Monthly Archives: November 2016

  • -

Few Businesses Sprout, with Even Fewer Jobs

Category : Articles


Few Businesses Sprout, With Even Fewer Jobs

Few Businesses Sprout, With Even Fewer Jobs
The article that I chose to read and research was called Few Businesses Sprout, With Even Fewer Jobs written by Justin Lahart. The article discusses how there are a few small businesses that have recently popped up into the business world, which for our economy could be good, if only the new businesses offered more jobs, which would be ideal for job growths and innovation. As we have all heard about in the news, etc. we know that our country is in an economic downfall, and with majority of the companies having to fire the majority of their employees the only way to move on from this situation would be to provide more jobs for the people who are currently unemployed. A statement that was in the article that I read which would prove that our economy is trying to make more jobs readily available is that ???in the early months of the economic recovery, start-ups of job-creating companies have failed to keep pace with closings, and even those concerns that do get launched are hiring less than in the past. The number of companies with at least one employee fell by 100,000, or 2%, in the year that ended March 31, the Labor Department reported Thursday??? (Lahart, 2010). The question that is on everyone??™s mind is, is there a way to dig us out of this rut that we have gotten ourselves into
The article goes on to discuss how smaller businesses opening up is having an impact on the economy by roughly making 2.3 million jobs available, but the only problem is for how long Recently, I was watching the news and they had done research and surveys in regards to how smaller businesses have no chance at surviving in this economy today, so if the smaller jobs are providing a lot of jobs but not being able to stay in business what is the point of spending thousands of dollars to open a business to potentially find failure Due to the economic downfall and scarce funding, it makes it hard for researchers to do their job and try to find ways around the money issues, especially researchers who are trying to find new innovations that would be better than what we are using now, but cannot afford to make prototypes to show their interested investors. Another issue that small business owners have found is that it is hard to hire employees, when they barely have money to run their own business.
After reading the article and learning about specific people who are reaching out for economic relief to run their business, it makes you realize that there are millions of people out there trying to find ways to make money, or start a business that could be the one to take off. There needs to be more research on to what will really work, and ways to work around the downfall and achieve people??™s own company goals. The shocking thing is that there are potential companies that are struggling right now that could actually do our economy good, and they can??™t get their voices out there because of the scarce money.

Works Cited
Lahart, J. (2010, November 18). Few Businesses Sprout, With Even Fewer Jobs. Retrieved January 12, 2011, from Wall Street Journal:

Analysis of Cruzan Case and Schiavo Case

  • -

Business Communication

Category : Articles

Student Name : Fahmid Ferdous
Student ID : 0003MSOT0611
Topic : Communication Breakdown
To : Mr. Kamal Hossain


I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my lecturer Mr. Kamal Hossain for the support and guidance he showed me throughout my report writing as well as our institution London School of Commerce which gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful report on the topic barriers to communication, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things.
Secondly, I am also truly indebted and thankful to my parents and my classmates who boosted me morally and provided me great information resources in finishing this project within the limited time.
I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge.

Executive Summary

Warid Telecom International acquired a 15 year GSM authorization to operate as the sixth mobile phone operator in Bangladesh in December 2005 and they spent US$ 750 million. From the middle of 2006, Warid Bangladesh started working on its network and on May 10, 2007, they launched commercial operations covering 26 districts. It uses code 16 preceded by the code number of Bangladesh +880. Within 70 days of launching, Warid Bangladesh got hold of a million subscribers.
On Jan 4, 2010, Warid Telecom sold 70% of its stake in Bangladesh operations to India??™s Bharti Airtel for US$ 300 million receiving regulatory approval from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC).
From December 20, 2010, Warid Telecom was rebranded to Airtel.

Table of contents

Introduction 5
Analysis 6
Difference in perception 6
Language Difference 6
Sixth telecommunication operator 6
Lack of knowledge 6
Business strategies in Bangladesh 6
Lower economy of Bangladeshi people 6
Lack of interest 6
Not Proper Advertisement 6
People are not used to with the product 6
Difficulties with self-expression 7
Only 26 districts was covering their network 7
Customer care service was not that good 7
Conclusion and recommendation 8
References 9


The plan of Warid Telecom was to be professed not only as a telecommunication operator of voice services, but also as a universal provider of comprehensive communication services for both residential and business customers. They strived to supply the finest level of support and care through their highly skilled and motivated team of professionals and through maximum network coverage and connectivity.
But due to some barriers to communication they cannot survive in the competitive telecommunication market of Bangladesh. They have bound to sell 70% of their shares to the Indian biggest telecommunication company Airtel. The main facts of this communication breakdown of Warid Telecom are,
* Difference in perception
* Lack of knowledge
* Lack of interest
* Difficulties with self-expression


Difference in perception
* Language Difference
It is difficult to communicate with someone of different language. When Warid Telecom First launched their Prepaid and Postpaid packages, they named it Zemas prepaid package and Zahi as postpaid package. It is very difficult for Bangladeshi people to understand the meaning of these two words. So people were less interested to buy these packages.
* Sixth telecommunication operator
Warid Telecom was not the first telecommunication operator in Bangladesh. There were five more telecommunication company was already providing their services to the people. It is not that much profitable to do business with the same product in a running market. Warid Telecom did this mistake.

Lack of knowledge
* Business strategies in Bangladesh
Business strategies vary from country to country. When Warid Telecom came to Bangladesh, they were not clear about the business strategies in Bangladesh. So they could not make profit from their business.
* Lower economy of Bangladeshi people
The income of general Bangladeshi people is very low. Most of the people in our country use prepaid cell phone connection. When Warid Telecom first launched their product, they cost BDT 700 for each connection. On that time, the leading telecommunication companies such as Grameenphone, Aktel and Banglalink provided BDT 150 for each connection. Though, The Warid Telecom??™s had a cheap call rate, but it is difficult for the Bangladeshi people to spend BDT 700 for a connection at a time.

Lack of interest
* Not Proper Advertisement
Warid Telecom never broadcasted attractive advertisement. So the people were never being interested on this cell phone line.
* People are not used to with the product
In our country, people want to be attached with their family and friends. So they do not want to change their number. As Warid Telecom was the sixth telecommunication company, they could not convince the people to buy their product.

Difficulties with self-expression
* Only 26 districts was covering their network
Bangladesh is a country of 64 districts. Warid Telecom covered only 26 of those districts, which was very poor.
* Customer care service was not that good
Warid Telecom did not provide 24X7 customer care services. Also, the customer care managers were not that much well behaved.

Conclusion and recommendation

Due to these barriers, Warid Telecom could not make their expected profit from the telecommunication business from Bangladesh. Finally, they had to sale 70% of their shares to the Indian biggest telecommunication company Airtel.


* Stanton N., 2004, Mastering Communication, 4th Edn, Palgrave Macmillan, NY.

* Hossain K., 2011, Lecture 2, Business Communication, Dhaka.

* Bharti acquires Bangladeshs Warid Telecom-Business News. 2011. IBNLive. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 August 2011].

