade system involves a government set limit on GHG emissions for particular industries. Companies are then issued certificates indicating how much they are allowed to emit, with allowances decreasing each year. If a company needs to emit more than allowed, it will need to either find a way to reduce its emissions or purchase certificates from others. This system employs market forces to encourage companies to determine their best reduction strategy.). In November 2007, the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works held hearings on a climate security proposal (S. 2191).
In addition to discussions at both the federal and state levels on a cap and trade system to reduce GHG emissions, taxes have also been proposed by Congressmen Pete Stark (D-Calif.), John Dingell (D-Mich.) and others.

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Category : Articles



Forest??™secret is a local herbal brand that was born from the Government??™s initiative under the Glokal Entrepreneur Programme, graced by The Honourable Dato??™ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak on 27 March 2007. Under the Glokal Entrepreneur Programme, Forest??™secret business concept of marketing Malaysian cosmetics and toiletries products abroad is aimed at producing entrepreneurs with a global outlook, which would make them more competitive to produce high-quality products and create strong product branding in order to capture the local market and eventually to compete globally. Forest??™secret set to become a Herbal Hub in the country, with a mission to become the Asia??™s most innovative leader in the herbal-based wellness and beauty brand, Forest??™secret is entrusted with the responsibility to develop and grow the industry for the wealth and wellbeing of stakeholders and the nation at large, governed by the following objectives:

a. To promote and market our very own local herbal-based products under Forest??™secret brand to local and international market

b. To serve as a platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to market their herbal-based products locally and abroad

c. To educate the public on the nutritional value and health benefits from using local herbal products

Forest??™secret seeks to champion the Malaysian herbal industry through a dynamic process of fostering, developing and marketing of national herbal-based products that will enable and empower its stakeholders. The first prototype of Forest??™secret outlet was opened on 6 April 2007 at The Curve Mutiara Damansara that includes four herbal-based product ranges from Body and Skin Care, Aromatherapy and Spa, Health Food and Drinks and Colour Cosmetics. Forest??™secret developed and managed by Forest??™Secret Sdn Bhd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Malaysia International Franchise Sdn Bhd (MyFranchise), a franchise investment holding company and the investment arm of Perbadanan Nasional Berhad (PNS).
Unlike a typical health, beauty and wellness product, Forest??™secret provides a unique positioning through its offering as innovative herbal solutions, and thus an opportunity for Forest??™secret success exists because:

a. 80% of the world??™s population depends on herbal medicine as their basic healthcare needs and growing at the rate of 7% per annum (WHO, 2004)

b. Local Cosmetics &Toiletries (C&T) industry is growing about 12% annually (US Dept of Commerce, 2006)

c. The local market has no provider who solely specialize in herbal-based product – ???One-Stop Herbal Centre??? of beauty and wellness

The C&T market reported in National Geography that the worldwide annual expenditure is estimated at USD18 billion (source: Business for Sale, Jul/Aug 2008):

a. C&T in China is valued at USD6.3 billion (20% – 25% average growth over the past 5 years)

b. C&T in Middle East to increase by more than AED11 billion by 2010 (growing at a rate of 12% annually)

c. C&T in Malaysia is valued at RM3.6 billion (healthy annual projected growth rate of 13%). Malaysians annually spend an estimated USD500 million on C&T

The Forest??™secret SWOT Analysis is as follows:


a) Government Project
Forest??™secret was born under the Government initiative of Glokal Entrepreneur Programme. Thus, Forest??™secret have the Government??™s endorsement, support and good access to related grants.

b) Brand Name
Forest??™secret brand name is an international name, well accepted, catchy and represents the core business of the brand i.e. herbal.

c) Herbal-based Product
Herbal-based products are Forest??™secret core business. Natural and herbal products are very popular nowadays. Many customers are increasing awareness of the benefits of these products and look from credible source. Forest??™secret believes that the popularity will continue to grow.

d) Competitive Pricing and Quality Products
Forest??™secret products come from the best of Indo-Malay herbal traditions; an innovative product from the forests to suit the modern needs. Forest??™secret offers the good quality products at competitive price and with value added.

e) Halal products
Consumers are increasing awareness of safe, halal and ???green??? products that are both environmentally and socially responsible.

f) Malaysian products
Forest??™secret champions the local herbal products and pioneer the use of Asian herbal products in modern lives. It is uniquely Malaysian brand and products.

g) Business Concept
Forest??™secret offers tremendous breadth and depth in herbal products as ???One-Stop Herbal Centre???. Forest??™secret offers various attractive business concepts that include franchising and dealership.


a) Direction
Forest??™secret has adopted no blueprint thus far, therefore no strategic focus based on long-term profitability and growth prospects. This has also contributed to lack of clarity in translation of the vision (implementation strategy).

b) Brand and Product Awareness
Forest??™secret is a new brand and a start-up business. With limited promotion activities, Forest??™secret secured no awareness and recognition. It will take some time to build credibility and strategically market Forest??™secret brand positioning to create brand awareness and induce sales.

c) Accessibility and Location
Not all Forest??™secret outlets are located at strategic location. The number is still low, and thus lack of accessibility to customers.

d) Outlet Presentation/Identity
The ambiance of Forest??™secret outlet is still lacking of identity and character.

e) Human Capital
Forest??™secret has limited resources, thus not able to fully serve the brand. Staff are micromanaged and overstretched to deliver well. Staff also lack of focus training and work values.

f) Market Intelligence
Forest??™secret is lack of business research and development (R&D) and market intelligence for better understanding the market and customers.

g) Financing
Forest??™secret has no sufficient start up funds and financing. Forest??™secret poor sales performance has threatened cash position. Limited budget for long term investment will quickly ???kill??™ the brand growth.

h) Product Offerings
Forest??™secret has a limited product, and yet to have the ???killer??™ or best-selling products.

i) System and Operations
Forest??™secret is a new business, thus no proven or steady system. It is based on trial and error. Also has limited system operations procedure and manual.


a) Government Policies
Forest??™secret follows the Government efforts to establish the Herbal Hub and Halal Hub.

b) Financing Options
Forest??™secret is a national project. Thus the financing and grants are available by various Ministries and agencies. Forest??™secret is also backed by the Government.

c) Market Trend
It is now a market trend both local and global to increase awareness and conscious on beauty and health. The national C&T market is growing at least 10% annually.

