(Figure 1.1 a flying aircraft)
In our daily day basis, we could see the plane that can fly bringing the passengers or things from one place to another. People can fly anywhere they want not just for travel, works but many more in a short time. All of this happened because of the achievements of all the famous scientist today that discovered on how to build a plane and fly like a bird by not just sacrificing their lives but put in their effort and passion into it. Because of that, an airplane was created in the history of aviation.
Aviation simply by the meaning is the design, manufacture, use or operation of aircraft which makes aircraft means any vehicle that can fly. The aircraft was divided into two categories which is heavier that air (HTA) and lighter than air (LTA). Heavier that air included fixed wing which is airplane, rotary wing such as helicopter and also no engine glider. There are three fixed wing airplane, the first one is landplane which is a plane that can be operate on the land, secondly is seaplane that can only landing or take off on the sea, last but not least is amphibian which an airplane that can take off and landing on the land or on the sea.
Furthermore, balloons and airships are the examples for lighter than air. Both balloons and airships are supported by a gas that is lighter than air. Balloons normally structure with a sufficient gas such as helium, heated air and hydrogen, displace the surrounding and float. Then, airships also depend on the gasses but the direction of airship is dependent by rudder.
Many years ago, many people believed that flying was a mythical gods when others unsuccessful trying to copy bird. Kites were invented in 1000 before century by Chinese. After 500 years later, Leonardo da Vinci which is 15th century was an Italian scientist, architect and a painter. He was the first one who recorded scientific study of aeronautics and gathered data of the flight of birds and then drawings of flying machines with flapping wings to construct flying machines and by that he invented the Flapping-Wing Aircraft to enable human fly.
2 century after that, scientific theories and experiments inspired by ancient ideas in 17th century. Lighter than air which are balloon experiments had discovered the characteristic of atmosphere, gasses and properties
After that, the first human fly is Montgolfier Brothers in 1783 after they flew a rooster, a duck and a sheep for 8 seconds. However, the balloon was not equipped with directional controller.
For decades, in 18th century men tried to invent glider which is glider is a lighter aircraft that had been designed to fly without an engines. After much effort they put on in four years, the first one who success in flying the glider is George Cayley. He understood that from differences of pressure across the wing surface could generate lift and got the idea to warp wing in order to roll control.
Decades later, in 1890, after the 2500 successful glider flights, the movements of the glider can be control by body. The movable elevator was devised to reduce the requirement. The one who accomplished the first successful glider pilot is Otto Lilienthal but unfortunately, he died in a glider accident in 1896.
Then, come the person named William S. Henson in 1843 who grew up in the age of steam and witnessed the use of steam in powering engine. He also has designed his own engine for airplane but he gave up after one unsuccessful try.
In 1896, Samuel P. Langley who comes from United States was the first one who flew a steam powered model plane which is the first successful airplane but the launching gear was failure that caused the plane to crash.
Last but not least in aviation history, Orville took the controls on 17 December. For staying 12 seconds and travel 120 feet, The Flyer rose into the air. Orville also made first control. After three more flight, the last one lasted 59 second in the air and traveled for 852 feet.
2.1 AIRBUS A380 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT
Jean Roeder led the airbus engineers who secretly work on the development of an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA) in middle of 1988 just to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance when the Boeing enjoyed the market segment in early 1970 with it Boeing 747. Then, the smaller double deck MD-12 was offered by McDonnell Douglas for sale but unsuccessful. After that, in June 1990, the engineer, Roeder has been given approval for further evaluation after a formal presentation to the President and CEO. In 1990 at Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400 the megaproject was announced. One of the Aérospatiale, British Aerospace, Deutsche Aerospace AG, CASA designer was organized by Airbus improve the technologies for future aircraft.
In the Airbus consortium, several companies including Boeing started a joint feasibility study of a VLCT which means Very Large Commercial Transport and aiming to share limited market in January 1993. Two years later, the joint was abandoned because of the 15 billion development cost had to cover up despite that there are only two airline for commercial use.
In the next year, A3XX was designated for Airbus to develop his own large airliner in 1994. From the largest airbus jet at that time, several designs was made such as combination of two fuselage from A340. In 3 years from 1997 until 2000 after that, the market outlook was darkened because of the East Asian involved in financial crisis. Better than the traditional single deck design, the A3XX can fit more passengers on the double decker layout.
The A3XX was changed to A380 on 19 December 2000 after the supervisory board of newly restructured Airbus suggests launching the 8.8 billion programs.