* Bharti Airtel buys 70% in Warid Telecom of Bangladesh: Business. 2011. India Today. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 August 2011]

* Warid Telecom International Ltd.: Private Company Information. 2011. BusinessWeek. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 August 2011]

* Warid Telecom. 2011. LinkedIn. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 August 2011]

* Turning of warid into airtel and its customers??™ impact. 2011. Youth Thinkers!. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 August 2011]

The Advantages of the Corrections System

  • -

Feuds and Digressions in Beowulf

Category : Articles

The term feud refers to permanent hostility involving two social groups. They can be families, generations or any two groups in society. They differ in the way of thinking and do not have the same values nor principles. Throughout the poem Beowulf, I could see the vengeance and desire to destroy themselves using hostility, violence, murder and death. It was an event that historically was created since the origin of the social groups involved. Friendship was a term not included in their vocabulary. This hostility began with the feud between the Swedes and the Geats.
While reading the poem it was clear that the parties involved had been in a bloodshed for a long time. The characters of the feud showed their courage and their commitment to their families and continued the feuding behavior. They followed rules and guidelines emphasizing when and how vengeance may be performed, who will be involved and who will be responsible of it. In Beowulf we can see the term feud as an ideological quality. In other words feud was seen as an issue between two parties or groups, defining their relationship and their interaction with one another. The whole plot of the poem revolves around feuds between Beowulf his enemies and the social feuds the different clans had.
Digressions are found all throughout the poem. The term digression refers to a departure of the central theme in reading or writing. Sometimes while analyzing the poem I realize that when digressions occurred it was to explain events that happened and most were related to feuds. The author refers to historical events to give more emphasis on the reading. Digression also informed about the hero??™s life. When at the beginning of the poem the author referred to the origin of the Danish kings and the story of Beowulf a Geatish hero. The author made biblical references through the poem and for me there is digression, because it isolates the theme of the epic poem, when referring to the bible stories. Digression helps the reader understand better the poem and why some events occurred in the history of Beowulf. In conclusion the history presented in Beowulf makes the most part of the digressions and these are extremely associated with feuds.

The Parens Patriae Model and the Due Process Model

  • -

Business Communication

Category : Articles


The term Communication is derived from the Latin word communes which means common. Thus to communicate means to make common or to make known. This act of making common and known is carried out through exchange of thoughts, ideas or likes. The exchange of thoughts and ideas couldn be done by gestures, signs, signals, speech or writing. People are communicating when they discuss some matter, when they talk over telephone or when they exchange information through letters.
Basically, communication is sharing information, whether in writing or orally.

What is communication

* Communication is life
* Life is communication because it plays a vital role through out one??™s life. Communication is the foundation of level of living. It is a combination of interpretation, comprehension of reality. Communication is the influence of attitude, opinions and emotions. Communication holds world of choices of language, attitude, opinions and emotions, past experiences, likes, dislikes, education, social and professional status and feedback
* A path to personal discovery
* An act or instance of transmitting
* A verbal or written message
* A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through
a system of symbols, signs or behavior also called exchange of information
* A system such as telephones for exchanging information
* A system of routes for moving troops, supplies, and vehicles
* Personnel engaged in transmitting or exchanging information
* A technique for expressing ideas effectively as in speech

* Types of communication
* There are many types of communication that we can use these days when we try to keep in touch. Keeping in touch is very important to have a healthy relationship not only with couples with family and friends too. It plays a vital role to keep the relationship alive and updated. It does not matter how you communicate with each other as long as it served its purpose of keeping you together.
* Communicating is considered vital since it can make or break a relationship. Be it within the family, or your circle of friends, or loved ones who had been so far. Trying to find the best communication medium is a must to keep in touch.?  Some of the usual and normal means of communication are mentioned below.
* Verbal communication.
* This is the most common of the many types of communication that we all have been using for so long. Verbal means you talk to each other. Uttering words and phrases and sentences is considered a verbal communication.
* Non-verbal communication.
* Non speaking, no words uttered, no noise type of communication; this is how a non-verbal communication is defined. This is normally used when one is not capable to speak. May it be a temporary illness that made you lost your speech, or it can be a long term sickness that will need you to learn to communicate without the use of speech.
* Visual communication.
* From the term itself, it is those types of communication that is relayed to you visually. An example would be looking on a locator or directory. You use your visuals to communicate with the map or the visual ad that you see to let you know where you should go. It communicates with you as you look at it and tells you what to do and where to go.
* Written communication.
* Writing is also another of the types of communication. If you do not have the ability to speak and communicate by the use of your mouth and tongue, the paper and the pen will help you. You can write anything that you want to say. It will help you tell others of what is in your thoughts and let them understand by reading your writings.
* It does not matter how you express yourself through communication. What is important is there are many means to choose from to be able to relay ones message to another and let one??™s thoughts be heard. Expressing oneself is healthy and can boost self-esteem. Always try to be yourself and let others value you as you.
* Interpretation
* “Interpretation is a communication process, designed to reveal meanings?  and relationships of our cultural and natural heritage, through involvement with objects, artifacts, landscapes and sites
* True and exact translation of message is called interpretation.
* The action of explaining the meaning of something: “the interpretation of data”. * An explanation or way of explaining: “its open to interpretation”. |
* The act of interpreting; explanation of what is obscure; translation; version; construction; as, the interpretation of a foreign language, of a dream, or of an enigma. * The sense given by an interpreter; exposition or explanation given; meaning; as, commentators give various interpretations of the same passage of Scripture. * The power or explaining |
* An artists way of expressing his thought or embodying his conception of nature.
* The act or process of applying general principles or formulae to the explanation of the results obtained in special cases.

* Competitors:
* An organization or country that is engaged in commercial or economic competition with others: “our main industrial competitors”.
* A person who takes part in a contest
* a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable: he wants to make money, but he also disapproves of it: Den??™s dilemma in a nutshell
* a difficult situation or problem: the insoluble dilemma of adolescence
* Logic an argument forcing an opponent to choose either of two unfavourable alternatives.
* knowledge
* quotient is a unit of measurement
* Ethics:
* Moral principles that govern a persons or groups behavior. * The moral correctness of specified conduct. |
* What is ethics * At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. * Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. * The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or disposition. * Ethics covers the following dilemmas: * how to live a good life * our rights and responsibilities * the language of right and wrong * moral decisions – what is good and bad * Our concepts of ethics have been derived from religions, philosophies and cultures. They infuse debates on topics like abortion, human rights and professional conduct. * Ethics, also known as moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] It comes from the Greek word ethos, which means “character”. Major areas of study in ethics may be divided into 4 operational areas:[1] * The basic concepts and fundamental principles of right human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment. See also morality. * Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, “What do I do” It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. Do we pursue our own happiness, or do we sacrifice ourselves to a greater cause Is that foundation of ethics based on the Bible, or on the very nature of man himself, or neither * Religion. * Ethics base on religion The relationship between religion and ethics is about the relationship between revelation and reason. Religion is based in some measure on the idea that God reveals insights about life and its true meaning. These insights are collected in texts (the Bible, the Torah, the Koran, etc.) and presented as ???revelation.??? Ethics, from a strictly humanistic perspective, is based on the tenets of reason: Anything that is not rationally verifiable cannot be considered justifiable. From this perspective, ethical principles need not derive their authority from religious doctrine. Instead, these principles are upheld for their value in promoting independent and responsible individuals??”people who are capable of making decisions that maximize their own well-being while respecting the well-being of others. * Even though religious and secular ethics don??™t derive their authority from the same source, we still must find a way to establish common ground between them; otherwise we??™re condemning ourselves to live amidst social discord and division. * Human beings thrive in cultures where people treat each person as unique and essential and elicit the inherent gifts and talents from within everyone.

The most beneficial culture for human beings is one based on the ethical values that have been proclaimed by every religion as “Gods laws”: truth, justice, love, honesty, forgiveness, responsibility, freedom, integrity, reverence, gratitude, generosity, joy, hope, courage, and peace. These are the conditions that allow people to thrive.