d) Marketing Agents for SMEs
Forest??™secret is established with the objective to serve as a platform for SMEs to market their products local and abroad. Forest??™secret has the pool of local herbal manufacturers to supply the best R&D herbal products. Forest??™secret is the leading supporter of the local community trade.

e) Untapped Market for the Brand
Forest??™secret has much to offer to the market. With its unique philosophy and core business of herbal based, halal and green business, Forest??™secret will penetrate the untapped market and increasing demand of those products.

f) Infancy stage for the Brand
As a new comer with a new set up, Forest??™secret has a flexibility to venture into various related investment in herbal based business. These include the brand vertical integration of Forest??™secret spa, beauty centre, cafe, apparels, and many more.


a) Competition
There are a growing number of players in herbal-based beauty and wellness industry that offer lower price in the local market.

b) Dependent on Government Grants
As Forest??™secret depends on the Government support to fund the business??™ initial stage for development, this might threaten Forest??™secret cash flow as the grants will depends very much on the Government policies.

c) Imitation of Product
There are no agencies and companies in Malaysia that specialize solely in marketing premium herbal products thus far. However, other ???big boys??™ may follow Forest??™secret??™s lead in the future.

1. Economic Slowdown
The strong domestic economy has been good for the C&T industry. Continued growth is anticipated. However, unforeseen or unanticipated economic recession would reduce disposable income and threaten Forest??™secret sales.

2. Changes in Government Policies
As Forest??™secret business are governed by various acts and regulations such as by Ministry of Health and Ministry of Domestic Trade, Cooperative and Consumerism, there might be policies changes especially in product application and approval from time to time.

3. Inconsistent Commitment
Forest??™secret is currently managed by a government agency. Inconsistency commitment may occur when the management changes, unlike the entrepreneur-led business.


a. Since its operation in 2007, Forest??™secret??™s achievement and status are summarized as below:


Product Development
??? From 68 to 244 products
??? From 3 to 4 product ranges
??? Spa services – in progress (Forest??™secret Spa & Wellness)

Brand Development

??? New herbal brand + concept store with modern concept and international outlook
??? Brand Mission, Essence, Values, Attributes, Promise

Marketing Channel Development
??? Corporate Outlet: 5 outlets
??? Franchisee Outlet: 4 outlet
??? Dealership Programme – Single Level Direct Selling (April 2009) : 30 Master Dealers + 1,440 Dealers
??? Corporate Accounts: 2 hotels & spas
??? In progress of identifying of potential locations at international markets

Supply Chain Development
??? From 8 to 22 Bumiputera herbal manfacturers
??? From 3 to 15 Bumiputera service providers

Franchise Development
??? Herbal Academy Malaysia – a training centre to all staff, franchisees and dealers
??? Forest??™secret Spa & Wellness – in progress


a. FS to constantly apply the Blue Ocean Strategy to stop trying to beat the competition but to:
a. create uncontested market space;
b. make the competition irrelevant;
c. create and capture new demand;
d. break the value-cost trade-off; and
e. align the whole system of the company??™s activities in pursuit of differentiation and value-for-money

b. The Blue Ocean Strategy is to create a new standard in the market where only Forest??™secret products and services can live up to. Forest??™secret needs to create a new market and stand above our competitors. It is the ???consumer age???, and Forest??™secret to effectively apply its marketing and communication strategy.

c. Marketing will play a crucial role in the success of Forest??™secret. Emphasis will be given to building the right brand positioning, creating the brand awareness, attracting potential customers, keeping customers and building brand loyalty. Innovation and ability to adapt to changing circumstances are also critical to Forest??™secret.

d. Forest??™secret marketing challenge is to position the brand, product and service offerings as the high-quality, high value-add alternative to box pushing in a vacuum.

e. Forest??™secret to change its focus to differentiate itself from box pushers and improve the business by filling the real need of mid-end target customers for innovative and reliable herbal products including body and skincare, aromatherapy and spa, health food and drinks, colour cosmetics, perfumery and fragrances and all wellness and beauty related services.

f. The Forest??™secret keys to success are:

a. Uncompromising Commitment to the Quality Products & Services
Value innovation, great choice of product variance, educative and beneficial herbal consultations, quality of end result.

b. Successful Niche Marketing
Focus on the quality-conscious customer in the right and multiple marketing channels: retail (licensing), dealership (single-level direct selling), corporate sales, and international business.

c. Unique Brand Positioning
Forest??™secret to effectively communicate its unique selling proposition by using the approach of entrepreneurial marketing – to lead the customers and makes them feel in need and better about the products. Forest??™secret have to be sufficiently strong to win customers and defeat competitors.


i. Forest??™secret targets Middle to High End market. The demographics and psychographics of the target market are as follows:

Primary Women
??? 25-45 year olds
??? Urban
??? Income group of RM40K and above
??? Professional, Managers, Executive, Businessmen ??? Lead a Modern Contemporary Lifestyle
??? Health Conscious
??? Beauty Conscious
??? Thinks Green/Buys Green
Secondary Women
??? 15-25 year olds
??? Teenagers/Students
??? Urban Residents

??? 25-50 year olds
??? Professional, Managers, Executive, Businessmen ??? Lead a Modern Contemporary Lifestyle
??? Health Conscious
??? Beauty Conscious
??? Thinks Green/Buys Green

ii. Forest??™secret positions itself above Avon and slightly lower than BodyShop in terms of pricing strategy.


i. Forest??™secret has categorized its marketing place into 4 distribution channels:
A. Retail (Licensing)
B. Dealership (Single-Level Direct Selling)
C. Corporate Business
D. International Business

A. Retail (Licensing)

a. Corporate Outlets (refer Assumptions on FSSB Cash Flow Statement FY 2009)
??? 5 existing shops : Curve, Central Market, Tesco Ampang, Tesco Melaka, Plaza Angsana Johor Bahru (closed One Utama, sold Sunway Pyramid, converted Jonker Street to Master Dealer)
??? 3 new outlets proposed : 1 shop + 2 kiosks
??? The 6th outlet (kiosk) : Wangsa Walk (12 Sept 2009)
??? The 7th outlet (shop) : target to be opened in Nov 2009
??? The 8th outlet (kiosk) : target to be opened in Dec 2009

b. The potential local market places are identified as follows: Bukit Raja Klang, The Ampang, 1 Shamelin, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Suria KLCC Phase 2, Putrajaya, Higher Education Institutions : UUM, USIM, UiTM, IIUM

c. Forest??™secret targets the Corporate Outlets to contribute about 59% of the revenue, by using the Dealership Programme as its marketing channel and recruitment centre. The Dealership Programme has been kicked off in May 2009.