The design of A380 was a break from before which is from Airbus families, it progressed sequentially from A300 until A340. The aircraft was chosen in some Asian where the aircraft was being marketed because of the number 8 resembles the double deck cross section. In early 2001, the aircraft configuration already finalized and the first A380 wing box component was manufactured started from 23 January 2002. The cost for A380 to develop getting bigger from 11 to 14 billion after the first aircraft was completed.
Airbus A380 was made by European manufacturer Airbus. It is a double deck, and has a wide body with four engines jet airliner. Airbus A3XX was made to challenge Boeing for the large-aircraft market and because of that it has the world’s largest passenger airliner yet the facilities to accommodate also have upgraded at the airport. The first flight for the A380 was on 27 April 2005 and on 25 October 2007 it entered the commercial service with Singapore Airlines.
In August 2017, 317 orders had received by Airbus and delivered 215 of aircraft. The biggest A380 customer is Emirates with 142 ordered and 215 had been delivered.
There are variants of A380 aircraft such as, A380F, A380-900, A380neo, an also A380plus.
The first one is A380F, for the freighter variant, the orders were originally accepted by airbus, the large capacity of payload in any cargo aircraft production was being offered, but unfortunately it is exceeded by Antonov An-225 Mriya in service. The is one aerospace consultant has estimated the A380F would have at least 7 percent better payload and range better than Boeing 747-8F and it is also higher trip cost. Moreover, the production will not suspended if the lines have settled it with no firm availability date. Airbus have removed A380 in 2015 from the freighter on its corporate website. 150 t (330,000 lb) would be the maximum payload with a 5,600 nmi (10,400 km) range.
On 9 July 2015, Airbus had filed a patent application for an A380 combi which would carry the passengers and cargo. This also rapidly reconfigurable to expand or contract the cargo and passenger area as needed.
Secondly, in November 2007, John Leahy which is a top sales executive and chief operating officer from Airbus confirmed the plans for enlarged variant, which is the A380-900 that have more seating space than the A380-800. The seating capacity is for 650 passengers in standard configuration and 900 passengers in economy configuration. Airline also had expressed an interest in the -900 included Emirates, Cathay, Pacific, Lufthansa, KLM and many more. In May 2010 the A380 was postponed from developing until the A380 production have stabilized.
At the annual Airbus investor Day forum Airbus CEO on 11 December 2014 announced that they will launch an A380neo and stretch A380. John Leahy stated that Airbus was looking at the A380-900 programme again. The concept is better when it stretch for 50 more seats. The stretch would be tied to the re-engining A380-800. According to global, the A380-900 would be better of using the A380’s wing that already exist.
With a half dozen customers on 15 June 2015 the stretching of A380 was discussed. This would also features new engines to accommodate the new 50 more passengers seats. In 2020 or 2021, there will be the plan for deliveries to customers. Febrice Bregier,the Airbus CEO stated that the company will build new version of A380 with new improved wing and engines in 19 July 2015.
After the earlier press release in 2014 about the development of new engine option that called A380neo, the company was planning whether to stop from producting the type at 2015 to 2018 or develop a new variant. The A380neo will come to a longer version of A380-900 and new engine and will revealed that it would be ready to enter service in 2020. The engine would most likely to be the one of a variety off all new option from roll-Royce and due to 2020, the A350’s XWB-84/97 was ranged from derivative to future advance project.
The Emirates president named Tim Clark stated that A380neo talk with Airbus has lapsed and Febrice Bregier confirmed that Airbus will not launch the A380neo on 12 June 2017. However they will not stop to looking forward to improve the performance of Airbus in the future.
The A380plus was launched at June 2017 in Paris Air show, it offers A380 13 percent lower cost per seat yet adding 80 more seats through better use for cabin space, split scimitar winglet with refine 4 percent fuel economy and longer aircraft maintenance in a short time. The A380 plus increase the take off weight by 6 600 lb to 1, 274, 000 lb to allow it to carry more passengers.
The available upgrade will be in 2020. By increasing the height of the wing twist and camber from 33mm between Rib 10 to 30. The in flight entertainment and the flight management system include the fuel pump will come from A350 to reduce weight and improve reliability and fuel economy. The aircraft will be reduced from flying for six days more per year.
2.2 AIRCRAFT PRINCIPLES
There are several forces that act on airplane, it is important for the pilot to control these forces to direct the airplane’s speed and flight in a safe and efficient. Pilot also need to understand these forces perfectly. There are four force in the aircraft principle which is lift, weight, thrust and drag.
The first force for an aircraft to fly is lift, lift is forces that goes upward created by an airfoil when it move through the air. Lift also may exerted to some external parts from airplane. Then, there are also have some principle on the airfoils on an airplane not just at the wing but propeller and the horizontal tail surfaces.
