Monthly Archives: February 2017

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Fitness Persuasive Essay

Category : Articles

Fitness, it is something that everyone wants to work on but normally can never spend enough time on. Improving your fitness helps your body in every way. You will have better physical fitness, general health, and lastly and least known your mental health. All of these reasons shows that there really is no downside to improving your fitness. Even though that most people are lazy, fitness is good and should be worked on by everyone, because it helps your body in every way.

One of the good effects from fitness is the obvious, the physical side. With this there is really no downside. Better physical fitness will improve everything in your daily life. With better physical fitness you will get a better posture, better balance, and you are less injury prone. On the flip side, in having better physical fitness you get increased muscular strength and endurance. With improved physical fitness comes a ???better looking body???. Which normally for most people is a good thing, and the main reason they work on their fitness. Depending on the type of fitness you work on depends on the results you get. If you work more on the cardiovascular side you will see less effects on the physical side, and more on the mental/general health than you would if you were to work out. The best results for overall fitness is to balance it out. Working out (strength), cardiovascular, and the most forgotten flexibility. Splitting those within your week you will see great increases in your physical fitness. On top of that with a combination of all of those you will see tons of improvements on your daily life.

Another one of the effects from fitness is better general health. With good fitness, you will have better general health. An increase cardiovascular system is the most obvious advantage to good fitness. A good cardiovascular system will strengthen your heart, and lowers your heart rate. It also decrease chances of various heart diseases, and reduces your chance of strokes and lowers your blood pressure. Having better fitness levels also increases the strength of your immune system. Your fitness also helps control weight, for either gaining weight for people underweight, or more likely weight issue, losing weight by increasing your metabolism. With the boosted metabolism from working on your fitness you will see great improvements on your energy, and your bodies usage of energy. You also will be able to sleep much easier then before. I like to think that the general health is one that people tend to strive for when they work on their fitness, and because of that it is one of the most well know reasons to work on your fitness.

The last and most surprising effect from fitness to most people is the better mental health. From working out/on your fitness, your mental health will improve greatly. Working on your fitness you will see increases in your intellectual levels. Not only does having good fitness increase your thinking levels it also helps with many things like self-esteem, sleep, stress management and relieves depression. If you are very prone to migraines, or other stress related illnesses fitness is a great way to help heal and prevent them. You get a boost of self-esteem not only because you do look better, but because you feel better. Most of the time after working out you feel better about yourself, because you have actually accomplished something that you normally would have wasted watching TV or being on the computer. After a hard and stressful day at work/school, it works wonders for your mind if you go and spend some time working on your fitness. You will notice the difference in little to no time.

Everyone strives to have a better day to day life, and with that comes fitness. For fitness to actually improve your daily life you need to put lots of effort in, it will not come on its own. There is no reason not to work on your fitness, even with as little as two days a week you will have increases in every thing, from better physical fitness, to general health, to mental health. There is no shortages of reasons for you to not work on your fitness, but there is piles of reasons to.

-Payton Macdonald


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Businesslaw Paper 1

Category : Articles

Improving Alumina Inc. 1
RUNNINGHEAD: Improving Environmental Issues with Alumina Inc.
Improving Environmental Issues
University of Phoenix
Improving Alumina Inc. 2
ABSTRACT
When running a business it is important to be aware of anything that can affect the
productivity of the company. It is equally important to understand the regulatory risk that is
specific to Alumina Inc. in order to proceed with preventive, detective and corrective measures.
These measures are necessary steps used to improve the quality of business at a company.
Improving Alumina Inc. 3
Improving Environmental Issues with Alumina Inc.
Introduction
When running a business it is important to be aware of anything that can affect the
productivity of the company. Alumina Inc. is an American based aluminum maker that
specializes in aluminum products. According to Environmental Protection Agency, they were
reported to be in violation of environmental discharge norms. They later were threatened with
a lawsuit by a local resident named Kelly Bates who claimed that her daughter was affected by
their environmental discharge. It is important to understand the regulatory risk that is specific
to Alumina Inc. in order to proceed with preventive, detective and corrective measures. These
measures are necessary steps used to improve the quality of the company.
Preventive Measures
As a preventive measure Alumina Inc. should hire their own inspectors that can test the levels
of chemicals that are allowed into their waste materials. ???Alumina has business interest in
automotive components and manufacture of packaging material, bauxite mining, alumina
refining, alumina smelting???. ( ) High levels of these materials are potentially harmful
when mixed in waste materials. They need a preventive measure to stay ahead of their
inspection. Alumina Inc. should hire their own waste inspectors that can check the levels of
harmful chemicals in their waste. This will allow their company time to make any changes
necessary before the government inspection.
Detective Measures
Alumina Inc. need to detect any violation that will affect the regulatory risk of the company.
The Environmental Protection Agency or EPA is a federal funded agency in charge of reducing
pollution and protecting the environment. They enforce Statutory Environmental Laws
protected by the federal government. One of these laws is for Water Pollution Regulation. A
company must receive a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit in
order to discharge waste into waterways. The company needs to be approved by the EPA in
order to receive a permit. Alumina Inc. was in violation of discharge norms and immediately
complied to EPA demands. Although they corrected their inspection problem quickly, it gave
reason for outside criticism and potential lawsuits against the company.
Corrective Measures
Kelly Bates was a local resident threatened to file a multi-million dollar personal injury lawsuit
to recover
compensatory and punitive damages against Alumina Inc. She believed that Alumina Inc??™s
environmental discharge in the water supply resulted as the cause of her daughter??™s leukemia.
This is described as a tort of negligence. According to Business7eCh10, ???Negligence imposes
liability on us when we are careless. ???(Jennings,P.383). Because of Alumina Inc??™s carelessness,
Ms. Bates threatened to sue the company. They resolved the dispute by mediation sought
through the American Arbitration Association. They were able to settle their dispute with Kelly
Bates without going to trail. They used the AAA as an alternative dispute resolution. This was
the best option to take and helped save the company money and public image.
Conclusion
Alumina Inc. has the power of influence when producing aluminum products. They are in
business because of their productivity. In order to remain productive, it is important for them
to be aware of the environmental issues that can occur from producing the products.
Environmental regulations are very important because every living and no living thing is a part
of it. Strict environmental laws will continue encouraging businesses like Alumina Inc. to
product the best aluminum products in a safe and healthier environment.
https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/vendors/tata/sims/legal/legal_simulation1.html
EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 10 of Jennings, M. M. (2006). Business: Its legal, ethical, and global environment (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson.%20%20)