d. Licensee Outlets (refer Assumptions on FSSB Cash Flow Statement FY2009). Forest??™secret targets to have at least 6 licensee outlets that will also act as the ???recruitment centre??? for Dealership Programme as follows:
??? 1shop
??? 5 kiosks

e. 4 licensees have been secured todate : Kuala Terengganu; Kota Kinabalu International Airport ??“ Terminal 1 and LCCT; and Sunway Pyramid.

f. Potential locations: Penang, Miri, Ipoh, Alor Setar, Kota Bharu, Kuantan, Kemaman, Johor Bahru.

g. Forest??™secret targets Licensee will contribute about 13% of the Forest??™secret revenue.

B. Dealership (Single-Level Direct Selling)

a. Forest??™secret perceives the Dealership Programme as an active channel to reach the sub-urban, rural and targeted area such as universities and colleges, and to rapidly create brand presence and awareness.

b. Women of young adults such as single mothers, students or even working women are among the potential Forest??™secret Master Dealer and Dealer.

c. Forest??™secret targets to have at least 50 Master Dealers, and 1,000 active Dealers by end of 2009, which estimation of 59% contribution to the Forest??™secret revenue. The Dealership Programme has started the recruitment in May 2009.

C. Corporate Business

a. Forest??™secret to actively enter the corporate business to supply amenities and salon packs for hotels, resorts, spas, salons, flights, and other related corporate business, as well as corporate gift sets.

b. FS is currently supplies to Ancasa Hotels & Resorts Kuala Lumpur Port and Dickson. Other potentials are MAS, government-owned hotels and resorts, government-owned beauty institutions/centres.

c. Forest??™secret targets Corporate Sales to contribute about 28% of the revenue.
D. International Business

a. Forest??™secret to thoroughly study the market acceptance on the products and brand. R&D and business networking to be aggressively conducted prior to market entry and to have a good brand strategy to enter the selected market.

b. Forest??™secret to get the right local partner to market and distribute the products. Among potential markets are Middle East (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Kuwait, Qatar), and Far East (Hong Kong, Beijing, China mainland). These are among the countries that are looking for halal products and based on their Muslim population.

c. Forest??™secret targets to selectively conduct the market development, and to kick off the business by year end 2010. However, Forest??™secret opens its distributorship to international market.


i. Forest??™secret will have a tremendous breath and depth in product in line with its vision to become the herbal hub as well as to actively support the community trade (SME herbal manufacturers). To date, Forest??™secret has 190 SKUs on shelf and 54 for salon pack, totaling 244.

ii. Forest??™secret product strategy will include new products, new product line extensions, product improvement, improve weaker product lines or even product elimination. This product strategy will be complemented by naming strategy and packaging strategy.

iii. Forest??™secret to collaborate with research institutes such as MARDI, SIRIM, FRIM, TPM, MBC, MHC or even universities such as UPM, UM, UTM for product development (R&D) to achieve the gold standard in product technology and formulation.

iv. The Forest??™secret product line comprises of 5 categories as below.
1. Forest Care – Body & Skin Care
2. Forest Spa – Aromatherapy & Spa
3. Forest Food – Health Food & Drinks
4. Forest Colour – Colour Cosmetics (newly introduced Mid Dec 2008)
5. Forest Fresh – Perfumery and Fragrances (end 2009)
v. Forest??™secret targets to introduce another 100 SKUs by end of 2009. Priority on local condition and skincare, multifunctional products, product for man, skin whitening product, sliming product and natural products. Refer paper on Forest??™secret product development.


i. Since Forest??™secret is still a new brand in the market, Forest??™secret sets a lower price compared to its competitor of mid-high end market, by applying the ???penetration price strategy???. That yields a low unit margin but creates a high incentive for the target market to purchase and allows Forest??™secret to penetrate the market quickly.

ii. Looking at the market scenario in 2009, it is important for Forest??™secret to consider the perceived value, incentive to buy and cost price. As the larger the incentive, the more likely the customer to buy especially for a new brand with no credibility, testimonial yet.

iii. Forest??™secret remains its margin between 20% – 90%, or above:

??? Body & Skin care : 50% – 90%
??? Aromatherapy & Spa : 60% – 90%
??? Health Food & Drinks : 20% – 80%
??? Colour Cosmetics : 80% and above

Forest??™secret is revisiting its pricing as to standardize the margin, in line with the re-packaging exercise to follow suit the brand identity.


i. It is important for a new brand like Forest??™secret to create brand awareness and establish its presence. A good branding strategy is deemed crucial for Forest??™secret positioning for effective marketing and communication.

ii. Forest??™secret targets to implement the marketing and communication as follows:

1. Advertising : to create awareness + post-purchase
2. PR, CSR + Publicity : to create awareness + post-purchase
3. Sales Promotion (LSM) : to create conviction + purchase
4. Personal Selling (CS + LSM) : to create conviction + purchase
5. Internet Marketing : to create awareness + conviction + post-purchase

iii. Forest??™secret plans to aggressively kick-off the advertising and marketing in the media starting from September 2009 onwards with the objective to create more impact and consistently generate brand awareness and finally brand conviction as below. As at July, Forest??™secret has invested a total of RM892,763 in advertising, marketing and promotion activities.

– TV3 RM75,000 per month RM225,000
– Hot FM RM50,000 per month RM150,000
– Berita Harian, Metro
– Utusan Malaysia, Kosmo RM150,000 per month RM450,000
– BM (Adult ie Wanita, Nona)
– BM (Teen ie Glam, Eh!)
– ENG (Adult ie Cosmopolitan)
– CHINESE (Adult) RM25,000 X 4 magazines RM100,00
Marketing Event
– Launch of Contest
– Launch of New Product:
Men Series & Fragrances
RM100,000 X 3 events RM300,000
TOTAL RM1,225,000



Allocation for capital expenditure includes office furniture and office equipment for new HQ staff and new outlet renovation.