What you value (e.g., family, education, music, money, social progress, pleasure, truth, love, justice) has determined who you are. Aware of this, you can decide what kind of life and world to cultivate in the future by a commitment of intention and by mastering the necessary skill. * Ethics count on neatness of life. Ethics is goodness and values of life. * Truthfulness * Honesty * Responsibility * Respect * Integrity * Moral dilemma * Any religion is incomplete without these values. We don??™t avoid the acceptability of this values. * Truthfulness is like promise. Justified, accurate and promising. * Honesty is closed to truthfulness. * Integrity is a self dignity of a person. Whatever they promise, they abide4 by the promise. * Moral dilemma * Dilemma is a negative word. Moral ia positive word * A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive. * Usage Problem A problem that seems to defy a satisfactory solution. * Logic An argument that presents two alternatives, each of which has the same consequence. * a situation necessitating a choice between two equal, esp equally undesirable, alternatives * a problem that seems incapable of a solution * Philosophy Logic Logic a form of argument one of whose premises is the conjunction of two conditional statements and the other of which affirms the disjunction of their antecedents, and whose conclusion is the disjunction of their consequents. * Moral dilemma * A moral dilemma is when you have to choose to do one of two equally unpleasant things. You have a lot of bills and you see a truck drop a hug bag of cash along the road. You see the truck with the company logo on the side. Do you give the cash back which is the right thing to do and continue struggling to pay your bills. Or, do you decide to take the money, pay off your bills, and live happily ever after. But, you know if you take the money, it isnt yours, your not entitled to it and the company may not be able to suffer the loses. What shall you do That is a moral dilemma. * Situations in which each possible course of action breaches some otherwise binding moral principle. Serious dilemmas make the stuff of many tragedies. The conflict can be described in different ways. One suggestion is that whichever action the subject undertakes, she or he does something wrong, or something she or he ought not to do. Another is that this is not so, for the dilemma means that in the circumstances what she or he did was right, or as right as any alternative. It is important to the phenomenology of these cases that action leaves a residue of guilt and remorse, although again (provided it was not the subjects fault that she or he got into the dilemma) the rationality of these emotions can be contested. Any morality with more than one fundamental principle seems capable of generating dilemmas, but dilemmas exist such as that where a mother must decide which of two children to sacrifice, even although no principles are pitted against each other (only children). If we accept that dilemmas of principle are real and important, this fact can then be used to attack theories such as utilitarianism that recognize only one sovereign principle. Alternatively, regretting the existence of dilemmas and the unordered jumble of principles that creates many of them, a theorist may use their occurrence to argue for the desirability of locating and promoting a single sovereign principle. * Well, it??™s obviously a conflict of some sort. If you??™re stuck in a moral dilemma you have some good moral reasons to do each of two different things (???dilemma??? comes from the Greek for ???double proposition???). The problem is that you can??™t do both. You do either one or the other, and by failing to do one you fail morally. A moral dilemma condemns you to moral failure. You have an unpleasant choice to make between two moral duties and therefore you??™re forced to violate one duty. |
* |

* Charismatic personality:
* . When all above qualities are in a person then he becomes a charismatic person. The term charisma compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others, 2) a divinely conferred power or talent For some usages the term is rendered chrism, with a meaning the same as sense 2. Since the 1950s, the term has become widely used, with varying meanings, in religion, the social sciences, the media, and throughout Western societies. This article describes the theological and personality senses of the definition of charisma, the history of the term, and 21st century uses of both senses in particular sectors of society.
* Theologians and social scientist have expanded and modified the original Greek meaning into the two distinct senses above. For ease of reference, we will call the first sense personality charisma and the second divinely conferred charisma.
* The meaning of charisma has become greatly diffused from its original divinely conferred meaning, and even from the personality charisma meaning in modern English dictionaries, which reduces to a mixture of charm and status. John Potts, who has extensively analyzed the terms history, sums up meanings beneath this diffused common usage.
* Contemporary charisma maintains, however, the irreducible character ascribed to it by Weber: it retains a mysterious, elusive quality.

* 7cs. There are 7c??™s of affective communication. which are applicable to both written as well as in oral communication. These are as follows.
* Candid..Means that you have to be frank but not blunt(rude) Free from undue bias; disposed to think and judge according to truth and justice, or without partiality or prejudice; fair; just; impartial; as, a candid opinion.
* Open; frank; ingenuous; outspoken. Free from prejudice; impartial.
* Characterized by openness and sincerity of expression; unreservedly straightforward: In private, I gave them my candid opinion.
* Completeness – means that our msg should be complete. The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver??™s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features: In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action.
* Does your message include a “call to action”, so that your audience clearly knows what you want them to do
* Have you included all relevant information ??“ contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on
* Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization. Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost
* is incurred in conveying extra message if the
* leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
* Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/readers/receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.
* It persuades the audience.
* Correctness ??“ Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:
* When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.
* Do the technical terms you use fit your audiences level of education or knowledge
* Have you checked your for grammatical errors Remember, spell checkers wont catch everything.
* Are all names and titles spelled correctly
* The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
* If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
* Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers.
* It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
* It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.
* Concreteness – Means closed to the wrote point. Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:
* When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what youre telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and theres laserlike focus. Your message is solid.

* It is supported with specific facts and figures.
* It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
* Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
* Clear ??“ Motive of writing should be simple in statement. or in small sentences. Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features: When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person If youre not sure, then your audience wont be sure either.
* To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that its easy for your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldnt have to “read between the lines” and make assumptions on their own to understand what youre trying to say.
* It makes understanding easier.
* Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
* Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words. .
* Courtesy ??“ Goodwill maintain, and relation bonding should be strong. Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender??™s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:
* Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your readers viewpoint in mind, and youre empathetic to their needs.
* Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message.
* Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
* It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
* It is not at all biased.
* Conciseness ??“ means not too worthy, not extra words, idioms, should to the point and not to be indue. Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C??™s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features:

* When youre concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience doesnt want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.
Are there any adjectives or “filler words” that you can delete You can often eliminate words like “for instance,” “you see,” “definitely,” “kind of,” “literally,” “basically,” or “I mean.”
* There any unnecessary sentences
Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways
* It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
And needless words.
Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience. Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
* Consideration
* Means understanding of human nature.
* Consideration demands to put oneself in the place of receiver while composing a message. It refers to the use of You attitude, emphases positive pleasant facts, visualizing reader??™s problems, desires, emotions and his response.
* When u give importance to someone, considerate on your language, when you think about others.