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Fishing

Category : Articles

A wise man once said, ???Give a man a fish he will eat for a day, teach a man to fish and he will sit in a boat and drink beer all day.??? Fishing has creating long tales and humorous anecdotes, but for most fishing is a time honored sport that encompasses skill, drive, persistence, and patience. Fishing has made a permanent imprint on my life. The first time I ever held a fishing pole and reel I was one and a half years old. It was a four-foot Mickey- mouse rod with a blue closed- face reel. Unbeknown to me, as I cast my line into the man-made stocked pond I joined the elite group of the Scianna fishermen, generations of men, like my father and his father, who dedicate a small portion of their life waiting patiently for a tug on the line. This was the beginning of a truly wonderful hobby.
One of the first things I learned was how to cast. My Mickey Mouse rod had its limitations for technique of casting but I made the best of it with beginning equipment. There are a few different ways to cast: sidearm, overhand, and pitching. Some are more dangerous than others, especially when first learning. I remember several occasions when I accidentally hooked myself or others, which includes some trips to the hospital. One incident I remember quite vividly is teaching my brother how to cast at Sunset Lake in Sublette, IL. He began to cast, bringing the pole back and he jerked the pole forward but he was snagged on something. He looked back to find that he had caught my ear, the hook went all the way through my ear. The problem with fishing hooks is they are very sharp and have a barb on the end; the purpose of this is so the fish will not get off the hook. The barb makes hook wounds more severe. To remove the hook from my ear my dad cut the hook with pliers and pulled it through my ear. It was a very memorable experience. I believe I still have a tiny scar from the incident, like a war badge of honor.
Besides casting, it is important to learn how to change the way you fish, depending on which type of fish you are fishing for. As a young child, I had no preference of fish type; I just wanted to catch a fish. As I continued to learn about fishing I also learned about types of fish. The first type of fish I learned to fish for after learning to cast was panfish. A panfish is generally pretty small. They are referred to as panfish because they easily fit into a frying pan. Some examples of this fish are crappie, bluegill, and sunfish. The best way to catch this sort of fish is with a bobber, a number ten hook, and a wax worm. It was summertime, I was at Mallard Lake. I was fishing for bluegill and sunfish but I found that I grew bored of catching small panfish. I decided to tie an extra hook on the bottom on my line; I hoped the hooks wouldn??™t get tangled. Next thing I knew I felt a tug. Then I felt another tug. I reeled my line in and I had two fish! Sure enough catching two fish is more fun than one.
The Mickey Mouse rod served me well, but as I acquired skill, I needed equipment that could keep up with me. The Mickey Mouse rod had a very limited weight capacity and my sights were for the big fish. My grandpa bought me a brand new Shimano Spirex along with a six foot light action Ugly Stick for my seventh birthday; I was thrilled. It took some getting used to but before I knew it I couldn??™t believe I was able to fish with my old closed-face reel. Now it was time for something bigger and better.
My preference in rods and reels became more sophisticated and so did my choice of fish. I yearned for a new challenge, something more exciting than panfish. Largemouth bass is possibly the most popular freshwater sport fish and was my new challenge. These fish are more difficult to catch and much more exciting. Generally artificial bait is used to catch bass but live bait is also quite popular. My grandpa woke me up one morning at 6 am, and I yawned as we drove to the lake. He backed his twelve foot v-bottom row boat into the water. I had a plan that was the day I was going to catch my first largemouth bass. We trolled around the lake for what seemed to be days, in actuality it was about an hour. Patience is a key virtue when fishing, if you caught a fish every time it would be called catching, not fishing. Finally, I had something; it was a fifteen inch largemouth bass. I was so excited that I took the fish, barely over the legal size, home to get mounted. It hangs on my wall to this day, along with a twenty- five inch six pound largemouth and a forty inch fifteen pound northern pike.
With the big catch behind me I looked for a challenge. Bait-casting reels were the new big thing. These reels are complicated, frustrating and substantially more rewarding. One benefit of a bait-caster is a weight adjustment knob, which allows for use of much lighter and heavier lures. While first learning how to use this new reel I got so frustrated with the constant knots and bird nesting of the reel that I actually put it down and walked away. Shortly after that I began to get the hang of it. Looking back I am very happy I didn??™t quit after all the frustration; bait-casting reels are my preference to date.
My most recent attempt at learning another fishing style is fly fishing. Fly fishing is very different from any other form of fishing. The equipment consists of an eight- foot fly rod, a specially made reel, and weighted line. The idea behind fly fishing is to make the fish believe that your lure is a bug landing on the surface of the water. Fly fishing is quite difficult; in order to get your fly out to the water you need to cast in a much different way than you would for spinning reels or bait casting reels. The casting motion is a sort of figure eight in the air and the weighted line takes the fly out to the water. I remember my first time learning to fly fish, nobody told me to start my casting motion without a hook. As I began my figure eight motion above my head I was pretty happy, I thought I had the hang of it already. Little did I know when finishing the casting motion the lure flies right past your head. Or at least it??™s supposed to fly past your head. My lure flew right into my back, the wound wasn??™t too severe but I now know that practice is done best without a hook. I??™m not quite proficient in fly fishing yet, but with some more practice I will be. Then I will search for a new fishing style or piece of equipment to stay excited about an age old sport.
I have come a long way from that blue Mickey Mouse fishing pole. Along the way I have acquired a respect and understanding for the sport of fishing. Many years and scars later I consider myself fairly literate in freshwater fishing. Attaining this literacy has opened many doors for me and helped me meet people I will be fishing with for the rest of my life. Being literate in fishing has also brought new opportunities to me, for example the Saluki Bassers. They are a fishing team on campus that fishes together and participates in many competitions. Hopefully one day those competitions will bring me to even greater opportunities. It is very rare to find a passion for any activity at the young age of one and half years old. As a young innocent child I was attracted to the thrill of the catch. Bringing home a basket of fish and then the satisfaction of eating your catch is a remarkable feeling. I was lucky to feel that satisfaction early and then once I felt it I was hooked for life. Eighteen years later I still feel the excitement a still lake and a good rod has to offer. If there is one thing I could do for the rest of my life it is fish.


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Businessaccounting

Category : Articles

Organizational Politics Check Point

XBCOM/230

Organizational politics is when someone uses their power within an organization for the pursuit of agendas and self-interest without regard to their effect on the organizations efforts to achieve its goals (Businessdictionary.com). Organizational politics does not only have to come from an individual but it can come from a group within the organization. All organizations have some sort of a political environment, but not all of it has to be bad. If you know how to play the politics of your organization, it can work in your favor and help to open communication. By being able to read the environment that you are in, you will have a better understanding of the rules and how to play on them. This balance act of trying to understand the rules of office politics affects communication because you need to try and figure out when would be a good time for you to act. You may need to keep your eye open to learn some of the likes and dislikes of coworkers or even manager so that in speaking to them you can communicate more on their level and have less negative conversations thus helping yourself in what you are trying to achieve. The communication with organizational politics is something that can be subjective. What one person may consider to be an alliance, the other person may consider it to be a friendship. In the end all organizations have politics, knowing how to play the game and understand that it exists will help you achieve your goal.

References
Organizational politics definition retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-politics.html


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Fisheries

Category : Articles

South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies

Micro Finance Programme

1. Evolution of the credit programme

The credit programme has evolved over the years with many changes due to external and internal compulsions. The following is a brief outline of the history of the programme.

a) Marianad Model: Linking marketing and loan repayment
In the early seventies, the Marianad Society (the first society of the SIFFS network) pioneered the concept of daily recovery from the fish sales of members for bank loan repayment. Since the members were selling the fish through the society managed auction system on the beach, and got paid for the fish by the society office, it was easy to make source deduction for bank loan repayment. A 10% deduction of the fish sales value became the norm for bank loan repayment. In addition, a 2-3% compulsory savings was also deducted for the benefit of the member, who could then fall back upon it during the lean season. This integration of credit, marketing and savings at the village level became the hallmark of the ???Marianad model??? which became the basis for the subsequent societies organised by voluntary organisations that were working with the fishermen. This idea remains the basis of all the 100 odd fishermen societies functioning in the SIFFS network today.

b) 1970s : Society-Bank direct dealings
In the 70s, the federation concept had not been evolved and the few primary societies that functioned developed direct dealings with the banks. Once the banks saw the functioning of the system, they were happy to lend to society members at the recommendation of the society. Long used to fishermen, who disappear after taking a loan, the banks were happy at the availability of a village institution through which they got a reliable link to the fishermen and achieve their ???priority sector??? targets. The loans were really small at this stage (Rs.1000-3000), and no security was required.

c) Early & mid 1980s : Federation as facilitator
The formation of SIFFS in December 1980, and subsequently District Federations in 1985 and 1986, led to the federation becoming an important actor in the credit programme. Mainly, the task was to help in interfacing with the banks. The federation was especially involved in taking up loan proposals with the higher levels of the banking hierarchy where proposals from branches took time to get approved. The federation was mainly a facilitator. At times the federation become an agency for recommending the loan as the regional office of the bank felt more confident dealing with a federation than a village society.

c) Late 80s and early 90s : Federation as guarantor
A major change in the fishing sector of Trivandrum and Kerala was the rapid motorization of fishing craft in the mid-80s. This led to substantial increases in investment in artisanal fishing. The individual loan requirements were earlier below Rs.10,000 and hence did not require a collateral security. However, the new requirements were over Rs.25,000 and hence could not be given without collateral. Since fishermen do not have much landed assets, this became a major problem. Therefore the societies and the District federations had to give the organisations??™ assets as collateral and obtain loans. The federation??™s role shifted from one of a facilitator to that of a guarantor.