CAPEX Budget 2009
Store Capex 360,000

Head Office Capex
– Office Furniture 13 pax 65,000
– Office Equipment 13 pax 65,000
– POS System 100,000



Details allocation for Development Cost as below:

Product, Brand and Market Development

– New Products & Packaging : 100 SKUs 500,000

– R&D, Quality Control, Halal, BPFK 120,000

– International Market Development 75,000

– Brand Development : Audit, Platform, Identity



Details for operation expenditure as below:

– Marketing, Event, A&P 2,117,763

– Roadshow, Exhibition 574,091

– Sponsorship, PR, CSR, Charity,Publication 161,516

– Dealership Campaign, Incentives, Kit 374,360

– Dealership Commission (20%-30%) 233,238

– Selling, Distribution & Purchases 1,940,278

– General Administration 1,823,457

– Staff Cost



The turnover based on FSSB operating 8 outlets, 50 Master Dealers, 1,000 active Dealers, Corporate Sales, 8 Licensee Outlets sales is as follows:

– Retail/Dealership Sales ??“ Corporate Outlets 1,021,609
– Master Dealer Sales 260,163
– Corporate Sales 621,529
– Licensee Sales (Replenishment) 117,000



Details for allocation for Non Operating Income as below:

Other Income – Royalty 19,500

Other Income – Fee 150,000

TOTAL 169,500

In 2008, FSSB recorded a revenue amounting to RM540,458, a 141.5% increase in comparison to RM223,760 in 2007. For FY2009, FSSB targets to generate a revenue totaling RM2,189,801 an increase of about 245%. FSSB targets to break even by end of 2011 (see attached Projected Cash Flow Statement Year 2010 and 2011).


a. We seek the Board??™s direction and approval on the following:

i. To proceed with Forest??™secret Plan and Strategies based on the 5 Strategic Thrusts:
1. Development of Products
2. Development of Brand
3. Development of Market
4. Development of Supply Chain
5. Development of Franchise

ii. To approve the budget for FY2009 for Operating Cost RM8,547,888; Developmental Cost RM895,000; and Capex Cost RM590,000 to generate a revenue of RM2,189,801.

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Carbon Tax Impact

Category : Articles

A carbon tax would involve the government identifying which sources of carbon pollution will be included and who would be liable to pay tax on that carbon pollution. For example, a coal mines, mining industries, burning coal, vehicle industries, Transportation. The government of Australia has introduced the ???carbon tax??? on carbon producing sector from July 2012 to minimize carbon emissions in three to five years time from its introduction (Gillard, 2010). The government has also planned to reduce carbon emissions to 5% by 2020 as the voluntary target in the absence of a coherent international agreement on the level of carbon emission reduction. This cost will initially be set at $23 per tonne of Co2 equivalent, and increase gradually until 2015. However, the government will shift to a trading scheme that will let the market set the cost. This is widely thought of as the most effective and least costly mechanism to reduce carbon output and reduce the level of climate change. Though, the policy to cut emissions is regressive and the tax burden will be unequally distributed among different household groups with low-income households carrying a relatively higher burden.
If Australia does not make a global effort to fight climate change, there are significant risks to the Australian economy if not take steps towards pricing carbon (Birmingham, 2013). For example, the risks facing by Qantas, who paid carbon tax penalty of 15% on its carbon emissions for any flights it makes into or out of Europe. The reason for its imposition is specifically because Australia does not have carbon price in place.
There are further economic reasons behind acting to implement a price on carbon, aside from the risk of foreign sanctions. The fact is that renewable energy technology will be the next huge growth industry. The Chinese have been quick to recognise this and have the highest level of investment in this sector, accounting for almost 25% of worldwide investment in renewable last year for a total of $50 billion USD ( If Australia does not incentivise investment in the sector, Australia would simply be left behind. Therefore Australia has introduced a new energy sources which is called clean energy future. The minister of climate change and energy efficiency stated that, there are four component of clean energy future. Firstly, establishment of carbon price on carbon tax, secondly supports for renewable energy, thirdly to support improvements of energy efficiency and last one is storing carbon through changed land use practices. A price on carbon is the most environmentally effective and economically efficient way to reduce pollution. This means our economy can continue to prosper without our pollution continuing to grow.
Effect and impact of carbon tax in Australia:
The carbon tax induces production changes throughout the economy and all employment groups are bearing burden with negative effects. There are not only positive or benefit of this policy there are lot of negative aspects after the carbon tax implemented in Australian especially for big and medium industries as well as households. There are so many example of recently affected from the carbon tax. For instant, over the last 12 months, 10,632 Australian companies have gone belly up, a number that is ???more than 12 % higher than during the global financial crisis,??? (The New American News Reports). The tax has already hiked the cost of electricity to the average family by 10 percent. For businesses, which use much more energy, it??™s even worse.

Grant King, head of Origin Energy said that ???up to 30 % of small and medium sized enterprises would affect from the electricity bills goes up from carbon pricing and other green schemes???. The treasurer for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Mike Baird, told to News Limited that ???there is no doubt the carbon tax is driving higher electricity prices for businesses across the state???. NSW Treasury analysis for this financial year shows that NSW electricity customers including small businesses and households will be hit with a bill worth an estimated $580 million due to higher power prices as a direct result of this disastrous tax.
Furthermore, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry chief economist Greg Evans blamed ???intentional policy actions of government designed to increase the cost of doing business for the rash of insolvencies and rapidly rising energy prices caused by the carbon tax and other green programs are taking their toll on many Australian businesses???. He also added to News Limited. ???In energy-reliant industries it is already showing up in job losses, deferred investment and in the worst cases, business closure and it will lower our standard of living and be harmful to national productivity
Grain Products Australia (GPA), for example, was liquidated last year after being socked with additional costs of $500,000 a year owing to the carbon tax and other environmental levies. About half of the company??™s 68 employees will lose their jobs as a result. The firm??™s former managing director, Rob Lowndes, told News Limited that the carbon tax was not the ???primary factor??? in GPA??™s insolvency, but it was ??????certainly an added cost??™ which was making it hard for manufacturing in Australia???.
Manufacturing isn??™t the only sector that??™s suffering because of the tax; tourism is also taking a huge hit. Peter Macks, head of Macks Advisory, a consulting firm for insolvent companies, told News Limited that ???the carbon tax was ???quite debilitating??™ for a number of hotel operators who he said had been ???struggling for a long time. It is very tough operating at a profit,??? he added.