* Coherence
* The quality or state of cohering, especially a logical, orderly, and aesthetically consistent relationship of parts.
* Physics The property of being coherent, as of waves.
* logically or aesthetically ordered coherent style a coherent argument
* having clarity or intelligibility.
* having the quality of holding together or especially a coherent plan for action
* relating to or composed of waves having a constant difference in coherent light
* producing coherent light a coherent source
* Conversational
* The spoken exchange of thoughts, opinions, and feelings; talk.
* An instance of this: held a long conversation on the subject.
* . An informal discussion of a matter by representatives of governments, institutions, or organizations. Conversations are interactive because contributions to a conversation are response reactions to what has previously been said.
* When you converse, you simply to talk, discuss in formal manner. You must learn the art of conversational in communication.
* Conversations are spontaneous because a conversation proceeds, to some extent, and in some way, unpredictably. However, the scope of that spontaneity may legitimately be somewhat pre-limited for the purpose of expediency, e.g. a talk show or a debate.
* Conversations follow rules of etiquette because conversations are social interactions, and therefore depend on social convention. Failure to adhere to these rules devolves, and eventually dissolves the conversation.
* Conversations are sometimes the ideal form of communication, depending on the participants intended ends. Conversations may be ideal when, for example, each party desires a relatively equal exchange of information, or when one party desires to question the other. On the other hand, if permanency or the ability to review such information is important, written communication may be ideal. Or if time-efficiency is most important, a speech may be preferable.
* Connected:
* Use in courtesy closing relation bonding. a relation between things or events..To join, unite, or cohere; to have a close relation; as, one line of railroad connects with another; one argument connect with another.
* to join, link, or fasten together; unite or bind: to connect the two cities by a bridge; Communication satellites connect the local stations into a network
* Change:
* To bring something new and better than before. Whenever there is a change. It is always towards betterment.
* Changes means that should be sequence. The process should kept on in. To alter; to make different; to cause to pass from one state to another; as, to change the position, character, or appearance of a thing; to change the countenance.
* To be altered; to undergo variation; as, men sometimes change for the better.
* Any variation or alteration; a passing from one state or form to another; as, a change of countenance; a change of habits or prink Alteration in the order of a series; permutation. piles.
* the act or fact of changing or being changed
* a variation, deviation, or modification. the substitution of one thing for another; exchange
* anything that is or may be substituted for something else
* Controlled
* Is related to personality. When person who ever is writing and speaking. A person who knows the art of expression, styles of presentation. He has his own remote in his own hands. Whatever you think, you know what to say, how to say, and when to say. Emotionality takes a secondary status. We can call him a dignified personality.
* Power or authority to check or restrain; restraining or regulating influence; superintendence; government; as, children should be under parental control.
* That which serves to check, restrain, or hinder; restraint.
* A duplicate book, register, or account, kept to correct or check another account or register; a counter register.
* To exercise restraining or governing influence over; to check; to counteract; to restrain; to regulate; to govern; to overpower.
* To check by a counter register or duplicate account; to prove by counter statements; to confute.
* Any of the physical factors determining the climate of any particular place, as latitude, distribution of land and water, altitude, exposure, prevailing winds, permanent high- or low-barometric-pressure areas, ocean currents, mountain barriers, soil, and vegetation. The complete apparatus used to control a mechanism or machine in operation, as a flying machine in flight;
* the mechanism controlling the rudders and ailerons.
* Complete; including all or nearly all elements or aspects of something: “a comprehensive list of sources”. * Of large content or scope; wide-ranging. * Including much; comprising many things; having a wide scope or a full view * Having the power to comprehend or understand many things. * including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something: a comprehensive list of sources * of large content or scope; wide-ranging: a comprehensive collection of photographs * (of a victory or defeat) achieved or suffered by a large margin: a comprehensive victory for Swansea * of motor-vehicle insurance) providing cover for most risks, including damage to the policyholder??™s own vehicle. * Composed * Write or create (a work of art, esp. music or poetry). * Write or phrase (a letter or piece of writing) with care and thought: “the first sentence is so hard to compose” |
* |
* To form by putting together two or more things or parts; to put together; to make up; to fashion.
* To form the substance of, or part of the substance of; to constitute.
* To construct by mental labor; to design and execute, or put together, in a manner involving the adaptation of forms of expression to ideas, or to the laws of harmony or proportion; as, to compose a sentence, a sermon, a symphony, or a picture.
* To dispose in proper form; to reduce to order; to put in proper state or condition; to adjust; to regulate.
* To free from agitation or disturbance; to tranquilize; to soothe; to calm; to quiet.
* To arrange (types) in a composing stick in order for printing; to set (type).
* To come to terms.
* Creative
* From the point of information sending, learning, information to make or do something different or new. You do the same which shows the change give a new style.
* Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.
* In order to be creative, you need to be able to view things in new ways or from a different perspective. Among other things, you need to be able to generate new possibilities or new alternatives. Tests of creativity measure not only the number of alternatives that people can generate but the uniqueness of those alternatives. the ability to generate alternatives or to see things uniquely does not occur by change; it is linked to other, more fundamental qualities of thinking, such as flexibility, tolerance of ambiguity or unpredicted Persons who express unusual thoughts, who are interesting and stimulating – in short, people who appear to unusually bright.
* People who experience the world in novel and original ways. These are (personally creative) individuals whose perceptions are fresh, whose judgments are insightful, who may make important discoveries that only they know about.
* Individuals who have changes our culture in some important way. Because their achievement are by definition public, it is easier to write about them. Leonardo, Edison, Picasso, Einstein. Ability, and the enjoyment of things heretofore unknown
* Credible
* to be believed; convincing.
* Able Capable of persuading people that something will happen or be successful: “a credible threat
* Capable of being credited or believed; worthy of belief; entitled to confidence; trustworthy.
* the quality or power of inspiring belief Concerning Physician Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

  • -

Fetal Pig Lab

Category : Articles

Fetal Pig Lab
Lab Journal

Blake Grist
Remy Desloges, Mark Pulak
Biology 11-1

Day 1-Gender Identification and External Anatomy
1. Name: Kevin Bacon
2. Gender: Male
3. Length: Body 12.5 inches, Tail 3 inches
4. Ear Notch: single Square
5. Distinguishing marks: red spot on lower middle back
6. List of Features:
* Head
* Pinna
* Snout
* External Nares
* Mouth
* Tongue
* Mental Gland
* Shoulder
* Arm (Brachium)
* Forearm (Antebrachium)
* Elbow
* Wrist
* Hand
* Foot
* Digits
* Trunk
* Teat
* Umbilical cord
* Hip
* Thigh
* Knee
* Ankle
* Tail
* Urogenital opening
* Scrotum

7. Classification (taxonomy):
* Kingdom-Animalia
* Phylum-Chordata
* Class-Mammalia
* Order-Artiodactyla
* Suborder-Suina
* Family-Suinae
* Genus-Sus
* Species-Scrofa

Day 2
Today we skinned the pig which took quite a bit of time due to the fact we had to pull and cut. Our group was also very gentle when trying to pull of the skin so we took longer. For the most part we sucessfuly cut around the penis, there is a small cut in it from going to fast. The skin was fully kept as one piece so it could wrapped around later. The umbilical cord and the mental gland were not cut.
All of these muscles were identified:
* Masseter
* Biceps
* Triceps
* Pectorals
* Latissumus Dorsi
* Trapezius
* Deltoid
* Gastrocnemius
* Gluteals
* Gracilis
* Sartorius
* Adductor femoris
* Rectus abdominus
* Quadriceps (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, intermedius, rectus femoris)
* Hamstrings (semitendinous, semimembranosus, biceps femoris)

The oblique muscles were identified. They were difficult at first since we had not cut deep enough and there was a layer of connecting tissue over top of the oblique muscles.
Oblique Muscles Identified:
* Oblique
* Internal oblique
* External oblique

Day 3-Head and Visceral Cavities

Our group did not properly cut the rib cage open. The cuts made were to deep so the pericardium was damaged and it was not on the heart when the rib cage was opened up. However it was still identified because it was stuck to the rib cage. The diaphragm was also identified; we found that it was quite large and very tough. The liver and the lobes were easy to identify. The gull bladder was quite small but still easy to identify because it was green. Our group did not break open the jaw of the pig but we identified the hard and soft palate in another group??™s pig as well as the epiglottis.

The parts identified after cutting ribs:
* Diaphragm
* Liver and its lobes
* Gall bladder

1. Parts identified:
* Masseter muscles
* Salivary duct
* Lymph nodes
* Parotid gland
* Facial nerve

Day 4-Respiratory System

The lungs of the fetal pig are not operational because it does not need to use them to supply itself with oxygen. The mother provides this through the umbilical cord. The different lobes of lungs were easy to identify. The lungs of our group were not extracted.