d) Revolving funds at district level
In view of the increasing difficulties in obtaining bank loans as the number of members increased and the inability to give adequate collateral forced the district federations to develop their own small revolving funds based on grants from donor agencies. While these funds are small and inadequate, they at least give some cushion for the federation to deal with the credit problem. However, some federations do not use the revolving funds in a business-like manner and use them to provide soft loans.

e) Entry of SIFFS : new bulk loan concept
The post liberalisation period has seen the commercial banks become even more conservative in sanctioning rural loans. But new concepts have emerged wherein the banking sector works as a ???wholesaler???, and NGOs and other intermediary organisations act as ???retailers??? of rural credit. The SHG concept has also taken roots. However, the district federations were finding it increasingly difficult to obtain bank loans and the membership growth suffered in the early 90s. This lead to the issue getting highlighted at the SIFFS level. SIFFS, with its professional management and greater contacts, was considered a better bet in tapping bulk loans from financial institutions. SIFFS also felt that there was a need to streamline the credit programme, which had become central for the health of the entire network and felt that it should apply its professional skills in putting the credit programme on a sound footing. Just when SIFFS was seriously considering ways and means of entering the credit sector, the micro-credit programme (phase-I) was launched by SIDBI, and provided a great opportunity. SIFFS was successful in obtaining a loan of 14.7 lakhs in 1995 from SIDBI and make a breakthrough in its credit programme. Subsequently, SIFFS obtained a second loan of Rs.55 lakhs in 1998 from SIDBI.

2. Existing channels of credit for members

The SIFFS network is composed of fishermen societies operating in highly diverse conditions over a 1000-km coastline. Moreover each district federation has its own distinct history and style of functioning. Hence a single centralised credit system run by SIFFS cannot cope with the diverse needs. SIFFS therefore sees its credit programme as one additional channel/source of credit flow to the members rather than as something aimed at replacing the existing sources/channels. The following are the various sources at present.

Table3: Channels for institutional credit available to society members
|Source |Description |Quantum |Purpose |Terms |
|Village Society|From accumulated |Rs.1,000-3,000 |Mainly for emergencies like|Normally interest free; to be |
| |funds of society and|normally; exceptional |loss of net, engine repair,|recovered from fish sales with |
| |member savings |societies give |illness, etc; for new |considerable variation in |
| | |10,000-35,000 |equipment in some societies|periodicity |
|Bank loans |Given to members by |5,000-10,000 for non |Purchase of fishing |4% for small loans under DIR; |
| |banks on the basis |motorised units; |equipment (mostly for |12-14% for other loans; three year |
| |of guarantee of |25,000-40,000 for |replacement) |repayment period; society deducts |
| |society/federation |motorised units | |10% from daily sales for repayment |
|Federa-tion |From federation??™s |Same as a bank loan |Purchase of fishing |Interest varies from Federation to |
|loans |revolving funds for | |equipment (mostly for |federation: some give soft loans at|
| |credit | |replacement) |6%, others at14-15%; other |
| | | | |repayment terms similar to bank |
|SIFFS loan |From SIDBI bulk loan|Same as bank loans |Fishing equipment |14% to fishermen, from which 2% |
| |and some own funds | |Ice boxes. |given to federations as service |
| | | |capital for fish vending |charges for their work; 3 year |
| | | |women |period; loan recovery through |
| | | |Small businesses for |society at 10% of catch value plus |
| | | |fisherwomen |lump sums whenever repayment |
| | | | |through fish sales is poor. |

As per estimates taken from the three established federations (Kanyakumari, Trivandrum and Quilon) during the last three years (1995-95 to 1997-98), the total credit flow to members of societies was Rs.5.46 crores, of which 43% was from the societies themselves, 35% was from local banks, 12% from the federation funds and 9% from SIFFS. However, the actual credit needs and the extent to which they are being met is a different story. It is estimated that only about a half of the actual production credit needs of the members are being met by the societies, federations, banks and SIFFS put together. This problem is reflected in the members using local moneylenders to supplement the credit from institutional sources, taking loans at 36% and above per annum. Moreover, members are using their fishing equipment beyond the economic life and this is affecting their incomes also.

SIFFS credit programme: the objectives

The overall objectives of the credit programme through the societies can be summed up as releasing the fishermen from the clutches of the moneylenders and merchants, and in turn to improve fishermen incomes. However, the intervention of SIFFS at present has some other specific objectives.

The following are the main objectives of the SIFFS credit programme.

??? To close the credit gap that exists due to the inability of other channels of institutional credit to cater to the needs of the members.

??? To remain an additional channel rather than to eliminate existing channels of institutional credit to members.

??? To use the SIFFS credit programme to introduce professionalism in the credit programmes of the district federations and societies, by example and through training and other forms of support.

??? To improve the credit worthiness and absorption capacity of the societies and members by introduction of new concepts and methods in selection, monitoring, etc.

??? To give a boost to the expansion of the SIFFS co-operatives and their membership which is stagnating due to difficulties in accessing credit for members.

??? To use credit as an instrument for fisheries management to the extent possible, supporting appropriate technologies and discouraging the finance of inappropriate technologies.

??? To support fisherwomen groups, who have historical links to SIFFS, to have access to credit for their fish vending activities and also to promote alternate employment among fisherfolk, especially women and youth.

3. Lines of credit operated by SIFFS

The loans given by SIFFS can be categorised in different ways according to purpose, size, sex of beneficiaries, and group/individual loans. The following table gives details.

Table 4: Details of different types of loans given by SIFFS*
|S.No. |Purpose of loan |Purpose-category |Benefici-aries |Loan amount |Group or |Loan per |
| | | | |(Rs.) |individual |head |
|1. |Purchase of fishing equipment|Production |men |25,000-40,000 |Group |6,250-10,000|
| |(motorised unit) | | | | | |
|2. |Purchase of fishing equipment|Production |men |5,000-10,000 |Individual |5,000-10,000|
| |(non motorised) | | | | | |
|3. |Purchase/ installation of ice|Post harvest |Men/ women |5,000-35,000 |Individual/ group |5,000-10,000|
| |boxes | | | | | |
|4. |Construction of insulated |Post harvest |men |25,000-40,000 |Group |5,000-10,000|
| |fish holds | | | | | |
|5. |Purchase/ installation of |Production |Men |10,000-25,000 |Individual/ group |5,000-10,000|
| |navigational and safety | | | | | |
| |equipment | | | | | |
|6. |Working capital for fish |Post harvest |women |1,000-10,000 |Individual |1,000-10,000|
| |vending and curing | | | | | |
|7. |Alternate employment (small |Alternate |women |10,000-20,000 |Group |5,000 |
| |businesses other than fish |employment | | | | |
| |vending) | | | | | |

It is important to note that the loans to fishermen for purchase of fishing equipment on motorised units are shown as a group loan. In artisanal fishing around 4-5 fishermen got as regular crew on board a fishing boat and share the income according to certain traditional sharing systems. The crew is often made of family members and close relatives. Formally ownership is with the male head of the household, but need not be treated as individual ownership as the ???owner??™s share??? is meant to be used for maintenance, replacement, and for loan repayments. Hence SIFFS considers loans to the motorised units as group loans even though the records are maintained in the names of individual fishermen.

A word about the alternate employment loans to women is necessary. While in many instances fisherwomen are involved in fish vending and fish curing (drying/salting), many others are unemployed and wish to earn an income. Hence SIFFS is encouraging women to take up alternate employment through small business loans. So far the loans have been given to women??™s organisations in Quilon which have organised businesses in small groups.

The various aspects of the loan scheme given above (e.g. quantum of finance) are as per current norms. SIFFS does not consider these parameters rigid and will keep making changes in tune with the emerging needs.

4. Loans : Terms and conditions

Certain loans are considered term loans and are given a three-year repayment period, while others are considered short-term loans and given just a 12-month period for repayment.

Term loans : These are essentially for purchase of fishing equipment, both motorised and non motorised. The repayment period is three years, which is the period within which the equipment will still be in good condition and bring good revenue. After three years, the nets get damaged, the motor needs replacement and the boat will need major repairs. Some of the loans for alternate employment are also given as term loans.