A study commissioned by Tourism Accommodation Australia found that the carbon tax will pile an additional $115 million a year onto the operating costs of hotels and motels, reducing their profits by 12 percent. The carbon tax is also discouraging foreign investment, Campbell Jaski, a partner at PPB Advisory, another insolvency consulting firm, told to the News.

Benefits of carbon tax:
Problems of Carbon tax:
Production may shift to countries with no or lower carbon taxes (so called pollution havens). The cost of administrating the tax may be quite expensive reducing its efficiency. It is difficult to know the level of external cost and how much the tax should be. There will be possibility of tax avoidance. Higher taxes may encourage firms to hide carbon emissions. In the short term, firms may not feel they have many alternatives. Though other time, demand will become more elastic as more alternatives are generated.

Consumers dislike new taxes and often don??™t believe that they will be revenue neutral, this is not an economic argument, but it is a political reality and explains why it is often difficult to implement. A global carbon tax may curtail economic activity in the poor developing world because they can??™t afford the small increase in energy costs, but the developed world may simply be able to pay there may be need for a carbon tax to reflect different abilities to pay.

Corporate example of affected industries in Australia:
One of the Australian leading world famous aluminium industries QUEENSLAND Alumina Ltd (QAL) has shed 200 jobs since the introduction of the carbon tax. The chief executive of Rusal group Mr. Oleg Deripaska said to The Australian news that the carbon tax would have a significant long term impact on operations at QAL, based in Gladstone.? The Rusal owns a 20% stake in QAL. He added, as a consequence of rising costs, including energy and a carbon tax of about $23 million a year and rising, coupled with a renewable energy charge.
Federal Member for Flynn Ken ODowd highlighted the comments as evidence the carbon tax was threatening the viability of one of Gladstones core industrial facilities. He added that the carbon tax has had, and will continue to have, a negative impact on our aluminium industry here in Gladstone, and these comments are simply more proof of that.
QAL is a facility that operates to a greater level of efficiency than many of its rivals all over the world. Despite that, the company is being punished, whilst the Gillard Government has rewarded other, less efficient facilities in the south with bailouts. As the construction phase of the LNG projects will wind down in the coming years and will rely very heavily on new and traditional core industries, including QAL, to maintain growth and prosperity in the wider Gladstone region. Mr? Deripaska said there had been a big decline in Australias competitive position since Rusal purchased 20% of QAL in 2005.
Further he added that the key issues have been the large increase in the exchange rate and the continuing erosion of Australias competitive advantages. The mining boom has pushed up the exchange rate and tightened the market for the skills necessary to maintain value-adding industries in regional Australia. The independent obligation of the carbon tax directly harms the manufacturing and processing industries in Australia. He also said the rapid expansion of the onshore liquefied natural gas industry had also been poorly managed. The price and availability of gas to domestic consumers and industry has been impacted because the owners of the LNG plants presently have an insufficient level of gas to meet the rate of exports approved by the government. His main concern about the carbon tax was that it was designed to shift facilities such as QAL to a higher-cost energy source such as gas, where there was no long-term certainty on supply. This could lead to local processing and jobs moving overseas.
The Rusals targets are going to increase the efficiency of operations and move further down the cost curve through replacing outdated capacities with new low-cost ones. As he mentioned the company could move overseas, their plan to reduce output by 300,000 tonnes of aluminium and keep it at this level for about three years and at the same time, they will also launch the first phase of energy efficient and economically efficient, Boguchansky smelter in Eastern Siberia.

Conclusion and recommendation
The Government of Australia required to be well informed about the possible effects of environmental policies such as carbon tax, which will have far reaching implications. In Australia through a carbon tax is achievable without major disruptions to the Australian economy. In particular, the government??™s target of reducing Australia??™s emissions to 5 % below 2000 levels by 2020 seems reasonable with a $23 tax with minimum adjustments.
The tax would result in an inflationary effect to the consumer prices. The research shows that the 26% increase in the price of electricity. This is not surprising as Australia??™s electricity generation is heavily dependent on carbon intensive black and brown coal, which attracts a large amount of carbon tax burden. Electricity generating sectors will be negatively affected, especially those which are heavy fossil fuel users. Due to substantial emissions by black and brown coal generators, these two sources of electricity will become fairly expensive with a carbon tax in place and will face a significant decrease in demand.
The Australian government should not subsidise its industries. However, it should support efforts to improve its competitive position. The government should encourage initiatives that improve national productivity such as more flexible labour laws and sound investments in infrastructure and training, while removing artificial energy costs such as the carbon tax, levies on renewable and red tape, which limits coal and gas developments. Without these changes Australia risks the type of processing that is conducted at QAL being forced offshore. This will result in an increased risk of losing a key competence of Australias technically sophisticated minerals processing industry.
It is my personal opinion that Australian government should aware and conduct the rule strictly for global warming and carbon emission. However, the government also need to think long term alternative sources in international competitive price to support and survive to the industries, which plays the significant role for Australian economy and international business.

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Forest Gump

Category : Articles

Forest Gump ???Run Forest, Run???!
By Ryan Mulawka
Eng. 225
Dr. Dwight Paulson
September 25, 2011