To be more precise, Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Third Laws has state that the inside pressure of the fluid decrease until the point when the speed of the fluid increase when in aviation would be low pressure in the high speed flow and low of speed when the pressure is high.
Upward force is generated by the wing when the airflow accelerate over the top surface of wing exerts the airflow across the bottom in less pressure than air downward at the lower surface contribute total lift generated.
Even though, wing is generated over the wing, there are imaginary point where represent the lift force which named center of lift, it somtime refer to the center of pressure and it is also located at the center of the gravity in term of weight.
Next, the force that involved in order to fly the aircraft is weight. Weight is basically the pull from the gravity of earth. Gravity which different from lift it is the downward force that tends to draw an aircraft vertically toward the center of the earth. The center of the gravity of an airplane is located depends on the location of the load and weight in the airplane. When the weight and the balance calculation was made correctly it will effect on the stability and performance of a flight.
Furthermore, thrust is also one of the forces in the flight principle. The propeller which act like the airfoil produce thrust or forward force that makes the plane move forward in the air. The power comes from the engine and it also designed to give the large mass of air to the rear. The thrust need to be strong enough to make the airplane move and the direction of this thrust refer to the thrust line.
The last but now least force that include is drag. Drag is the force that resist the forward movement of the airplane through the air. It acts in parallel and the same direction at the same time as the relative wind. Every single part of an airplane that exposed to the air while the airplane is moving, it will give some resistance and contributes to the total drag.
3.0 AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMENT HISTORY IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY
Airbus A380 is a commercial airplane that could bring passengers and cargo, this makes the aircraft popular among airline.
Emirates’ strive after the A380 is a substitute story. That may disappear more quickly than Airbus had predicted. On December second the fundamental planes in another group of super-jumbos are relied upon to arrive in Dubai. Inside and out, Emirates has a further 56 A380s on orchestrate: 31 are to be passed on among now and 2019, with another 25 because of get in contact in the 2020s to supplant more prepared ones nearing retirement. Emirates shielded the A380 program with its last colossal demand in 2013. The flying machine had expected to buy another 200 A380s outfitted with more fuel-capable engines. Regardless, in current conditions Sir Tim says there is negligible shot of his air ship making another broad demand anytime sooner rather than later.
Airbus has orders for simply one more 18 super-jumbos from various air ships that are most likely going to be passed on and paid for, according to Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group, a consultancy in Virginia. The maker has successfully cut masterminded era, yet may regardless miss the mark on customers for even this reduced number.
CSo Airbus is on the pursuit for new buyers in China and Japan, places where runways are most congested and the necessity for greater planes is most extraordinary (the firm at first gave the A380 its name since eight is seen as blessed in some Asian countries). Chinese bearers have quite recently acquired five up to this point however the desire is they may buy more now that the country’s air transportation controller, a conspicuous super-expansive cynic, surrendered in the relatively recent past. In case they are not willing to wander up, as Emirates once planed, spotters will have considerably more inspiration to esteem their sightings of the A380.
4.1 AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGIES APPLY IN AIRBUS A380
(Engine Alliance GP7200 engine waiting for installation)
The engines for A380 comes in two types of turbofan engine. The first one is Rolls-Royce Trent 900 that have variants A380-841, -842 and also -843F and the second one in the Engine Alliance GP7000 that comes in A380-861 and also -863F. The Trent 900 comes from the Trent 800 and scaled version of the Trent 500 for the core but the fan technology was incorporates of the stillborn Trent 8104. Then, the GP7000 has roots from the GE90 and also PW4000, it also has a GE90-derived core and PW4090-derived fan with low pressure turbo machinery. Not just that, noise reduction also was an important requirement in the A380, and it affects engine design. CAA was supported by Rolls-Royce in understanding monitoring noise levels the relative high A380 and Trent 900.
Airbus was chosen to equip the two inboard engines with thrust reversers but at the late stage of development because the A380 planned without the thrust reversers at first but putting them may help the brakes when the runway is slippery. In order to give better reliability than their pneumatic or hydraulic equivalents and saving weight, the A380 got it electricity actuated thrust reversers.
Sebastian Remy whose the head of Airbus SAS’s alternative fuel programme told that the GTL used with no cleaner in the terms of Carbon dioxide than standard fuel that contain no sulphur and generate air quality benefits. A three hour test of flight operated between Britain and France with the four engines of A380 and use mix of 60 percent standard jet kerosene and 40 percent of gas to liquids (GTL) and Shell supplied the fuel on ! February 2008.