Short term loans : Generally the loans for post-harvest activities are given as short term loans for a 12-18 month period as these can be repaid within that period without much difficulty. The loans for alternate employment are also given as short-term loans as they are mainly for working capital needs and for small investments. The loans for navigational equipment and safety devices is also given for a 12-month period as the amount involved is very low in comparison with the total investment in the fishing units concerned.

Margin money : In general, loans to fishermen cover only part of the equipment cost and they are expected to contribute the balance themselves. One can look at the share of the loan for the particular equipment to be purchased as well as the share of the loan in the total investment in the fishing unit. The following table gives some examples.

Table5: Loan amount vs. cost of fishing units
|Item |District |Cost |Cost of full |Loan amount |Loan as % of |Loan as % of |
| | | |unit* | |item cost |unit cost |
|Out Board Motor-10 hp |Trivandrum |57,000 |1,75,000 |35,000 |61% |20% |
|Plywood vallam |Trivandrum |60,000 |1,75,000 |35,000 |58% |20% |
|Kattumaram (motorised)|Kanya-kumari |10,000 |1,00,000 |6,000 |60% |10% |
|Kattumaram+1 net (non |Trivandrum |15,000 |40,000 |7,500 |50% |19% |
|motorised) | | | | | | |
|OBM-8 hp |Quilon |55,000 |1,50,000 |40,000 |73% |30% |

*Full unit means craft and nets (and motors, if it is a motorised unit)

From the examples it should be clear that the cost of the fishing unit varies from area to area due to differences in configuration. However, the loan amount is normally around 60% of the cost of the equipment being purchased and around 20% of the value of the full unit. The fisherman has to contribute the extra 40% for purchasing the equipment, which in most cases would be supplied by SIFFS or the member federation. It is a fact that the current loan amounts given for the different equipment are inadequate and members have to sometimes borrow from private sources to make up the shortfall. However, given the current scarcity of institutional credit, SIFFS has been unable to hike up the loan amount for fishing equipment.

Interest : The SIDBI loan was availed at 9% interest p.a. and is being passed on to the district federations at 12%. In turn the loans are given to members at 14% by the federations. The societies do not normally take any additional interest as they get service charges of 3% from fish marketing and that covers all the society overheads. The own funds of SIFFS that are there in the credit programme are also lent at the same rate of interest, as SIFFS prefers not to have a dual system.

5. Institutional arrangements, procedures, rules, etc.

With SIFFS being a three tier co-operative organisation, all the three tiers of the organisation come into full play for implementing the SIFFS credit programme. The system of fishermen loans being handled by societies and district federation continues with only an additional level being added. The following describes the process by which SIFFS loans are disbursed.

Loan disbursement procedure (fishermen loans)

??? Whenever a SIDBI loan instalment is due, based on the loan amount available, SIFFS initiates a dialogue with the district federations and assesses their immediate loan requirements. As loan amounts have always been less than the demand, a ???rationing??? process takes place with the SIFFS executives working out a formula to share the available loan amount between federations. The formula takes into account the needs of each federation as well as the loan repayment performance till then.

??? The District federations in turn get their member societies to propose suitable candidates for the SIDBI loan. The managing committees of the local societies then look at the pending request for loans and send a list of members needing loans to the District Federation. The list from the societies is then scrutinised using certain eligibility conditions set by SIFFS. After taking into account the urgency of the member??™s loan requirement and the overall ???quota??? fixed by SIFFS, the District Federation then finalises its loan list and forwards it to SIFFS.

??? SIFFS also scrutinises the list sent by member federations and checks whether it is in conformity with the SIFFS criteria for eligibility. At times, the SIFFS Credit Manager does a field visit before the list is approved. If needed, further negotiations are done with the federation, and the loans are disbursed.

??? Even though the loan is routed through the district federations and the societies, SIFFS ensures that it has a direct connection with the beneficiary. This is through a legal agreement between SIFFS and the fisherman with the societies and federation as guarantors. A briefing session is held for fishermen before loan disbursement so that they are aware of the terms and conditions of the loans as well as the agencies involved.

??? Around 90% of the production loans are meant for boats or motors, and SIFFS and the member federations supply both these items. While SIFFS is an importer of Out Board Motors (OBMs) as well as manufacturer of boats, some of the District federations also manufacture boats. Hence, in many instances, the fisherman does not get the loan as cash. He is provided with the item on the payment of his margin money.

Eligibility criteria (fishermen)

The loans for fishing equipment purchase are relatively large, even though the loan per head is not large. Moreover, fishing itself is a risky operation with high level of variations in income among fishermen undertaking similar operations with similar equipment. Hence SIFFS has an elaborate criteria for selection of beneficiaries. SIFFS criteria is at two levels. One level is that of the fishermen and the other level is that of the society. As far as the fisherman is concerned, the following criteria are used :
??? Is he in immediate need of equipment Does he have the repayment capacity
??? Is his past repayment record good
To answer the repayment capacity question, the sales figures for member for the previous one year is taken from society records. Certain minimum annual sales have been fixed for different loan amounts to be eligible for a SIFFS loan. For example, an annual fish sales of R.1.5 lakhs has been fixed for a fishermen in Trivandrum to be eligible for a Rs.35,000 loan.

As far as the society is concerned, the general viability of the society and its past performance in collecting dues from members is analysed. The criteria are not rigidly applied but used as guidelines for selection as past performance is not always a good indicator of future success in fishing.

Loan disbursement (women??™s loans)

It is important to understand that the women??™s groups are not directly members of SIFFS but have historical links with SIFFS or its member federations. Hence the loans to women are routed through the district federations. The women??™s loans are handled in a simpler manner as the loan amounts are smaller and there are more beneficiaries. The beneficiary selection is left entirely to the women??™s groups and the District federation forwards the list they provide, to SIFFS. Initially, a few loans are given on trial basis, and if found successful, further loans are given. SIFFS goes by the general performance of the women??™s group and does not have an elaborate process for loan approval.

Loan recovery procedure

Loan recovery is normally from the fish catches marketed by the local societies and is generally10% of the fish sales value. However, the system is flexible in that other methods of repayment are also encouraged. In cases were fishermen tend to migrate and part of their fish sales is not through the society, monthly lump sum repayment during the migration period is insisted upon. The repayments collected from the members is accumulated by the societies for a month and then remitted to the District federation which immediately remits the money to SIFFS.

In the case of loans to fisherwomen, the women??™s groups have both daily collections as well as weekly/monthly collection systems. The amount collected each month is remitted to the concerned district federation and then to SIFFS.

Loan re-cycling

Every month based on the amounts recovered and the amount to be remitted to SIDBI, SIFFS has some amount available for fresh loans to members. These loans are disbursed based on pending requests from district federations with the eligibility criteria being the same.

Record keeping and information flow

Records are kept at all three levels of the structure. The societies routinely enter loan repayment and loan outstanding figures in their books of accounts as well as in the member pass books. However, interest is not calculated at society level. The District federations maintain complete documentation and accounts for the loans. The same is done at SIFFS level. Interest is calculated at both SIFFS and federation levels.

A computerised MIS has been developed in-house at SIFFS for monitoring the credit programme and SIFFS is in the process of setting up similar systems at the district federations also, installing both hardware and software. Information is available every month on all the necessary parameters.

Credit programme staffing

As the SIFFS credit programme is built on the foundations of the existing credit programme of the societies and district federations, SIFFS does not need an elaborate structure to manage the programme. All SIFFS has at present are one part-time Credit Manager and one full time Credit Officer. Recently a credit officer has been appointed for the Malabar region as it is too far away for the Head Office to manage. The accounting and other administrative tasks are done by the SIFFS office along with the accounting and administration for other activities and programmes. As most of the routine tasks are done by the societies and district federations, the credit department staff spend time for other development work like capacity building programmes for the district federations in the area of credit. Some addition to the staff will be needed when the programme grows bigger.