This paper is about a boy that would just not quit and that would be the movie Forest Gump and I will explain the very well established scene which many people know of till this day and I will show the insight of one of the most popular scenes from this highly acclaimed film, which is none other than the legendary Forrest Gump. This film is one that is joked about and will go down in history as one of the most memorable films of all time. This particular special scene that made the movie so powerful was named, ???Run, Forrest, Run!??? and many people have heard this quote, if not at a football game then maybe as a joke when someone is running from something like a bee. Sorry, this was a past experience of mine. This particular scene had a plot consisting of the two main characters Forrest & Jenny just meeting and soon after becoming friends that would hold a bond throughout life. At this time forest had just began schooling and had a pair of braces supporting his legs so he could walk. This was something that held him back from his true potential. At the end of this powerful scene he and jenny were being chased by some boys, which led to the backstory into his later life. When forest was being chased by these boys, this was when he gained the courage to do the impossible, he ran with the braces on, kind of wobbling, intill Forest ran so fast his braces came unattached and fell to the ground. This was when Jenny said the most famous quote of movie history, ???Run Forest, Run???. Those words gave Forest the power to overcome all odds and do the one thing that he couldn??™t do, which was run. Jenny gave him the strength. Every single element of the scene laid the foundation perfectly for the rest of the plot that came to follow.
The setting was back in the younger days of Forest??™s life, which was in the early 1950??™s, the setting sets the foundation for this boy??™s overall life because it shows how these old fashioned braces were holding him back, and if you pay close attention you can see the old style bikes that the boys were riding to chase him down. Everything from the hair styles all the way to the way that they talked, were all symbols of the early 50??™s. The clothes were also a special addition to the setting, the director and crew really had a keen eye for detail when it came to making a setting of the early 1950??™s. They had old cars, older style buildings, it really showed what Forest was raised around during his younger life. There was also a part where Forest ran past some convicts on the side of the road where they were doing old style punishment, ???breaking rocks???; this also helped to set the setting for the story. The overall setting sets the mood for the rest of the story because it shows what forest overcame to become what he was when he was an older man. The setting of the scene helps you understand the characters because it shows where they came from and what they overcame; this was the main part of the movie, where Forest gained the power to just fight back and run untill his legs couldn??™t move anymore, which was not likely to happen, if you happened to watch the full movie.
The costumes that were used in this scene were from the early days along with the hair style, the girl had a real girlish look while Forest had that clean cut hair style, this helped set some of the setting for the rest of the plot mainly because it showed that he wasn??™t dressed as some tough guy, or a preppy boy for that matter, he was dressed as if he just wanted to be a boy and enjoy life and well as his friend Jenny which had a real girlish dress on that just screamed baby doll at you. The story further down the road showed that Forest never changed; he was still that country boy that just loved to live life. The hair style can help tell this story because it shows what kind of people these two children were, they were clean and harmless, as were their hairdos. I think the hair is what explains a person, their hair helps signify what they are and how they think, someone with glamour hair, usually acts like a beauty queen as does a military haircut signifies a man of honor and courage. Hair can tell a lot about a person, or character for that matter.
Lighting played a big role in this scene, it helped put emphasize on the main characters and also the main objects that needed to have significance for the scene. When Forest took off running down the road, the light turned to his braces which began to crumble off of his legs, the light reflects off of each metal piece that hit the ground, this helped put great significance on this great feat that just took place before everyone??™s eyes. Another part that used lighting for their advantage was the time where the boys couldn??™t catch Forest running so they stopped, and the light lit Forest??™s smoke trail from him running so swiftly. The crew really knew how to put great emphasize on things using lighting to their advantage, one more part from the scene that used light for their advantage was when Jenny said the quote ???Run Forest, Run???!, the light lit her face up when those words came out of her mouth.
The two main actors in this particular scene went by the names of Michael Conner Humphreys, he played as the younger Forrest Gump and his costar was Hanna Hall, who played younger Jenny Curran. I think that they did a wonderful job of playing their roles to the furthest of their potential; they really brought the light to the show that laid the parameters of the rest of the plot. The director of the film was Robert Zemeckis. This man won many awards for this movie, and he will be remembered as a great director from this great feat that he showed to the world. Don Burgees was the Photography director, which consisted of taking the best shots possible of the scene which was not only limited to lighting but also the location of the shots. Leslie McDonald was the art director and was in charge of making sure costumes and everything fit just right into the setting that they were trying to portray in the plot. (Palmer,2009)
This scene uses mise-en-scene in so many ways; it has put many factors all into one. One of the first examples would have to be, the two main actors who portrayed two younger characters which fit this particular scene just right which embedded nicely into the main plot, mainly because it was at the main character??™s time of youth. One more point that I would like to share would be how important the fact that the director went above and beyond to add the special effects to add an over whelming amount of emotion into this whole scene, most significantly the main point of the movie itself, the triumph. I think something else that came to interest was how the scene??™s initial mood was very relaxed which came into came to the interest of the total mood change at the end of scene, this was great because the two main characters were just enjoying one another??™s company, which led to the friendship and also them just having a good time. Then the mood changes to a victory type mood, because Forrest overcame the braces that were holding him back from having fun and playing outside like regular kids. This is what put such emphasize on the main plot. He showed courage and determination that many kids his age could never imagine showing. Ultimately I think the director and his crew went above and beyond their wildest dreams on this movie and the scene itself. I think he was pleased with the end result mainly because of the attention that his and his crew??™s efforts brought to the scene itself. I don??™t think he could of ever imagined this scene getting this much attention. It just comes to show you that, when efforts are put into something, there can always be a great type of satisfaction to follow in its wake.

Goodykoontz, B., & Jacobs, C. P. (2011). Film: From Watching to Seeing. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Movie Clip (Run forest, run) (Retrieved September 20, 2011)
Palmer, William J. (2009). “The New Historicist Films”. The Films of the Nineties: The Decade of Spin. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 26??“31

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Carbon Footprint

Category : Articles


Carbon Footprint

March 31, 2013

Whether we realize it or not, we all personally affect the environments that we live in. Things we do that can affect our environment range from the amount of energy we use in our homes, to what we drive and even what we eat. Everyone must be mindful of this ???carbon footprint??? that we are all leaving on our Earth. Working to reduce our personal footprints can greatly affect the world around us.
A carbon footprint is ???the amount of carbon dioxide or other carbon compounds emitted into the atmosphere by the activities of an individual, company or country??? ( Typically a carbon footprint is measured over a specific amount of time such as one year. There are so many things that we all do on a daily basis that have an effect on our environment. For example, the energy we use in our homes. How many lights and electronic devices we have plugged in and running at once, our home thermostat and our laundry habits create our carbon footprints.
Outside our homes, the way we travel is related to our carbon footprints also. The number can vary for you depending on how you use transportation. For example, do you drive a car that consumes a large amount of fuel or do you use public transportation Shopping is also a factor. What we buy and who we buy it from are also factors used in your carbon footprint. For example, do you drive to a grocery store daily for produce, or do you buy local, or even grow your own
There are many easy fixes we can incorporate into our lives to help reduce our personal carbon footprints and in turn help the environment. First, let??™s look at our homes. Some things we can easily to include turning off lights when we don??™t need them, turn off the computer or DVD player when these things are not in use. Watch the thermostat in your home also. Try reducing the temperature by as little as one degree and you can see a big difference in your heating bill by about 8% (Carbon Footprint, n.d.). We can travel less, for example, planning all shopping trips in one day. We can carpool to work instead of being single drivers also.
Carbon footprints should be taken seriously by everyone. We must remember that we all effect our environment which in turn affects everyone. By making simple changes to our routines we can help to reduce our carbon footprints. It??™s not only our world, but everyone??™s world and the responsibility falls on each and every one of us to keep our planet healthy.