1. The lobes of the lungs:
* Cardiac Lobe of Right Lung
* Cardiac Lobe of Left Lung
* Intermediate Lobe of Right Lung
* Diaphragmatic Lobe of Left Lung
* Diaphragmatic Lob of Right Lung
* Apical Lobe of Right Lung
Parts of the respiratory system that were identified:
* thymus gland
* trachea
* esophagus

Day 5-Digestive System
The digestive system was quite an easy lab. All parts were easy to identify except for the two pancreas??™ because they appeared to be just tissue aswell as the spleen which was difficult to identify because it was just a gland. Our group did not dissect the stomach however all parts of the stomach were identified from observing the stomach??™s of other groups.
1. Parts of digestive system identified:
* Messentry
* Cecum
* Spiral Colon
* Rectum
* Diverticulum
* Pyloric sphincter
* Cardiac sphincter
* Stomach
* Spleen
2. Our group did not extract the stomach

Lab 6-Circulatory System
Fetal pig circulation is not the same as regular circulation because the blood from the upper body, head and limbs flow straight to the caudal and cranial venae cavae. As supposed to going to the superior vena cava Our group did infact extract the heart and it was done by myself personally. The extraction of the heart was done very well, all of the parts were intact and the heart was dyed very well so all veins and arteries were easy to identify. Our group did not cut the heart down the middle though but the inside of the heart was observed from looking at other groups. The pulmonary arch on out heart was very prominent. The iliac vein and artery were very difficult to identify.
1. External anatomy of heart and circulatory system
* Pericardium membrane
* Atria and ventricles
* Pulmonary arch
* Aorta
* Subclavian veins and arteries
* Carotid arteries
* Cranial vena cava and caudal vena cava
* Umbilical veins and arteries
* Illianc vein and artery
2. The larger pig heart was also observed

Lab 7-Urinary and Reproductive Systems
The urinary and reproductive systems were difficult to identify because the urinary system was small and tacked behind all of the digestive system. The penis of the pig was identified aswell as the scrotum and testes. I when I was first dissecting the testis and opening up the scrotum I did not go deep enough but the second time around I opened it up completely and was able to identify the entire testis and the cauda epididymis. Since our group had a male pig we went to another group to identify the female reproductive organs. Our group did not bisect a kidney so we went to another group to see theirs.
1. Our group did not bisect a kidney, we viewed another groups, and the large kidney that was being passed around.
2. The ureter, renal artery and renal vein were all identified
3. All reproductive organs were identified including male and female.
4. The parts of the reproductive system that were identified:
* Testis
* Cauda epididymis
* Bladder
* Ovaries
* Oviduct
* Vagina
* Penis

Lab 8-Nervous system
The scalp was peeled off very easily once it was cut but scoring the skull around the brain was very difficult. Once the skull was scored it was very difficult to chip off the skull, the dura mater was not damaged when removing the skull. We could not get far enough to extract the brain but the sheep brain was observed so the different parts of it were observed.

Lab 9-Special sense organs
The sheep eye was dissected and when it was opened it was deflated on the inside and the retina was not attached to the rest of the eye it was sagging off of it. The different layers and parts of the eye were very easily identifiable due to their different colours and distinct thickness and appearance. The retina, choroid and sclera were the easiest to identify due to them being sandwiched on top of each other. The lens of the eye was infact very hard, it resembled a skittle. The eye was covered in a lot of fat and the optic nerve was very hard.
1. The pig eye was dissected properly which allowed for the inside to be easily viewed
2. The parts of the eye:
* Iris
* Pupil
* Nictitating membrane
* Retina
* cornea
* Optic Nerve
* Lens

3. Endocrine glands:

Àranklin Police Departments

  • -

Business Communication

Category : Articles


Question 1

a. Set a communication objective for your meeting with George.
As a result of my meeting with George, he will approve my suggestion to buy three advanced computers and a more sophisticated photocopier.

b. Choose your communication style for the meeting with justification.
I will use tell and sell style for meeting with George.

Tell Style

I will tell George that one of the computers in my department has broken down and other computers are either old or slow. Some of our staff has to share their computers with other colleagues. It will affect their work efficiency, productivity and our day-to-day business. They are not happy with their poor working environment.
I need to buy a sophisticated photocopier because our staff has already got heavy workload, our photocopier is always not working properly and do not have other functions such as staple, sort, scan etc. We have to hire two part-time clerks to reduce their workload.

Sell Style

I will explain to George that the speed of these new computers are faster, efficiency, user friendly and have bigger megabyte. The new photocopier has additional new functions and we can use it as a fax machine.
All these new equipments will reduce our staff??™s workload and we can lay off two part-time clerks. It provides a better working environment for them and will increase their work efficiency and more productivity. Both our business and profit will grow rapidly. These new equipments have energy saving function, it can reduce our electricity bill each month and also create a green working environment.

c. Show how you could motivate George to accept your idea with clear
explanations. You should use five ways to motivate him.

Punishment and Reward

Use a reward.
As George is the Financial Controller to control our office budget, I will explain to him that having these new advance equipments, staff will appreciate you, as it will help them to reduce their workload. They will respect you as an open-minded, considerate staff working environment and willing to accept new suggestions. Giving someone admire and acknowledge is a kind of reward.

Appeal to growth needs

These new equipments will increase staff work efficiency many times that means both our business and profit will grow. You will recognize by your boss as a sagacious Financial Controller. It will build-up a good relationship with your staff and esteem by them. This will appeal to his growth needs.

Use people??™s need for balance
Upset the balance
I can upset George??™s balance by telling him that if we do not have these new equipments and our staff has to share computers with each other. They are not happy with their poor working environment and will reduce their work productivity. As a result of that our business and profits will drop again. Since our profits have been falling for the past few months.

Restore the balance

With these new equipments, our staff will have a good working environment; they are happy and even work harder than before. As a result of that our business and profit will grow and we may have salary increase at the end of the financial year. Your boss will appreciate your work since you have been working for this company for few months and our business grow sharply and earn a huge profit.

Perform a cost/benefit analysis


We have to spend extra money to buy 3 advanced computers and a more sophisticated photocopier. If we don??™t have these new equipments, George will not support and respect by our staff.


After we provide a training course to our staff on how to use these new equipments and it can reduce their workload. With these new equipments, our staff will have a good working environment, more efficiency, more productivity and happier than before.

Benefit greater than cost

We can lay-off the two part-time clerks and it will save a lot of money in our salary budget. All these new equipments have the energy saving function and it will reduce our electricity bill for nearly 10% per month. Our staff will increase their work productivity and our profit will grow steadily. Our boss is happy when they see our business rapid growth and earn a huge profit. Staff thinks that you are always take care of them and they will build-up the good relationship with you.

Sensitive to character treats

George belongs to the ???comptroller??™ and I will use a matter??“of-fact tone to motivate him. If we don??™t have these new computers, our staff has to share computers with other colleagues. It will create a lot of pressure among them and will reduce their work productivity. The photocopier is always not working properly and staff are not happy with their poor working environment.
I will explain to George the benefit of these new equipments are faster, efficiency and increase our staff work productivity. We can dismiss two part time clerks and save our salary budget. These new equipments have energy saving function and reduce our electricity bill about 10% per month. It creates a green working environment and our staff are happier than before.

Question 2
a. Was there a conflict in the situation Justify your answer

Inter-dependent Relationship

Jesse and Shirley have an inter-dependent relationship because they have been working together on this uniform project for the past two months. All their store assistants uniform have to be changed by the second week in June.


They blame each other about the colour of the uniforms. Jesse couldn??™t accept any faulty uniforms and asked Shirley talk to BXB to deliver the right colour uniforms to them before the deadline.
Shirley said BXB told them that the colour might be a bit different from the sample. Jesse confirmed the colour was fine but now he said the colour was not acceptable.


Both Jesse and Shirley lost their temper and exchanged sharp words such as Jesse could not ask the company to accept any faulty uniforms. Shirley said if we couldn??™t meet the deadline, it was all Jesse fault and she walked out of Jess??™s office angrily.