1. Evolution of the credit programme

Marianad Model: Linking marketing and loan repayment
1970s : Society-Bank direct dealings
Early & mid 1980s : Federation as facilitator
Late 80s and early 90s : Federation as guarantor
Revolving funds at district level
Entry of SIFFS : new bulk loan concept

2. Existing channels of credit for members

|Source |Description |Quantum |Purpose |Terms |
|Village Society|From accumulated |Rs.1,000-3,000 |Mainly for emergencies like |Normally interest free; to be |
| |funds of society and|normally; exceptional |loss of net, engine repair, |recovered from fish sales with |
| |member savings |societies give |illness, etc; for new |considerable variation in periodicity|
| | |10,000-35,000 |equipment in some societies | |
|Bank loans |Given to members by |5,000-10,000 for non |Purchase of fishing equipment|4% for small loans under DIR; 12-14% |
| |banks on the basis |motorised units; |(mostly for replacement) |for other loans; three year repayment|
| |of guarantee of |25,000-40,000 for | |period; society deducts 10% from |
| |society/federation |motorised units | |daily sales for repayment |
|Federa-tion |From federation??™s |Same as a bank loan |Purchase of fishing equipment|Interest varies from Federation to |
|loans |revolving funds for | |(mostly for replacement) |federation: some give soft loans at |
| |credit | | |6%, others at14-15%; other repayment |
| | | | |terms similar to bank |
|SIFFS loan |From SIDBI bulk loan|Same as bank loans |Fishing equipment |14% to fishermen, from which 2% given|
| |and some own funds | |Ice boxes. |to federations as service charges for|
| | | |capital for fish vending |their work; 3 year period; loan |
| | | |women |recovery through society at 10% of |
| | | |Small businesses for |catch value plus lump sums whenever |
| | | |fisherwomen |repayment through fish sales is poor.|

3. Objectives of SIFFS Micro Finance programme:

The overall objectives of the credit programme through the societies can be summed up as releasing the fishermen from the clutches of the moneylenders and merchants, and in turn to improve fishermen incomes. However, the intervention of SIFFS at present has some other specific objectives.

The following are the main objectives of the SIFFS credit programme.

??? To close the credit gap that exists due to the inability of other channels of institutional credit to cater to the needs of the members.

??? To remain an additional channel rather than to eliminate existing channels of institutional credit to members.

??? To use the SIFFS credit programme to introduce professionalism in the credit programmes of the district federations and societies, by example and through training and other forms of support.

??? To improve the credit worthiness and absorption capacity of the societies and members by introduction of new concepts and methods in selection, monitoring, etc.

??? To give a boost to the expansion of the SIFFS co-operatives and their membership which is stagnating due to difficulties in accessing credit for members.

??? To use credit as an instrument for fisheries management to the extent possible, supporting appropriate technologies and discouraging the finance of inappropriate technologies.

??? To support fisherwomen groups, who have historical links to SIFFS, to have access to credit for their fish vending activities and also to promote alternate employment among fisherfolk, especially women and youth.

4. Products

A. Loan products

|Loan Type |Purposes |Amount |Term |Int rate |Remarks |
|Production |Purchase of fishing equipments | | | | |
| |Installation of |5000 |24 months | | |
| |icebox/navigational/safety equipments |to |to |16% | |
| | |50000 |36 months | | |
|Labour |Consumption |1000 to |12-18 |16% | |
| | |3000 |months | | |
|Women??™s loan |Working capital for fish vending , |1500 |12-24 |18% | |
| |curing / small businesses other than |to |months | | |
| |fish vending |10000 | | | |

B.Savings Product

? Old Age Security Saving (OASS)
? Objectives: Inculcate the savings habit, Social security
? Features:
? Rs 50 or Multiples of 50 /month
? Penalty for defaulters
? Interest will be announced at the beginning of the financial year
? At the year end interest will be add back to savings amount
? It is only for members

C.Insurance

The objective of the scheme is to provide life insurance protection to the rural and urban poor persons below poverty line and marginally above the poverty line.

A person aged between 18 & 60 years, who is a member of specific group/ society/ Panchayat / NGO/ Self Help Group, which is the Nodal Agency, is eligible to join the scheme. Minimum membership of the group is 25. The Nodal Agency will act on behalf of the insured members.

In the event of death of the member an amount of Rs.20,000/- is payable. In the event of death/ total permanent disability due to accident an amount of Rs.50,000/- is payable. In case of permanent partial disability due to accident, an amount of Rs.25,000/- is payable.

50% of the premium of Rs. 200/- is borne by the Social Security Fund and 50% is contributed by the member and / or Nodal Agency / State Govt.

5. Procedures

A.Savings

Joining by

??? Filling up the Nomination form (yellow card)
??? Deposit of OASS amount (No. of Units x Rs.50 )

Monthly Remittance

??? First week of every month
??? Remittance through demand/collection sheet send by SIFFS
??? The Savings Demand/collection sheet will be sent to Societies by SIFFS on or before 20th of each month
??? At society level, all OASS collection is to be entered in OASS register and Pass book
??? At the Year end declares the interest rate (Commercial Bank RD rate + half percent)
??? interest for each member will be communicated to societies
??? Confirmation of balance of each member will be sent to societies by SIFFS

For account closing

??? As per the Norms of the OASS programme society has to request SIFFS on behalf of a member.
??? The passbook must be returned with duly filled & signed OASS closing form.
??? The amount due will be released only after receiving the said documents

B. Loan Issue

? Application from member to the society
? Clerk has to fill the Loan request form for those who applied for loans
? Committee scrutinizes and finalise the application from loan members individually & based on society rating.
? Forward the list to Feds
? Fed.s finalises the list.
? Scrutiny by SIFFS
? Sanctioning if eligible & information to concerned federation
? Filling up of Application, Guarantee, Agreement, Asset Information and promissory note
? Federations forwarding all documents to SIFFS
? If documentation completed, disbursement will be made through Federation

C. Loan Repaymets

? At the beginning of each month Society clerks has to fill up the SIFFS loan pay in slip for the previous month loan collection
? Remit it to Feds
? Feds remit it to SIFFS
? SIFFS will sent details about the principal and interest of loan amount repaid by members along with interest balance, if any
? Clerks / Feds have to make entries in the loan register / loan card

D. Insurance :

? Rs 100 as annual premium
? Deatls : name, Fathe name, Address, Age, Nominee, Age, Relation
? How to claim
o Fill the claim form ( Bank account no and signature of the Nominee)
o Death certificate in the case of Normal death
o Police inquest report in the case of Accidental death

6. Formats

? Savings Nomination form
? Savings Pass Book
? Savings Register
? Savings demand / Collection slip
? Loan Request form
? Loan application /Guarantee form
? Loan Agreement
? Promisary note
? Loan Card
? Pay-in-slip
? Request letter for Rescheduling
? Insurance claim form
? Insurance List
* All loan amounts in this proposal are in Rupees unless specifically mentioned as lakhs of rupees, etc.