Carbon Footprint (n.d.) Carbon footprint reduction. Retrieved March 31, 2013 from: (n.d.) Carbon footprint. Retrieved March 31, 2013 from:

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Category : Articles

What are carbohydrates
Our bodies use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Most carbohydrates come from plant sources. Your body either uses the carbohydrates right away, or converts it to fat to use later. There are three different types of carbohydrates-sugars and starches which we can digest and fiber which we don??™t digest.
Chemical Structure and Composition
All carbohydrates are made up of the same basic components, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The dietary carbohydrates are found in three main types monosaccharide??™s, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
The simplest form of carbohydrate, otherwise known as a monosaccharide, is made up of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogens and six oxygens. The three monosaccharides important in nutrition all have the same numbers and kinds of atoms, but in different arrangements.
Glucose is commonly known as blood sugar and serves as an essential energy source for all the body??™s activities.
* Essentially the base of every other kind of carbohydrate.
Fructose is the sweetest of the sugars and occurs naturally in fruit and honey. It is also used commercially in soft drinks, breakfast cereals and desserts.
Galactose rarely occurs naturally as a single sugar and has the same number and kinds of atoms as glucose and fructose, but in a different arrangement.
Disaccharides are pairs of the three monosaccharides listed above. Glucose occurs in all three and the second member of the pair is either fructose, galactose or an additional glucose.
Maltose consists of two glucose atoms. Maltose is produced whenever starch breaks down. Maltose is only a minor component of a few foods and is most notably found in barley.
Sucrose is made up of fructose and glucose. Due to the fructose sucrose tastes sweet. When refined from the juices of sugarcane and sugar beets and after being granulated, sucrose forms table sugar.
Lactose is the combination of glucose and galactose and is the principal carbohydrate of milk. It is also known as milk sugar and, depending on the milk??™s fat content, can contribute 30 to 50 percent of milk??™s energy.
Here are two examples of two simple sugars in their basic form. Fructose being a monosaccharide and sucrose a disaccharide. While they look the same and have the same number of calories, a simple change to their genetic makeup has made fructose noticeably sweeter.

Complex carbohydrates contain many glucose units and, in some cases, a few other monosaccharides strung together to form polysaccharides. Three types of polysaccharides are important in nutrition: glycogen, starches and fibers.
Glycogen molecules contain hundreds of glucose in long, highly branched chains. It is found in small amounts in meat and not found at all in plants. The main important role the glycogen plays is how the human body stores much of its glucose as glycogen. It is stored in muscles and liver.
Starch molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains or unbranched chains. In our bodies glucose is stored as glycogen, while plants store it as starch.
Fibers are another type of polysaccharide but they differ from starches because they cannot be digested by our digestive system.
Glucose is the carbohydrate molecule that is used to fuel the body cells. Digestion of disaccharides and polysaccharides can also yield fructose and galactose but these monosaccharides are converted to glucose by the liver before they can be used. Once in the blood, the monosaccharides are either used for energy, stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, or if there is an excess of energy it is converted to fat. Even though fiber isn??™t used as fuel it still plays an important role in assisting digestion.
The body is able to make glucose from extra dietary protein and fats you may eat, but it is recommended that half of your daily calories come from carbohydrates. The body needs a certain amount of carbohydrates in order to properly function. Without carbohydrates the body may experience fatigue, muscle cramps and poor mental function.
Carbohydrates have other uses including:
The body stores glycogen in the muscles and the liver and uses it later for muscle developement.
Store energy in the form of starch (photosynthesis in plants) or glycogen (in animals and humans).
Provide energy through metabolism pathways and cycles.
Supply carbon for synthesis of other compounds.
Form structural components in cells and tissues.

Interrelationships with other nutrients
In nature, carbohydrates don??™t exist in isolation. They are usually found in a form that is a combination of all the macronutrients, including protein and fat and often contain vitamins and minerals as well. For example a banana contains one percent fat, ninety one percent carbohydrate, eight percent protein as well as calcium and potassium. It??™s also a good source of dietary fiber.
Whereas sugar is one hundred percent carbohydrate. This is why it is a far more preferable for us to obtain carbohydrates from a natural sources rather than concentrated manufactured sources. Also, carbohydrates found in fruits and vegetables are complex carbohydrates, meaning they take longer to digest and keep us feeling full for longer.
Food sources
Food sources of complex carbohydrates are more natural sources like milk, fruits and vegetables and a very small amount in meat. Sugars come from fruits, sugar cane, sugar beets, honey and milk. The polysaccharide starch is found in grains, legumes and root vegetables. More processed carbohydrates are found in manufactured foods such as carbonated drinks, lollies, ice-cream, pudding, pastries, pasta and bread.
Recommended daily allowance
The recommended daily intake of carbohydrates is 125-175g or 55-60% of the total caloric intake of one day. Carbohydrates are a vital source of fuel for the bodies of every human being. Carbohydrates can be of particular importance to athletes as they are regularly pushing their bodies to perform and using up energy. Carb loading is a change to training and nutrition designed to maximize the amount of muscle glycogen stores prior to endurance competition.
Diabetics must be more aware of the types of carbohydrates they consume. Simple sugars or refined grains can cause their blood sugar to rise rapidly. Natural sources of carbohydrate such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains are slower to break down and less likely to cause problems.
Current thinking on the role that this nutrient plays in a healthy lifestyle and diet.
The Australian guide of healthy eating promotes the consumption of plenty of carbohydrates. Vegetables and legumes, fruits and bread, cereals, rice, pasta and noodles make up about two thirds of what is believed to be the healthy daily intake of food and all of these foods are a good source of both complex and simple carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are essential to a functional, healthy body and without them people wouldn??™t have the energy to exercise and keep themselves healthy. They are the fuel that keeps the body going and without carbohydrates we wouldn??™t have the ability to perform even the simplest of day to day tasks.