Unsatisfactory Output

Jesse and Shirley have conflict about the wrong colour of the new uniforms. If BXB can??™t find the right colour to remake all the uniforms, the productivity of the uniforms will be affected and may not deliver the uniforms to them before deadlines. Both Jesse and Shirely??™s working performance will be affected.

b. Analyse the disagreement/conflict.

Number of people concerned

There are only Jesse and Shirley involved in the conflict and the number of people concerned is quite small, resolving the conflict should be easy and straight forward.

Negotiation power

The conflict is caused by Shirley??™s dissatisfaction about Jesse not accept the new uniforms made by BXB. Shirley does not have the authority to comprise, as Jesse suggested she has to talk to BXB whether they can deliver the right colour uniforms in two weeks??™ time.


The conflict between Jesse and Shirley should classify as urgent and critical. All their store assistants have to change their uniforms by the second week in June. Shirley should arrange another meeting with Jesse to work out a possible solution to solve this conflict.

Communication channels

Although Shirley was unhappy that Jesse refused to accept the new uniforms. She should organise a meeting with Jesse, confirm the date and time is suitable for him. Book the conference room and talk to him face to face to find out a solution. She should make sure there is nothing to disturb them during their meeting.

c. Suggest, with clear explanations, how the disagreement/conflict could be


Both Jesse and Shirley should work towards a win-win situation, do not blame each other and try to find out a solution to solve the conflict. Shirley may adopt the you-attitude when she speaks to Jesse. Shirley should set up an appointment with Jesse and explain to him that BXB may not deliver the right colour to them before the deadline. Then all their store assistants can??™t change their uniforms on the second week in June. Their boss must be unhappy and query about their work capabilities. Shirley may convince Jesse to negotiate a discount with BXB instead of ask them to remake all the uniforms. Their office can save a lot of money and their boss is happy about their work performance. They all have a win-win situation and nobody lose.

Managerial mediation

1. Their boss should arrange a preliminary meeting with Jesse to hear about why he was not happy about the colour of the new uniforms as well as suggest for a solution. Their boss should respect Jesse??™s work for this project.
2. Their boss holds another preliminary meeting with Shirley listening to her story why she was angry with Jesse. Also suggest a solution and thank Shirley for her contribution for this project.
3. Their boss arranges a three-party meeting as soon as possible and confirm the date, time and the venue is the office conference room. He will brief them the purpose of this meeting is looking for solution and not to blame anyone.
4. During the three-party meeting, their boss should say thank you all to attend this three party meeting and mentioned he had separate meeting with all of you individual to listen to your stories. They are now here to work out the best solution to this uniform project and the most important is the cooperation. Then all their store assistants can change their uniforms on the second week in June.
5. Jesse and Shirley should conclude a solution to accept the new uniform such as they can negotiate with BXB for discount. Their company can save a lot of money and it is a win-win situation. Their boss should take down the meeting notes and send to Jesse and Shirley.
6. Their boss should schedule follow up meetings with Jesse and Shirley to review the situation of the uniform project and make sure BXB can deliver the uniforms to them before the deadline.

Fundamentals of Business Law

  • -


Category : Articles

After a heavy night of parting, i woke up with a strange mild pain in my side. I just wrote it off as possibly sleeping in an awkward position. Getting ready for the day I realized the pain wasnt going away,but it was still mild enough to ignore. I drove to meet my friend Dave for lunch at a chinese buffet. I ate one plate of food and then I started to feel a little strange, waves of heat started to overcome, and at that point I knew what was going to happen…and soon. I went into the bathroom of the restaurant and tried to puke, but was making no progress. I walked up to Dave and said “Ive got to get out of here”. He paid and we left. The pain in my side spread to my entire abdomen and it was almost unbearable to walk to my car. It was one of the hottest days of the summer and the heat made the pain worse. I had to ask Dave to drive me home. Before we even made it out of the parking lot, I puked three times on the mall lawn. After that I felt better, but not 100%. Finally we arrived at my house and I went into my room and stripped down because my clothes were drenched in sweat. I was sitting in the living room with Dave he said, “I have to use the bathroom. Ill only be a minute”. He walked up the stairs and as soon as he closed the bathroom door, I had the most violent urge to take a shit I have ever had in my life. I bolted through my kitchen, out my back door, and took a shit in my backyard! Luckily, there was a large bush hiding me from the street and public view. After that I felt great! I cleaned up and sat down on my couch as Dave walked back in the living room I said laughing “youre not going to believe what I just did!”

Beijing Car Ban Improves Air Quality

  • -

Business Communication

Category : Articles

Evaluating Business Communication

Evaluating Business Communication
Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Purpose
III. Beth??™s Memo
IV. John??™s Memo
V. Beth??™s Short Letter
VI. John??™s Power Point
VII. Beth??™s Power Point
VIII. Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations
IX. References

In the business world many different forms of communications exist. Communication styles and approaches vary depending on type of information, audience, desired results, and person delivering initial communication. When delivering negative news it is unethical and unprofessional to do so in an email or using a second hand source. It is best to communicate certain information face to face and to always remain professional. The author or speaker needs to evaluate the audience they are addressing and communicate in the proper manner. They would not address a superior in the same manner the may address a fellow coworker or subordinate. The communicator needs to consider the desired results they are seeking and make adjustments accordingly. The communicator should always remain professional and courteous to avoid any potential backlash for unethical actions.

The purpose of this paper is to examine how different communique??™s effect communication in a theoretical business setting and how responding to different levels of management and coworkers, changes the authors communication style. The paper will explain whether the type of communication is appropriate for the audience, contains too much information, contains too little information, whether the intended communication was conveyed, ethical implications, and any recommended changes to improve the communique.

Beth??™s memo to Sales Associate Mark conveyed the appropriate message that was intended. Mark will likely be disappointed that the two companies will not do business in the future but he should have an understanding with Beth??™s memo explaining to him the risks. Mark is a former employee of JJJ Company and would obviously be excited with the acquisition of a company he is familiar with and was top sales employee. Beth does not use her position as an upper level employee to influence her decision concerning JJJ Company. Although he is not familiar with accounting Beth makes it a point to highlight JJJ Company??™s debts and the potential risks that would be involved if Riordan were to continue its pursuit of JJJ Company. Beth also informs Mark using the correct amount of information sharing that while JJJ Company is an exciting prospect for Riordan, their negatives outweigh the positives. Beth is professional and ethical in her communication with Mark, using the appropriate style of communication to relay the information. Another form of communication would not have provided a better explanation for the decision that Riordan made, the only added information that may make things easier for Mark to understand about the decision would be some graphs that highlight the risks, rewards, JJJ Company??™s debts side by side with their sales totals. This may put things in perspective more for Mark without placing too much information concerning accounting in front of him. Mark being a sales employee should be familiar with graphs, statistics, and risk/loss potential. Grammar and punctuation is professional and clear in Beth??™s memo to Mark and the information was easy to understand. Beth created her memo in a professional business format and never strayed from that form of communication. The tone that Beth used was friendly, professional, and appropriate. Ethical implications are correctly used in this memo and do not influence my evaluation of this communique. Beth never over stepped her position within the Riordan Company and was excellent with her communication style, use of her skills, and knowledge while communicating with Mark. Beth is a valuable asset to Riordan.