  • -

Business

Category : Articles

Business Research Method III
After reviewing Riordan Manufacturing Inventory Management System, it was noticed that the current inventory system needs improvement. There are flaws with how the inventory is received, updated in the inventory system and the time factor when the inventory can be viewed in the system. This paper will discuss the current processes and the changes that are necessary to improve the efficiency of the process for the success of the company. The data collected is further analyze, the necessary five step hypothesis testing is applied and the challenges are reviewed and resolved.
Statistical analysis
The management at Riordan manufacturing wants to identify the defects in the critical areas of business operations. Statistical analysis of the sample data collected from different business operation is one of the most accurate ways to identifying the defects in the process. Several statistical tools and techniques allow business to measure the efficiency in the business process. Riordan Manufacturing is trying to bring the efficiency to the several areas of business operations. Team A has decided to evaluate the efficiency of raw material arrival time. Team has collected random sample of raw material arrival time from each quarter of the year 2008. Sample data listed in table 1.
Table 1: Four random sample data collected for raw materials receiving process for each quarter of the year 2008.
Quarter Samples Arrival time Variation
Quarter 1 Sample 1 90% (10%)
Sample 2 88% (12%)
Sample 3 92% (8%)
Sample 4 89% (11%)
Quarter 2 Sample 1 91% (9%)
Sample 2 90% (10%)
Sample 3 92% (8%)
Sample 4 89% (11%)
Quarter 3 Sample 1 94% (6%)
Sample 2 91% (9%)
Sample 3 90% (10%)
Sample 4 91% (9%)
Quarter 3 Sample 1 88% (12%)
Sample 2 89% (11%)
Sample 3 93% (7%)
Sample 4 95% (5%)

Note: Data presented in this table shows significant variation in arrival time for every sample data listed for each quarter.
The statistical analysis based on the sample data depicted in table 2.
Table 2
Total number of samples collected (n) = 16
Description of the test Result Conclusion
Number of times Raw material arrived on time as per the Effectiveness Standards 95% 1/16 The probability of on time arrival is 1 out of 16. It indicates that most of time raw material never arrived on time.
Average truck arrival time
90.75% Average truck arrival time is below Effectiveness Standards 95%
Range, the dispersion of the arrival time 0.070
There is a 7% dispersion in arrival time.
Variation in truck arrival time 0.00042 There is a 0.00042 variation in truck arrival time

Note: Table 2 depicts the different statistical analysis results.
The chart in figure 1 shows the variation in raw material arrival time.
?
Figure 1: This chart represents variation in raw material arrival time

Five step hypothesis test
Riordan Manufacturing schedules the order for raw materials with its vendor based on the capacity needed. On receipt of raw materials from their preferred vendor, it is validated, documented, and pushed into the inventory system. The firm has defined a standard timelines for each activity of Raw materials receiving processes. As per the standards set by the Riordan, raw material truck must arrive within the 14 days of order and the mean Effectiveness Standards must be greater than 95%. Riordan has implemented several process control measures to achieve the effectiveness standards. Management at Riordan wants to determine whether raw material arrival time is greater than the effective standards 95% at 0.01 significance level. Sample data is depicted in table 1.
Step 1: State the null and alternate hypothesis.
The Effectiveness Standards is 95%. The null hypothesis is ???Arrival time is less than or equal to Effectiveness Standards??? and the alternate hypothesis is ???Arrival time is greater than Effectiveness Standards???.
H0: ?µ ? 95%, mean arrival time is less than or equal to 95%.
H1: ?µ > 95%, mean arrival time is greater than 95%.
This is a one-tailed test because the alternate hypothesis states a direction and management want to determine whether there is an improvement in arrival time efficiency (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2008, p. 339).
Step 2: Select the level of significance.
The level of significance is 0.01.
Step 3: Select the test statistic.
The test statistic for a mean is t. Using formula (1), t value is calculated (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2008, p. 339).
? (1)
With n -1 degrees of freedom, where:
?= The sample mean, which is 90.75% = 0.9075.
?µ = The hypothesized population mean, which is 95% =0.95.
s = The sample standard deviation, which is 0.0205.
n = the number of observations in the sample, which is 16 (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2008, p. 345)

Step 4:Formulate the decision rule.
???The decision rule is formulated by finding the critical values of t from Appendix B.2??? (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2008, p. 339). The number of sample is 16 and degrees of freedom is 15. The critical value from the Appendix B.2 is 2.602 (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2008, p. 342, p. 785). The decision rule is not to reject H0 if the value of t is less than 2.602.

Step 5: Make a decision and interpret the result
Data from the step 3, t value is calculated using formula (1).

? = -8.032
The calculated t value is lesser than the critical value, therefore null hypothesis is not rejected. It indicates that there is no improvement in raw material arrival time.
Six Sigma
Six Sigma is an ideal and useful program that will help Riordan manufacturing industry to deliver customer??™s order to them quickly in a timely and efficient manner. Currently Riordan manufacturing is trying to continue to provide excellent customer satisfaction in terms of meeting the commitment ship dates. Riordan at one time in the past decided to ship a small order by air freight to meet one of their major customer??™s emergency need, instead of shipping the order by normal process and having the shipment arrive late. Six Sigma DMAIC /Methodology would be perfect in this type of situation so as to save cost.
According to Schafer (2007) ???DMAIC phase objective is to identify and finding improvement opportunity, document the business processes, define critical requirements, and to prepare the team to be effective throughout the process??? (para. 3). The implementation of DMAIC Six Sigma involves everybody in the Riordan manufacturing to participate to enable serving customers on time by introducing Just ??“In -Time in supply and delivery of customer??™s good.
Challenges of Validity and Reliability
There exist some potential challenges to the validity and reliability of the research question, process, data, and analysis. Validity is the extent to which a test measures exactly what needs to be measured (Cooper-Schindler, 2008, p. 289). Reliability is concerned with estimates of the degree to which a measurement is free of random or unstable error (Cooper-Schindler, 2008, p. 293).
The biggest problem with validity and reliability lies in data. If the data is not collected correctly or cannot be repeated, then it not only affects the validity and reliability of the data but also the research question, process, and analysis. Potential challenges with the data include the validity and reliability of how it was collected or received. For example, if a survey was done to collect data, did the participant answer truthfully or did they choose to skim through the survey to spend less time on it. If the participant is forced to choose an option, this may be a challenge to prove the reliability. If the questions in the survey do not measure what needs to be measures for the purpose of the research question, then this is a challenge to validity.
Potential challenges with the research question include the validity if the researcher fails to have a sufficient understanding of the problem. The research question should be clearly defined without raising doubts.
Potential challenges with the process include the reliability and validity of how the data is collected and can this process be repeated. If another researcher wanted to attempt to repeat the process to verify the validity of the research, can the research repeat the process exactly how the previous researcher accomplished it. If for any reason, there is any secrecy to how the data was collected or who gave the data then include as much data as possible because without that information, it is hard to verify the validity and reliability of the data.
Potential challenges with the analysis mostly the validity and reliability of the data. In order for a researcher to make a conclusion they must review the data collected and if there is any discrepancy to the validity or reliability of the data, then the analysis may also have discrepancies.
Steps Needed to Minimize the Challenges
Riordan manufacturing should take the following steps so as to minimize the challenges of implementing Six Sigma program and to carry out the operation successfully. One of the steps to take is to provide a clear and complete definition of gate requirements. The management of Riordan should align the business objectives with the Six Sigma program by providing a clear and complete definition of what they are trying to get out of each phases of the development.
Creveling, (2007) stated that another important step to take is to link major tasks to balanced sets of tools, methods, and best practices. This approach will add value similar to lean DMAIC Six Sigma projects (p. 40). Lean Six Sigma approach will enable Riordan manufacturing to improve their customer satisfaction by proving Just In Time delivery, and be able to maximize profit when the process of data and statistics controlling, and measuring has been aligned with business goal.
Presentation of data
Ranking scales is based on determining order and making comparisons among two or more objects or properties. Riordan will not be ranking data for example by what is best or what is preferred so the ranking scale will not be used. Sorting requires that participants sort cards into piles using criteria established by the researcher (Akbar, 2009). Riordan will not be sorting data by specific raw data such as ink or mold release agents so the sorting scale will not be used. This also goes for categorization; Riordan will not be categorizing data in groups or categories. So the format that data will be presented in is the rating scale. Rating scales have several response categories used to elicit response with regard to the event, object, or person studied (Akbar, 2009). The rating scales are used to judge properties of objects without referencing another object.
Business Process Analysis and Process Improvement Recommendations

The recommendation of system change is to address any inefficiency within the process and make the necessary corrections to improving it. At Riordan the changes will allow them to eliminate the inefficiency in raw material receiving process and minimize the raw material processing cost. At the same time, it will also help with improving customer satisfaction by taking advantage of the technology available to change the current process. In turn this will improve the accuracy and timeliness of the inventory management.
The raw materials are received from the suppliers at the receiving areas as raw materials needed. The supervisor verifies the shipment when it arrives to make sure it matches with order. After the shipment is verified, the raw material is moved into manufacturing unit for further process. The inventory clerk updates the inventory system at the end of each day. The inventory system shows several inefficiencies, which include the manual verification of the orders upon arrival, disposing the information to the clerk to the inventory and the time taken by the inventory system to show the recent updates .
The current inventory system is adequate but not as efficient to meet the goals of the Riordan. The number of flaws and failures discovered in the current inventory system has produced inaccurate inventory. Addressing these flaws and failures can vastly improve the inventory system and provide a more accurate inventory system.
To rectify the problem with the inventory system, the dock workers should be trained to account accurately for every inventory received. Supervisor should take responsibility of updating the inventory system in timely manner. This ensures that the inventory is entered the same time it is received and eliminate problem with paper getting lost while transferring from supervisor to clerk. This would allow business to access the inventory system at real-time and would eliminate the repetitive task.