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Forest for Green Growth

Category : Articles



EMAIL: [email protected]


A forest is the combination of trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area. They are These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earths surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area). Although a forest is classified primarily by trees, a forest ecosystem includes other organisms such as fungi.

Forest for People:

The history of mankind is twisted together with forests and trees.
Forest are important for the goods and services they give, which we all depend on. Ideas to enhance the forest

Facts on Forests:

It is estimated that over 1.6 billion people worldwide depend directly on forests for their livelihoods, including for food, clothing, shelter and traditional medicine.
Forest industries employ 60 million people worldwide. Approximately 300 Canadian communities rely on forests for at least 50% of their economy.
Forests are an important source of raw materials. The rural poor depend on forest products to meet their basic needs. For instance, almost three billion people worldwide depend on wood for fuel for heating and cooking. Industries use forests to provide both timber and non-timber products. Timber products comprise lumber (used to make construction materials and furniture), pulp and paper, and other wood-based products.
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs), such as berries, medicinal herbs, saps and oils are also an important part of the forestry industry. For instance, natural forest products are the only source of medicine for 75% to 90% of people in developing countries. Edible products, such as berries, nuts, seeds, mushrooms and edible flowers help support many communities??™ diets, while saps are used in a range of products, from maple syrup to rubber.
Trees help to conserve energy by providing shade in the summer. They also serve as a shelter from the wind in the winter.
Tree roots play an important role in holding soil together and preventing it from being eroded (washed away) by wind or rain. In tropical countries, poorly managed forests lead to soil erosion, which accounts for losses of approximately 10% of agricultural gross domestic product each year.
Forests also play an important role in purifying our water. Having well managed forested areas helps reduce storm runoff (water that cannot be absorbed by soil), which helps keep local water bodies clean from pesticides, fertilizers and other pollutants.10 In fact, many protected forest areas are managed specifically with the goal of maintaining their watershed protection.
The fact that forests are so important to our day-to-day lives and to the ongoing functioning of the global ecosystem is reflected in the importance forests and trees hold in virtually all cultures. In many religions, for example, trees are considered sacred or are important parts of local lore and mythology.


Interview 1
Name: Jibrin Lawal
Email: [email protected]
Phone Number: 08131588740

Forest for People:

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Foreshadowing in a Rose for Emily

Category : Articles

Foreshadowing in A Rose for Emily
William Faulkner??™s short story, ???A Rose for Emily??? shows a lot of events that foreshadow the finding of Homer Baron??™s corpse. Emily meets Homer after her father dies and she starts dating him. They had been dating for a while when suddenly he disappears. There are several events that take place which gives the reader clues leading up to his death such as the foul odor coming from Emily??™s mansion and she purchases poison and gives no reason for buying it.
Emily meets Homer and he charms her with his personality. He takes her for drives every Sunday in a yellow buggy. The nosey townspeople are putting together their own interpretation of the two of them by saying that they must be about to get married. When Homer disappears the townspeople speculate that he has abandon Emily. One night an eyewitness says he seen Homer going into Emily??™s house. In the story no one mentions that they seen him leave the house. This is another way that Faulkner gives the reader a clue of his death. Faulkner said just enough for the reader to believe either he abandoned Emily or he died.
Homer disappears from the town for awhile and then returns long after his work there was done. People speculated that he went off to prepare for Emily while she got rid of her arrogant cousins who were visiting her. Once her cousins leave he comes back and is seen entering her house but never leaves. This is foreshadowing because the reader doesn??™t know if he came there that night to tell Emily that he didn??™t want to see her anymore, or if she killed him because she didn??™t want him to ever leave her.
At the beginning of the story the townspeople are complaining about a foul odor that is radiating from Emily??™s house. At the end of the story, the reader finds out that for thirty years Emily has kept Homer??™s body locked away in an upstairs room; and this is the reason that her house was giving off a spoiled smell. The neighbors complain to the judge, but the judge says it??™s probably a dead rat or snake. After the townspeople continue to complain, the judge has lime sprinkled around the house to make the odor go away; but the odor doesn??™t disappear for a couple of weeks.
Emily goes to the drug store to buy Arsenic rat poison. When the druggist asks her what she is purchasing it for she doesn??™t answer him. The townspeople think she is going to use the poison to kill herself. Months later Homer has disappeared and no one knows what happen to him. It isn??™t until the end of the story that the reader finds out why she went out and purchased this poison.
At the end of the story Emily passes away and all of the pieces are put together. The townspeople go to her funeral. After they have attended her funeral they break down the door that has been sealed for thirty years where they find Homer??™s body that has decade and a piece of Emily??™s long grey hair on the pillow next to him. This explains the foul odor that was coming from her house at the beginning of the story. This also gives the reader an idea as to why she purchases the poison. The one thing the reader never knows is why she killed him and kept his body all those years.

Faulkner used foreshadowing throughout the story leading up to Homer??™s death giving the reader clues to interpret what was going to happen at the end. He gave just enough details on each event for the reader to figure out what happened to Homer. However, he never gave the reader full details as to why Emily killed him.

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Carbohydrate Summary

Category : Articles

There are two major types of carbohydrates in foods:
Simple and complex Simple carbohydrates
These are also called simple sugars. Simple sugars are found in refined sugars, like the white sugar youd find in a sugar bowl. If you have a lollipop youre eating simple carbs. But youll also find simple sugars in more nutritious foods, such as fruit and milk. Its better to get your simple sugars from food like fruit and milk because they contain vitamins, fiber, and important nutrients like calcium. A lollipop does not.
Complex carbohydrates
These are also called starches. Starches include grain products, such as bread, crackers, pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined grains such as white flour and white rice have been processed, which removes nutrients and fiber. But unrefined grains still contain these vitamins and minerals.
How the Body Uses Carbohydrates
For a healthy diet eating more complex carbs is better for you.
Carbohydrates are a main source of energy for the body and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chlorophyll in plants absorbs light energy from the sun. This energy is used in the process of photosynthesis, which allows green plants to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and allows for the production of carbohydrates.

Recommendations are for 55 to 60 percent of total calories to come from carbohydrates (approximately 275 to 300 grams for a 2,000-calorie diet). The majority of carbohydrate calories should come from complex rather than simple carbohydrates. Of total caloric intake, approximately 45 to 50 percent of calories should be from complex carbohydrates, and 10 percent or less from simple carbohydrates.