John is another member of Riordan??™s Accounting Team, bringing experience and education to the team. Like Beth John does not feel that JJJ Company is a solid pursuit for the Riordan Company. His memo is addressed to William, the Chief Executive Officer of Riordan. William??™s top concern is making the acquisition of JJJ Company if it means a profit for Riordan. William knows business and relies heavily on John??™s feedback and advice. John knows William well and uses his memo to advise William that JJJ Company would not be a good investment for Riordan. John uses the correct amount of information to explain his decision and findings and does not use information that William would rather not see. John does explain that he researched all advantages and disadvantages that would be involved with the acquisition of JJJ Company to let William know that it was not a decision that was made carelessly. John conveyed the communication effectively while explaining his findings to the audience in the manner in which they would prefer. I do not feel another form of communication would be better in this situation. John is addressing one of the higher superiors in the company who ultimately make some of the biggest decisions; however this person does not look for detailed graphs, statistics, or reports. He seeks a simple review and bases his decision off of his staffs research and advice. The communication is at the appropriate level for the audience. William is seeking John??™s advice on whether it would be beneficial to Riordan to acquire JJJ Company and he wants to know the advice is done so based on facts. William is John??™s superior and John addressed him appropriately with respect from a lower ranking employee and in a friendly manner considering John and William??™s professional relationship. John conveys that he is eager to clarify any problems by asking that William contact him should he have any questions. I feel that the right amount of information is conveyed and is neither too much nor too little. The ethical implications being shared are followed according to a professional standard. My evaluation is not influenced by the ethical implications because John is clear and concise that pursuing JJJ Company will not be a wise decision for Riordan.

Beth wrote a short letter to the Accounting Department letting her peers know the status of the due diligence report that Riordan conducted concerning JJJ Company. Beth is very much involved in the findings concerning JJJ Company and while she does not share the same professional relationship with William that John does she is teamed with John to find the best choice possible. The due diligence report that was conducted on JJJ Company revealed the many debts the company possesses. JJJ Company has excellent sales and the marketing avenues available that would be valuable to Riordan especially in the hands of former JJJ Company top sales employees Mark and marketing manager Dana but the risks are too high for the accounting team at Riordan to advise further acquisition of JJJ Company. The communication conveyed the intended message in an understandable and professional manner. Beth advised her peers that it would be detrimental for Riordan to continue its pursuit. An email could have been an acceptable form of communication in this setting but a short letter works just as well. An email would have cut down on communication time and the channels involved in the process would have been more direct from Beth to her peers. The communication is at the appropriate level for the intended audience. The tone is professional and the grammar and punctuation is used correctly. Leadership styles played little to no role in this communication because the letter was for Beth??™s peers and intended to relay a simple message. I would recommend possibly changing this communique to an email instead of a letter; it makes more sense professionally from a business view point. The ethical implications are saving Riordan from acquiring a serious amount of debt and should exhibit confidence in the accounting teams??™ abilities. The communication shares enough information to get the main point across to the intended audience but could be a little more detailed. The ethical implications do not influence my evaluation of this communication. Beth did an acceptable job relaying the information to her peers and used a professional tone throughout the communique.

John used a power point presentation to communicate his findings to the Ad Hoc Committee. John made sure to be detailed about his findings to help convince the Ad Hoc Committee the risks involved if the Riordan was to continue with the acquisition of JJJ Company. John showed the Ad Hoc Committee that JJJ Company??™s sales were good but were continuously overshadowed by their amount of debt. John explains that former JJJ Company employees and current Riordan employees Mark and Dana are excited about the potential marketing avenues JJJ Company has, it would be a mistake to make the acquisition based on their eagerness. The communication was excellent communicating the intended message. John used graphs and detailed speakers notes explaining why Riordan would be taking a huge financial risk should they acquire JJJ Company. Another form of communication would not have been a better choice in this situation. The power point presentation allows John to place debt and sales side by side while bringing the potential advantages and disadvantages to the Ad Hoc Committees attention. The communication is appropriate for intended audience. The Ad Hoc Committee is responsible for making an informed decision about the acquisition of JJJ Company and then relay their decision to upper management. The leadership styles were appropriate in this situation and were followed in a professional manner. The only changes I would recommend being made to the communique would be more graphs and some statistics concerning JJJ Company??™s potential risk to Riordan. The ethical implication being shared is that Riordan would suffer a loss if they were to Acquire JJJ Company. I would recommend that John show a little more detail in his information and use more speaker notes with the power point to emphasize why Riordan should halt their venture with JJJ Company. My evaluation is not affected much in this evaluation. John does state that JJJ Company exhibits high sales but also higher debts and that furthering their business dealings with the company places Riordan in a position to suffer losses as well. Overall John was upfront and honest with the Ad Hoc Committee about his research and the results he discovered. He presented a confident power point presentation to convince the Ad Hoc Committee to avoid favoring the acquisition.

Beth chose to use a power point presentation to relate the findings of the due diligence report to Danna the marketing manager. Dana is familiar with JJJ Company because she is a former employee. Dana is now marketing manager of Riordan and is excited about the possible acquisition of JJJ Company??™s marketing avenues. The communication was detailed about JJJ Company??™s debt and sales numbers. Beth??™s power point explained to Dana that JJJ Company did have great sales records and the potential for exceptional marketing avenues; it also came packaged with an extremely high amount of debt that overshadowed the sales numbers. This should come as no surprise to Dana considering her former employment with JJJ Company. I do not feel another type of communication would have expressed the necessary information needed to explain why the decision to pursue any further acquisition would be detrimental to Riordan. The communication is appropriate for the intended audience. Beth uses numbers and facts to explain to Dana why it they will most likely not pursue her former employer. Beth is an accountant on the accounting team and is familiar with the risks and potential rewards of company mergers. Being paired with John, Beth was on the front lines of investigating the positives and negative JJJ Company brought to the table. The changes I recommend to this communication would be to add speaker notes. Without speaker notes formed by Beth, Dana is simply looking at slides with figures on them. There is no explanation of what is on each slide and why the risk outweighs the reward. This is a great disadvantage to Beth??™s argument and recommendation, although Dana is not in charge of making the decision she may lobby for Riordan superiors to pursue JJJ Company due to lack of detailed explanation from Beth. The communication lacks details explaining the slides of the power point in the form of speakers??™ notes and therefore uses too little information. The ethical implications showed in the communication explain that Riordan would be at risk if they acquired JJJ Company. The ethical implications do not influence my evaluation because they are apparent in the power point but are not explained.

Overall the communications that were used to relay information to each group were well written and presented in a professional manner. Each communique informed each audience that the ethical implications of acquiring JJJ Company would be a poor business move for Riordan. With consistent sales issues and a debt that was growing by the year, Riordan would not be able to pay off that debt and make a profit regardless of JJJ Company??™s marketing avenues. Some members of the team were eager at the thought of a potential acquisition of JJJ Company but were also a step behind the rest of the team about the downside of the purchase. There is always a possibility that Riordan could capitalize on JJJ Company??™s short comings and use the marketing avenues from them to overcome the debt and exceed with profits but Riordan did not make its success on what ifs and Chief Executive Officer William is not looking to start anytime soon. I think Riordan will prosper under the leadership of Beth and John on the accounting team and will find other businesses that they may acquire. As long as the company maintains a professional demeanor and keeps its employees appropriately informed they will continue to grow and make advances in a diverse business world. William and the COB should feel confident that their company is in good hands and that their employees have the best intentions of the company in mind. Some communiques did need some further details while others had an even balance. This could make the difference between a beneficial business decision and a harmful business decision. If employees fail to inform superiors on a regular basis the company could experience a downfall that it may not be able to recover from, costing all employees their positions within the company. Proper training and practice of good business communication helps a company to exceed its goals and aspirations allowing for growth and expansion into other areas of the business world. All members have been well trained and are an invaluable asset to Riordan and have shown so in their roles presented in this evaluation.

Monitoring in the Workplace: Is it Too Much?