References
Akbar, S. (2009). Measurement Scaling. Retrieved from http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/shafaqz-174492-measurement-scaling-brm-final-education-ppt-powerpoint/
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2008). Business Research Methods (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Creveling, M. C. (2007). Six Sigma for Technical Processes: An Overview for R&D Executives, Technical Leaders and Engineering Managers. Upper Saddle River,?  New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Lind-Marchal-Wathen (2008). Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics:One sample tests of hypothesis, 13th edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies
Schafer, Steve. (2007) Six Sigma: How Much Do You Know Industrial Maintenance & Plant Operation. 68(11) 38. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detailvid=3&hid=3&sid=404074a5-5b1e-4cd8-9ace56ef523bd338%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=27493057#db=bth&AN=27493057


  • -

Fish Stock Sci 275

Category : Articles

Fish Stock
Mike Grogan
SCI/275
4/10/10

The video tells the beliefs of 2 different individuals on two different sides of an argument. The problem is that the populations of fish are declining in the ocean. One viewpoint is the fact that the overfishing of large fish in the ocean has caused a massive decline in their numbers. The other viewpoint is that something else is causing the declining numbers not the fishing. The first viewpoint is that of a oceanographer and the second is a commercial fisherman.
Action Items | Action Steps | Timeline |
Research and identify the problem and possible solutions | Research the data on declining populationsVerify research conductedInterview researchers and fisherman of the thoughts and solutions | Months 1-3 |
Develop action plan Set up education | Gather experts from both areas to make sensible planDevelop an educational messageTake ideas and develop a plan for a solution Write up a new law of no fish zones | Months 3-6 |
Run the education messageSet plan in motion | Run the message for the decision makers members of the House and SenateIntroduce the law and try to regulate and sustain the fish | Months 6-9 |
Bill passed Education and enforcement begins | Developed new law Enacted new education plan and enforcement of no fish zones | Ongoing |
I think that restricting access to certain parts the habitat will help to let the fish recover from the extra demand for them . I think that is better than completely stopping everyone from fishing for that type of fish completely. I think it will benefit the environmentalist because of the no fish zones limiting the amount of fish caught . I think it will not be what they want because it is not completely stopping the fishing for the declining fish. Fisherman will see this as a chance to retain their lively hood but will most likely not like the areas restricted because of the dense population there.
The way commercial fishing operates today is comparable to the strip-mining of the earth and clear-cutting of forests. Many parts of the ocean floor are being turned into “marine deserts” as huge, unselective nets drag the bottoms scooping up everything in their paths(Hall 2010). Trawling causes damage to every part of the Eco-system not just to the fish population it is a fact that 20% of the fish caught are thrown back dead or injured because they are the wrong type or wrong size(Hall 2010). Trawlers also dump an estimated 450,000 plastic containers, 52 million pounds of plastic packaging material and 298 million pounds of plastic fishing net into the sea each year. Plastic garbage is known to kill as many as a million sea creatures a year.
The loss of revenue is drastic I found a website that talks about a solution that is trying to be implemented to help the blue fin tuna. That is to ban the international trade of the tuna in combination with restriction of intake for the year from 13, 500 metric tons to 8,000 metric tons. The ban on trade would kill the hopes of American fisherman to get $7-$11 dollars a pound from Japan during peak season to $2-$3 dollars from the US(Fraser 2010). That is a big hit. That is unless the environmentalists start a campaign to keep bluefin off American menus like they did in the 90s with the “Give Swordfish a Break” campaign.
My community is not a commercial fishing community it is a big outdoorsy community that has several lakes and rivers in the area so fisherman will understand both sides of the issue.
Jobs will be lost because of the decrease loads and areas to fish, but both sides will be unhappy because it is not a all out ban for the environmentalists and it is not a simple restriction for the fisherman. I dont think that this is the all inclusive answer to the problem but I think that it is step in the right direction. Like the fisherman Pete Dupios in the video said about the plumber we cant just turn the water off at the street we need to fix the problem. He also said that commercial fisherman are willing to help where needed to keep the fish population holding steady to keep working.
In conclusion the solution to the problem is a difficult decision to come up with. To be able to make both parties agree with it and realize that it is the best solution for the resource is the biggest part of the problem. Most fisherman love what they do and want to keep working so they will do what it takes to keep the fish coming in.

REFERENCES:
“The National Fisherman Magazine” retrieved from the Web. Apr 10, 2010
http://www.nationalfisherman.com/top_news.aspItemID=1972&rcid=412&pcid=406&cid=412

“Earthsave Canada” retrieved from Web. Apr 10, 2010
http://www.earthsave.ca/articles/ethics/fish.html


  • -

Business

Category : Articles

Data Collection

Key Effectiveness Measures | | | |
Q1 2008 | | | |
Units Produced During Quarter: 9500 | | | |
Key Effectiveness Measure | Effectiveness Standards | Q1 Results | Q2 Results | Q3 Results | Q4 Results |
Material receipt | > 95% | 92% | 91% | 93% | 92% |
Inventory accuracy | > 98% | 94% | 95% | 94% | 93% |
Material availability | > 99% | 90% | 92% | 90% | 95% |
Rejection of supplied equipment | < 2% | 9% | 7% | 8% | 7% | Procurement lead time | > 10 business days | 5.4 days | 4.3 days | six days | Seven days |
Bid, evaluation, commit time | > 22 business days | 16.2 days | 14.2 days | 15 days | 18 days |
PO to material receipt duration | < 10 business days | 17.6 days | 18.5 days | 17.3 days | 15 days | Material receiving process time | < 1 business day | 3.5 days | 3.1 days | 3 days | 4 days | Heart value cost of manufacture | < 47% | 55% | 52% | 51% | 54% | Raw Materials Receiving Processes | Qtr 1 | QTR 2 | QTR 3 | QTR 4 | In Process and Out of Process Standards | ?  | ?  | ?  | ?  | Process | In Process Standards | Out of Process Standards | Percentage Processed within Turnaround Time Standards | Percentage Processed within Turnaround Time Standards | Percentage Processed within Turnaround Time Standards | Percentage Processed within Turnaround Time Standards | Truck from supplier with raw materials arrives at Riordan receiving | <= 14 days | > 14 days | 89% | 91% | 94% | 88% |
Receiving area supervisor compares shipping document against scheduled incoming orders | <= 72 hours | > 72 hours | 92% | 93% | 95% | 93% |
Validate materials to be received | <= 72 hours | > 72 hours | 91% | 90% | 91% | 90% |
Receiving area team unloads truck | <= 48 hours | > 48 hours | 85% | 88% | 86% | 84% |
Receiving team moves raw materials into raw materials area in factory | <= 48 hours | > 48 hours | 87% | 90% | 92% | 88% |
At the end of day, receiving area supervisor gives the log of all raw materials received during the day and associated shipping documents to the receiving clerk | < End of Business Day | > End of Business Day | 90% | 89% | 91% | 90% |
Inventory clerk enters the information related to raw materials receipts into inventory system | <= 24 hours | > 24 hours | 92% | 93% | 94% | 92% |


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Fish Ecology

Category : Articles

Abstract

Numerous groundfish stocks in both the Atlantic and Pacific are considered overfished, resulting in large-scale fishery closures. Fishing, in addition to simply removing biomass, also truncates the age and size structure of fish populations and often results in localized depletions. We summarize recent research suggesting that an old-growth age structure, combined with a broad spatial distribution of spawning and recruitment, is at least as important as spawning biomass in maintaining long-term sustainable population levels. In particular, there is evidence that older, larger female rockfishes produce larvae that withstand starvation longer and grow faster than the offspring of younger fish, that stocks may actually consist of several reproductively isolated units, and that recruitment may come from only a small and different fraction of the spawning population each year. None of these phenomena is accounted for in current management programs. We examine alternative management measures that address these specific issues and conclude that the best and perhaps only way to ensure old-growth age structure and complex spatial structure in populations of groundfish is through interconnected networks of marine reserves.