The APU which means the Auxiliary Power Unit provides air to power the AGS which means Anylisis Ground Station on the ground and to start the engines. AGS basically is the semi automatic analysis system of flight data to not just optimize management of maintenance but also reduce costs. The electric power of the aircraft was generated by the APU.
The wing for A380 is a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) sized over 650 tonnes to accommodate these future versions, and then some of the internal strength required on the A380F freighter. Lowering aspect ratio after the wingspan was restricted to less than 80m reduces the fuel efficiency. The common wing design sacrifice fuel efficiency on the A380-800 passengers model for it weight but estimated by Airbus that aircraft technology that provide lower operating costs than the 747-400. The wing itself incorporate wingtip fences to extend above and also below surface same goes to the A310 and A320. This may cause reducing induced drag as the wingtip fences reduce wake turbulence that could make house roof damage.
The A380 is the first commercial airliner that have a central wing box made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic and have smoothly contoured wing cross section while mostly, basic fuselage are from aluminium alloys, composite materials that comprise more than 20 percent of airframe of the A380. Other commercial airliners wings are partitioned the span wised into section and the flowing reduce aerodynamic drag. The leading edges of the slats was in thermoplastic. The glass laminate, aluminium reinforced epoxy is used for the upper fuselage and on stabilizer leading edges because it is lighter and has better corrosion that impact resistence than aluminium alloys.
The A380 airframe use the newer weldable aluminium alloys that enables to manufacture techniques of the widespread of laser beam welding, eliminating rows of rivets and a lighter result and also structure that strong. The wing bracket of the A380 for the first 120 is using aluminium with high strength which is type 7449 that reinforced with carbon fibre to reduce weight but unfortunately that the aluminium 7010 made cracks and also the new sets of the more critical brackets. This may take €500 million to repair the earlier aircraft. It is also may takes 3 600 L of paint just to cover up the 3,100 m2 (33,000 sq ft) exterior of an A380 with 5 layers paint.
The military was the first one who use the A380 integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture such as Lockhead Martin F-22 Raptor, Lockhead Martin F-35 Lightnung and Dassault Rafale. The Thales Group is the one who develop the main IMA systems on the A380. The technologies inovation suite the used on the A380 with network computing modules until support different applications. An implementation of ARINC 664 which is the avionics full duplex switched Ethernet for the data network. Based on 100 base TX fast Ethernet, full duplex and star topology it reduces the amount of wiring and minimizes latency.
Emirates’ hunger for the A380 is an alternate story. That may lessen more rapidly than Airbus had expected. On December second the principal planes in another cluster of super-jumbos are expected to touch base in Dubai. Altogether, Emirates has a further 56 A380s on arrange: 31 are to be conveyed amongst now and 2019, with another 25 due to touch base in the 2020s to supplant more seasoned ones nearing retirement. Emirates safeguarded the A380 program with its last enormous request in 2013. The carrier had needed to purchase another 200 A380s outfitted with more fuel-productive motors. Yet, in current conditions Sir Tim says there is minimal possibility of his aircraft making another substantial request at any point in the near future.
Airbus has orders for just another 18 super-jumbos from different aircrafts that are probably going to be conveyed and paid for, as indicated by Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group, a consultancy in Virginia. The producer has officially cut arranged generation, yet may in any case come up short on clients for even this decreased number.
4.2 CONTRIBUTION IN MODERNIZATION IN AVIATION INDUSTRY
Day by day, a person would try to be better than before same goes to the Airbus A380. A380 improve the technologies after technologies to be better in airliner. There are a lot of contribution for modernization in aviation industry that are much better than before.
The first contribution that made by Airbus is the existence of the combi which give the meaning of an airplane than can carry passengers and cargo at the same time. This could save the fuel because it will carry passenger and cargo at the same time. Other than that, the Airbus A380-900 added more passengers for 50 seats than A380-800. This not just could bring more passenger but could give profit to the company.
Because of that, the engine itself has added more technologies to reduce noise and also they improve the brake so it could use in the slippery road. Not just that the engine also can use the standard aircraft fuel so it will reduce the cost and the A380 also can use the electric to generate power. This may makes our air clean with no pollution.
Then, the A380 was changed to glass cockpit that has the liquid crystal display unit. It is also featured the electronic that is more convenient flight instruments system. Other than that, the A380 also comes with the navigation data or the other name is GPS. The bigger the aircraft body the more the display unit. Its show the navigation information from many sources and not just that, it is also got the weather display and can change the color to make the flight crew alert toward surrounding.