  • -

Fertility, Morbidity, and Mortality

Category : Articles

Today, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates are examined separately because most deaths during the neonatal period are associated with events surrounding the prenatal period and delivery. Post-neonatal mortality deaths are more likely to be associated with conditions or events that arise after the delivery. Deaths from birth defects can occur in both neonatal and post-neonatal stages.
For the past several decades, neonatal mortality in the United States has been declining at a faster rate that post-neonatal. Neonatal deaths accounts for the majority of infant deaths. The decline in neonatal deaths has mainly been due to the improvements of hospital settings, advances in medical techniques and equipment. These improvements in the neonatal stages have also attributed to prevention of deaths in post-neonatal stages.
There are longstanding disparities in birth outcomes between whites, Hispanics, and African Americans in the United States. For infant mortality, African Americans and Hispanics have rates at least two times higher than those for whites, and the gap has been increasing over time. This paper will discuss the different factors that cause the disparities and how they compare in regards to the risk associated with neonatal mortality.
Statistics from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Vital Statistics System (2006) have estimated neonatal mortality rates for Caucasians at 3.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006. For the same time period, post-neonatal mortality rates were estimated at 1.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. These deaths were association to low birth weight, congenital malformations, infection, and birth trauma.
The Centers of Disease Control (2006) have estimated that neonatal mortality rates for African Americans were 9.1 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2006 the post-neonatal mortality rates were 4.7 deaths per 1,000 live births. The higher level of neonatal infant deaths occurred due to sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory diseases, and complication from premature birth deaths. Post-neonatal deaths were primarily caused by accidents and environmental hazards.
Hispanic neonatal deaths were estimated at 3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births. Post-neonatal deaths were reported at 1.7 per 1,000 live births. Neonatal deaths among Hispanics were caused from premature births, maternal complications, respiratory and cardiac diseases. Post-neonatal deaths were contributed to environmental hazards, accidents, and infections.
The leading causes of infant death havent changed in the last several years, despite advanced technology and increased focus on prenatal care. While most people would expect the rate of infant death to be decreasing rapidly, it has actually remained pretty stable since 2000. The overall rate of infant mortality in the United States is 6.86 deaths per 1,000 births. This data from the CDCs (Center for Disease Control) National Center for Health Statistics is based on the latest statistics available from 2006.
Birth weight has been well recognized as a cause of neonatal mortality among all ethnic groups. Causes of low birth weight have been attributed to risk factors such as: carrying more than one baby, smoking or exposure to second hand smoke, stress, infections, and previous abortions.
Congenital defects, also known as birth defects, are problems that occur while a fetus is developing in the womb. Congenital defects can affect the way the body looks or functions and range from mild to severe. Some defects, such as cleft lip or palate, can be easily fixed or treated. Other congenital defects may need life-long treatment to manage such as Down syndrome and heart defects. The most severe congenital defects prove fatal and lead to infant death. In 2006, 5,571 infants died as a result of congenital defects (Centers for Disease Control 2006).
There are several factors that have contributed to the differences in neonatal and pre-natal mortality rates among several ethnic groups. Demographic risks such as low socioeconomic status, low level of education, race, age ranges, and marital status play a role in the death rate of infants. Other factors that can play a role are medical risks predating pregnancy, including number of children previously born to the mother. Poor obstetric history and chronic diseases can affect the fetus or newborn.
Health care risks such as absent or inadequate prenatal care and premature delivery can affect a neonatal. Many low income families cannot afford the prenatal vitamins and resources during a full term pregnancy. Other causes can be related to behavioral and environmental risks. Poor dieting, smoking, alcohol, and drug use exposes fetuses to toxic substances and inadequate nutrition. Many Hispanics and African Americans fall into the low income levels thus causing many of these health risks which then get passed on to the infants which in turn increases the infant death rate among these ethnic groups.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009). Child Health USA 2008-2009.
Retrieved from the web on 6/21/2010 at

Joint Center DataBank (2007). African Americans and Health. Retrieved from the web on
6/21/2010 at

Ottawa Coalition for the Prevention of Low Birth Weight (2007) Causes of Low Birth Weight.
Retrieved from the web on 6/21/2010 at

Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (2010). Mortatlity, Infant. Retrieved from the web on
6/21/2010 at

National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol 58 No. 1 (2009). Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2007.
Retrieved from the web on 6/21/2010 at

Concept of Just Desert

  • -

Business Communication

Category : Articles

Business Communication
Pardip Singh
March 08, 2011
Robert Kay

Business Communication
Business communication is the center piece for success. The most outstanding businesses in the world today use strong communication to pass on information that will grow the company and make sure the employees know the most recent information on a product. Business communication is known in varieties of ways such as to introduce a product, organizations use it to keep everyone on track; it is also used to relay information contained by the business. Business communication is fairly unusual as well as distinctive relatively from supplementary types of communication because the function of business is to gain net profit. Accordingly to formulate a superior way for revenue the communicator must develop good quality communication skills. Business communication plays many day-to-day activities at work to manage daily work, the trends help improve business communication and the messages learned from these trends.
Business communication plays an important role in a gas station business, the convenient store receives a large number of deliveries in a day, and it is the manager??™s decision to decide what to receive and what not to receive and put up for sale. Setting up meetings or schedule to see the vendor is important and there are different ways to communicate with one another that is through e-mail, PDA, or fax. It is a good way to grow to know the vendor that way connections are made for the future if needed, in a way it is establishing good acquaintances and building relationships with the contemporaries. It also can be a good way to avoid falling into a scam from some vendors that can charge a higher price followed by another vendor. Maintaining good business communication is important because employees are capable of educating on how to gain good business communication with the costumers and remind them about the sales and the deals that are available on a car wash, beverages, candies, and alcohol. If a product can be promoted to every customer, the more they will buy and the sales and profit increase.
Everyone knows that in the current day trends the awareness unaccompanied will not prolific one to have sustainable development. Deliberating the significance of communication countless organizations started educating their workforce in communication practice. Trends are visible at the workplace is making equipments more easier for the customers to use, keeping the site well maintained, possessing proper sales signs up where they can be seen that brings in more business customers come inside buy snacks, and drinks use amenities that are offered. Gas station is a good place where new items such as beers, candy, and drinks can be advertised and people can purchase. It is also known that every vehicle runs on fuel, and it is a fact that people have to pull in and pump in gas into their vehicle, which brings business. It will be more convenient to thank them in a way with proper well mannered customer service. Not only will this do well for the business, but also it will keep the customer happy and more likely to return to the same convenient store.
The message types which results in these trends, it is sending a positive message to the employees, to be organized, and have a positive image. The principal part of the business is how the employees address the customers with attitude, developing a negative attitude can lead to misunderstanding and conflict that will result the customer to leave and give his or her business to a different commerce. Equipments such as car wash and gas pumps need to be in up-to-date manner because if there are any technical issues it will definitely restrain the customer from returning. At hand will be obstacles which an employee will come across at times that is having items not ringing up at the register correctly, or if the gas pumps shut down immediately, another can be gas delivery not arriving on time not only can this be frustrating for both customers and employee. To tenacity this aspect it is important for the manager to send a positive message to the employee who will have them feel motivated.
Business communication is targeted-oriented. Accordingly to formulate a superior way for revenue the communicator must develop good quality communication skills. Business communication plays many day-to-day activities at work to manage daily work, the trends help improve business communication and the messages learned from these trends. The policies and regulations of a business have to be corresponded to employees contained by and outside the association. Since the initiation of technology, business communication can be held by smart phones including text, video, and voice conferencing, and also by email. Effective business communication helps in structuring goodwill of an association.

Case of Exxon Mobil vs EPA