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T. Brunel. (2010) Age-structure-dependent recruitment: a meta-analysis applied to Northeast Atlantic fish stocks. ICES Journal of Marine Science
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Danielle Ameen Reich, and Joseph Thomas DeAlteris. (2009) A Simulation Study of the Effects of Spatially Complex Population Structure for Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29:1, 116-126
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Lewis A. K. Barnett, Ryan L. Earley, David A. Ebert, and Gregor M. Cailliet. (2009) Maturity, fecundity, and reproductive cycle of the spotted ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei. Marine Biology 156:3, 301-316
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Donald J. Noakes, and Richard J. Beamish. (2009) Synchrony of Marine Fish Catches and Climate and Ocean Regime Shifts in the North Pacific Ocean. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 155-168
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William R. Bechtol, and Gordon H. Kruse. (2009) Analysis of a Stock??“Recruit Relationship for Red King Crab off Kodiak Island, Alaska. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 29-44
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David H. Secor. (2008) Influence of Skipped Spawning and Misspecified Reproductive Schedules on Biological Reference Points in Sustainable Fisheries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:3, 782-789
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R. D. Evans, G. R. Russ, and J. P. Kritzer. (2008) Batch fecundity of Lutjanus carponotatus (Lutjanidae) and implications of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 27:1, 179-189
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K. M. Brander. (2007) Climate Change and Food Security Special Feature: Global fish production and climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:50, 19709-19714
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R. J. Pears, J. H. Choat, B. D. Mapstone, and G. A. Begg. (2007) Reproductive biology of a large, aggregation-spawning serranid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskl): management implications. Journal of Fish Biology 71:3, 795-817
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Selina S. Heppell. (2007) Elasticity Analysis of Green Sturgeon Life History. Environmental Biology of Fishes 79:3-4, 357-368
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Alan M. Friedlander, Eric K. Brown, and Mark E. Monaco. (2007) COUPLING ECOLOGY AND GIS TO EVALUATE EFFICACY OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN HAWAII. Ecological Applications 17:3, 715-730
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F Juanes. (2007) Role of habitat in mediating mortality during the post-settlement transition phase of temperate marine fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 70:3, 661-677
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Raphael D. Sagarin, Richard F. Ambrose, Bonnie J. Becker, John M. Engle, Janine Kido, Steven F. Lee, C. Melissa Miner, Steven N. Murray, Peter T. Raimondi, Dan Richards, and Christy Roe. (2006) Ecological impacts on the limpet Lottia gigantea populations: human pressure over a broad scale on island and mainland intertidal zones. Marine Biology 150:3, 399-413
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Chih-hao Hsieh, Christian S. Reiss, John R. Hunter, John R. Beddington, Robert M. May, and George Sugihara. (2006) Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species. Nature 443:7113, 859-862
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ELIZABETH A. GILBERT-HORVATH, RALPH J. LARSON, and JOHN CARLOS GARZA. (2006) Temporal recruitment patterns and gene flow in kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens). Molecular Ecology 15:12, 3801-3815
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Chris J. Harvey, Nick Tolimieri, and Phillip S. Levin. (2006) CHANGES IN BODY SIZE, ABUNDANCE, AND ENERGY ALLOCATION IN ROCKFISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. Ecological Applications 16:4, 1502-1515
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LUCA M. CARGNELLI, and BRYAN D. NEFF. (2006) Condition-dependent nesting in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:3, 627-633
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Matthew R. Walsh, Stephan B. Munch, Susumu Chiba, and David O. Conover. (2006) Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery. Ecology Letters 9:2, 142-148
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Selina S. Heppell, Scott A. Heppell, Felicia C. Coleman, and Christopher C. Koenig. (2006) Models To Compare Management Options For A Protogynous Fish. Ecological Applications 16:1, 238
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John C. Field, Andre E. Punt, Richard D. Methot, and Cynthia J. Thomson. (2006) Does MPA mean Major Problem for Assessments Considering the consequences of place-based management systems. Fish and Fisheries 7:4, 284
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Jean-Marc Fromentin, and Joseph E Powers. (2005) Atlantic bluefin tuna: population dynamics, ecology, fisheries and management. Fish and Fisheries 6:4, 281-306
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P. K. Hershberger, N. E. Elder, J. Wittouck, K. Stick, and R. M. Kocan. (2005) Abnormalities in Larvae from the Once-Largest Pacific Herring Population in Washington State Result Primarily from Factors Independent of Spawning Location. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:2, 326-337
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Aaron Bartholomew, and James A. Bohnsack. (2005) A Review of Catch-and-Release Angling Mortality with Implications for No-take Reserves. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15:1-2, 129-154
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Allen H. Andrews, Erica J. Burton, Lisa A. Kerr, Gregor M. Cailliet, Kenneth H. Coale, Craig C. Lundstrom, and Thomas A. Brown. (2005) Bomb radiocarbon and lead??“radium disequilibria in otoliths of bocaccio rockfish ( Sebastes paucispinis ): a determination of age and longevity for a difficult-to-age fish. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:5, 517
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  • -

Business

Category : Articles

1. What strategies would you implement with your employees to ensure they are able to adapt and match your contingency leadership style You mention feedback and goals, is there any training and development which might make a difference

I would give each member a different task to complete each day until I have accumulated enough information of each team member, I will assign them to the task group that best fits with their work ethics, strengths, and interaction with others. I would have each team member to set short term goals that they could accomplish in a given amount of time. This will give me a more cohesive team that would be more productive. I would meet with them twice a month to get feedback on their progress and to discuss any issues that have occurred, and how they can be fixed. Also, I would set up workshops and/or seminars with certain venders to get the latest innovations and up to date procedures that my team and I would attend to further their training and knowledge. By doing this, it would benefit the organization because the employees will be more productive and moral would be up.

2. Did you all read about the different types of power ? The text describes 5 types, Legitimate, coercive, reward, expert and referent (Robbins & Coulter, 2012, ch.17). ? I think this is very true, and it was the thing I most struggled with when I first became a manager. ? Up until then, I was able to take my time gaining peoples following. ? Before people such as technicians were willing to follow, I relied on the manager to enforce it. ? After some time to get to know them, usually a month or two, I had power even though I did not have legitimate power. ? When I became a manager, I had legitimate power, I needed to use it, but I didnt know how. ? I still think the other forms of power are more important, because they are following by their own choice. ? But, legitimate power is important, and its difficult for a new manager to wield it and at the same time grow the relationships with their new reports which is required to have a better relationship.

Reference:
Robbins, S.P., & Coulter, M. (2012).? Management? (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall

Response
I agree with you.?  When i was thrown into the lions den with a new title of a supervisor, I didnt know where to start.?  I had to gain the confidence of my team of works before they took me serious.?  I had no managers to help me.?  I had to gain there trust and prove to them that i was hear to help and listen to them to resolve any issues that they had, and that i had an open door policy.?  After a 2 1/2 month, I gain their trust and we became a well greased machine.?  Productivity was up and so was there moral.?  This is when I realize that I had legitimate power, when my manager told me.
When I was growing up, one of my dads friends gave me some advice.?  He told me, “to make people follow you, you must first walk in their shoes.?  This way you see what they go through everyday and then one day they will see you as one of there own.?  This is how you gain their trust.?  Not to be rude, i said ok and walked away.?  I was in my early teens, my mind was somewhere else. The day my team accepted me, was the day i realize the advice my dads friend gave made sense.?  He move to Mexico, and him and a partner invented the cha cha chia pets. From rags to riches.